Olfactomedin 2 Regulates Smooth Muscle Phenotypic Modulation and Vascular Remodeling Through Mediating Runt-Related Transcription Factor 2 Binding to Serum Response Factor.
ABSTRACT: The objective of this study is to investigate the role and underlying mechanism of Olfactomedin 2 (Olfm2) in smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotypic modulation and vascular remodeling.Platelet-derived growth factor-BB induces Olfm2 expression in primary SMCs while modulating SMC phenotype as shown by the downregulation of SMC marker proteins. Knockdown of Olfm2 blocks platelet-derived growth factor-BB-induced SMC phenotypic modulation, proliferation, and migration. Conversely, Olfm2 overexpression inhibits SMC marker expression. Mechanistically, Olfm2 promotes the interaction of serum response factor with the runt-related transcription factor 2 that is induced by platelet-derived growth factor-BB, leading to a decreased interaction between serum response factor and myocardin, causing a repression of SMC marker gene transcription and consequently SMC phenotypic modulation. Animal studies show that Olfm2 is upregulated in balloon-injured rat carotid arteries. Knockdown of Olfm2 effectively inhibits balloon injury-induced neointima formation. Importantly, knockout of Olfm2 in mice profoundly suppresses wire injury-induced neointimal hyperplasia while restoring SMC contractile protein expression, suggesting that Olfm2 plays a critical role in SMC phenotypic modulation in vivo.Olfm2 is a novel factor mediating SMC phenotypic modulation. Thus, Olfm2 may be a potential target for treating injury-induced proliferative vascular diseases.
Project description:RATIONALE:Vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotypic modulation and vascular remodeling contribute to the development of several vascular disorders such as restenosis after angioplasty, transplant vasculopathy, and atherosclerosis. The mechanisms underlying these processes, however, remain largely unknown. OBJECTIVE:The objective of this study is to determine the role of dedicator of cytokinesis 2 (DOCK2) in SMC phenotypic modulation and vascular remodeling. METHODS AND RESULTS:Platelet-derived growth factor-BB induced DOCK2 expression while modulating SMC phenotype. DOCK2 deficiency diminishes platelet-derived growth factor-BB or serum-induced downregulation of SMC markers. Conversely, DOCK2 overexpression inhibits SMC marker expression in primary cultured SMC. Mechanistically, DOCK2 inhibits myocardin expression, blocks serum response factor nuclear location, attenuates myocardin binding to serum response factor, and thus attenuates myocardin-induced smooth muscle marker promoter activity. Moreover, DOCK2 and Kruppel-like factor 4 cooperatively inhibit myocardin-serum response factor interaction. In a rat carotid artery balloon-injury model, DOCK2 is induced in media layer SMC initially and neointima SMC subsequently after vascular injury. Knockdown of DOCK2 dramatically inhibits the neointima formation by 60%. Most importantly, knockout of DOCK2 in mice markedly blocks ligation-induced intimal hyperplasia while restoring SMC contractile protein expression. CONCLUSIONS:Our studies identified DOCK2 as a novel regulator for SMC phenotypic modulation and vascular lesion formation after vascular injury. Therefore, targeting DOCK2 may be a potential therapeutic strategy for the prevention of vascular remodeling in proliferative vascular diseases.
Project description:RATIONALE:Vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotypic modulation is characterized by the downregulation of SMC contractile genes. Platelet-derived growth factor-BB, a well-known stimulator of SMC phenotypic modulation, downregulates SMC genes via posttranscriptional regulation. The underlying mechanisms, however, remain largely unknown. OBJECTIVE:To establish RNA editing as a novel mechanism controlling SMC phenotypic modulation. METHODS AND RESULTS:Precursor mRNAs (pre-mRNA) of SMC myosin heavy chain and smooth muscle ?-actin were accumulated while their mature mRNAs were downregulated during SMC phenotypic modulation, suggesting an abnormal splicing of the pre-mRNAs. The abnormal splicing resulted from SMC marker pre-mRNA editing that was facilitated by adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1 (ADAR1), an enzyme converting adenosines to inosines (A?I editing) in RNA sequences. ADAR1 expression inversely correlated with SMC myosin heavy chain and smooth muscle ?-actin levels; knockdown of ADAR1 restored SMC myosin heavy chain and smooth muscle ?-actin expression in phenotypically modulated SMC, and editase domain mutation diminished the ADAR1-mediated abnormal splicing of SMC marker pre-mRNAs. Moreover, the abnormal splicing/editing of SMC myosin heavy chain and smooth muscle ?-actin pre-mRNAs occurred during injury-induced vascular remodeling. Importantly, heterozygous knockout of ADAR1 dramatically inhibited injury-induced neointima formation and restored SMC marker expression, demonstrating a critical role of ADAR1 in SMC phenotypic modulation and vascular remodeling in vivo. CONCLUSIONS:Our results unraveled a novel molecular mechanism, that is, pre-mRNA editing, governing SMC phenotypic modulation.
Project description:The tonicity-responsive transcription factor, nuclear factor of activated T cells 5 (NFAT5/tonicity enhancer binding protein [TonEBP]), has been well characterized in numerous cell types; however, NFAT5 function in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) is unknown. Our main objective was to determine the role of NFAT5 regulation in SMCs.We showed that NFAT5 is regulated by hypertonicity in SMCs and is upregulated in atherosclerosis and neointimal hyperplasia. RNAi knockdown of NFAT5 inhibited basal expression of several SMC differentiation marker genes, including smooth muscle ? actin (SM?A). Bioinformatic analysis of SM?A revealed 7 putative NFAT5 binding sites in the first intron, and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed NFAT5 enrichment of intronic DNA. Overexpression of NFAT5 increased SM?A promoter-intron activity, which requires an NFAT5 cis element at +1012, whereas dominant-negative NFAT5 decreased SM?A promoter-intron activity. Because it is unlikely that SMCs experience extreme changes in tonicity, we investigated other stimuli and uncovered 2 novel NFAT5-inducing factors: angiotensin II, a contractile agonist, and platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB), a potent mitogen in vascular injury. Angiotensin II stimulated NFAT5 translocation and activity, and NFAT5 knockdown inhibited an angiotensin II-mediated upregulation of SM?A mRNA. PDGF-BB increased NFAT5 protein, and loss of NFAT5 inhibited PDGF-BB-induced SMC migration.We have identified NFAT5 as a novel regulator of SMC phenotypic modulation and have uncovered the role of NFAT5 in angiotensin II-induced SM?A expression and PDGF-BB-stimulated SMC migration.
Project description:The role of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptors in acute vascular injury and smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotypic modulation is not completely resolved.S1P receptor antagonists were used to test the hypothesis that specific S1P receptor subtypes differentially regulate SMC phenotypic modulation. In response to acute balloon injury of the rat carotid artery, S1P1/S1P3 receptor mRNA levels were transiently increased at 48 hours whereas S1P2 receptor expression was decreased. S1P2 expression was reinduced and increased at 7 to 10 days postinjury. Daily intraperitoneal injection of the S1P1/S1P3 antagonist VPC44116 decreased neointimal hyperplasia by approximately 50%. In vitro, pharmacological inhibition of S1P1/S1P3 receptors with VPC25239 attenuated S1P-induced proliferation of rat aortic SMCs. Conversely, inhibition of S1P2 with JTE013 potentiated S1P-induced proliferation. Inhibition of S1P1/S1P3 resulted in S1P-induced activation of the SMC differentiation marker genes SMalpha-actin and SMMHC, whereas inhibition of S1P2 attenuated this response. S1P2-dependent activation of SMalpha-actin and SMMHC was shown to be mediated by L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels and subsequent RhoA/Rho kinase-dependent SRF enrichment of CArG box promoter regions.Results provide evidence that S1P1/S1P3 receptors promote, whereas S1P2 receptors antagonize, SMC proliferation and phenotypic modulation in vitro in response to S1P, or in vivo after vascular injury.
Project description:The phenotype of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) plays an important role in vascular function in health and disease. We investigated the mechanism of modulation of SMC phenotype (from contractile to synthetic) induced by the synergistic action of a growth factor (platelet-derived growth factor, PDGF-BB) and a cytokine (interleukin, IL-1beta). Human aortic SMCs grown on polymerized collagen showed high expression levels of contractile markers (smooth muscle alpha-actin, myosin heavy chain, and calponin). These levels were not significantly affected by PDGF-BB and IL-1beta individually, but decreased markedly after the combined usage of PDGF-BB and IL-1beta. PDGF/IL-1beta costimulation also induced a sustained phosphorylation of Akt and p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K). The effects of PDGF/IL-1beta costimulation on contractile marker expression and Akt and p70S6K phosphorylation were blocked by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors wortmannin and LY294002 and by adenovirus expressing a dominant-negative Akt, and they were mimicked by constitutively active Akt. PDGF-BB/IL-1beta induced a sustained phosphorylation of PDGF receptor (PDGFR)-beta and its association with IL-1 receptor (IL-1R1). Such activation and association of receptors were blocked by a PDGFR-beta neutralizing antibody (AF385), an IL-1R1 antagonist (IL-1ra), as well as a specific inhibitor of PDGFR-beta phosphorylation (AG1295); these agents also eliminated the PDGF-BB/IL-1beta-induced signaling and phenotypic modulation. PDGF-BB/IL-1beta inhibited the polymerized collagen-induced serum response factor DNA binding activity in the nucleus, and this effect was mediated by the PDGFR-beta/IL-1R1 association and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/p70S6K pathway. Our findings provide insights into the mechanism of SMC phenotypic modulation from contractile to synthetic, e.g., in atherosclerosis.
Project description:Platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) induced cyclin A expression and CDK2 activity in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Inhibition of nuclear factors of activated T cell (NFAT) activation by cyclosporin A (CsA) and VIVIT suppressed PDGF-BB-induced cyclin A expression and CDK2 activity, resulting in blockade of VSMC in the G(1) phase. In addition, CsA- and VIVIT-mediated inhibition of NFATs and small interfering RNA-targeted down-regulation of cyclin A levels suppressed PDGF-BB-induced VSMC DNA synthesis. PDGF-BB also induced cyclin A mRNA levels in VSMC in an NFAT-dependent manner. Cloning and bioinformatic analysis of rat cyclin A promoter revealed the presence of NFAT-binding elements, and PDGF-BB induced the binding of NFATs to these regulatory sequences in a CsA- and VIVIT-sensitive manner. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed that NFATc1 binds to the cyclin A promoter in response to PDGF-BB in a VIVIT-sensitive manner. Furthermore, PDGF-BB induced cyclin A promoter-luciferase reporter gene activity in VSMC, and it was inhibited by both CsA and VIVIT. Balloon injury induced cyclin A expression and CDK2 activity in rat carotid arteries, and these responses were also blocked by VIVIT. In addition, VIVIT attenuated balloon injury-induced SMC proliferation, resulting in reduced restenosis. Down-regulation of NFATc1 by its small interfering RNA inhibited PDGF-BB-induced cyclin A expression and DNA synthesis both in rat and human VSMC. Together, these findings demonstrate that the cyclin A-CDK2 complex may be a potential effector of NFATs, specifically NFATc1, in mediating SMC multiplication leading to neointima formation. Therefore, NFATs may be used as target molecules for the development of therapeutic agents against vascular diseases such as restenosis.
Project description:Abnormal proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are the key events in the progression of neointima formation in response to vascular injury. The goal of this study is to investigate the functional role of a potent oncogene yes-associated protein (YAP) in SM phenotypic modulation in vitro and in vivo.In vitro cell culture and in vivo in both mouse and rat arterial injury models YAP expression is significantly induced and correlated with the vascular SMC synthetic phenotype. Overexpression of YAP promotes SMC migration and proliferation while attenuating SM contractile gene expression. Conversely, knocking down endogenous YAP in SMCs upregulates SM gene expression but attenuates SMC proliferation and migration. Consistent with this, knocking down YAP expression in a rat carotid balloon injury model and genetic deletion of YAP, specifically, in vascular SMCs in mouse after carotid artery ligation injury attenuates injury-induced SM phenotypic switch and neointima formation.YAP plays a novel integrative role in SM phenotypic modulation by inhibiting SM-specific gene expression while promoting SM proliferation and migration in vitro and in vivo. Blocking the induction of YAP would be a potential therapeutic approach for ameliorating vascular occlusive diseases.
Project description:We previously identified conserved G/C Repressor elements in the promoters of most smooth muscle cell (SMC) marker genes and demonstrated that mutation of this element within the SM22? promoter nearly abrogated repression of this transgene after vascular wire injury or within lesions of ApoE-/- mice. However, the mechanisms regulating the activity of the G/C Repressor are unknown, although we have previously shown that phenotypic switching of cultured SMC is dependent on Krupple-like factor (KLF)4.The goals of the present studies were to ascertain if (1) injury-induced repression of SM22? gene after vascular injury is mediated through KLF4 binding to the G/C Repressor element and (2) the transcriptional repressor activity of KLF4 on SMC marker genes is dependent on cooperative binding with pELK-1 (downstream activator of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway) and subsequent recruitment of histone de-acetylase 2 (HDAC2), which mediates epigenetic gene silencing.Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays were performed on chromatin derived from carotid arteries of mice having either a wild-type or G/C Repressor mutant SM22? promoter-LacZ transgene. KLF4 and pELK-1 binding to the SM22? promoter was markedly increased after vascular injury and was G/C Repressor dependent. Sequential ChIP assays and proximity ligation analyses in cultured SMC treated with platelet-derived growth factor BB or oxidized phospholipids showed formation of a KLF4, pELK-1, and HDAC2 multiprotein complex dependent on the SM22? G/C Repressor element.Silencing of SMC marker genes during phenotypic switching is partially mediated by sequential binding of pELK-1 and KLF4 to G/C Repressor elements. The pELK-1-KLF4 complex in turn recruits HDAC2, leading to reduced histone acetylation and epigenetic silencing.
Project description:Vascular remodeling because of smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation is a common process occurring in several vascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis, aortic aneurysm, post-transplant vasculopathy, restenosis after angioplasty, etc. The molecular mechanism underlying SMC proliferation, however, is not completely understood. The objective of this study is to determine the role and mechanism of Janus kinase 3 (JAK3) in vascular remodeling and SMC proliferation.Platelet-derived growth factor-BB, an SMC mitogen, induces JAK3 expression and phosphorylation while stimulating SMC proliferation. Janex-1, a specific inhibitor of JAK3, or knockdown of JAK3 by short hairpin RNA, inhibits the SMC proliferation. Conversely, ectopic expression of JAK3 promotes SMC proliferation. Mechanistically, JAK3 promotes the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase in SMC, 2 signaling pathways known to be critical for SMC proliferation and vascular remodeling. Blockade of these 2 signaling pathways by their inhibitors impeded the JAK3-mediated SMC proliferation. In vivo, knockdown of JAK3 attenuates injury-induced neointima formation with attenuated neointimal SMC proliferation. Knockdown of JAK3 also induces neointimal SMC apoptosis in rat carotid artery balloon injury model.Our results demonstrate that JAK3 mediates SMC proliferation and survival during injury-induced vascular remodeling, which provides a potential therapeutic target for preventing neointimal hyperplasia in proliferative vascular diseases.
Project description:Calcineurin (Cn) and the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) family of transcription factors are critical in vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) development and pathology. Here, we used a genomics approach to identify and validate NFAT gene targets activated during platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB)-induced SMC phenotypic modulation.Genome-wide expression arrays were used to identify genes both (1) differentially activated in response to PDGF-BB and (2) whose differential expression was reduced by both the Cn inhibitor cyclosporin A and the NFAT inhibitor A-285222. The 20 most pharmacologically sensitive genes were validated by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis of PDGF-BB-stimulated SMCs in the presence of Cn/NFAT inhibitors, including the VIVIT peptide. In all experiments, protein C receptor (PROCR) gene activation was reduced. We showed that PROCR expression was virtually absent in untreated, quiescent SMCs. PDGF-BB stimulation, however, induced significant PROCR promoter activation and downstream protein expression in a Cn/NFAT-dependent manner. Mutation of a species-conserved, NFAT binding motif significantly attenuated PDGF-BB-induced PROCR promoter activity, thereby distinguishing NFAT as the first PROCR transcriptional activator to date. Moreover, SMC PROCR expression was upregulated in the neointima as early as 7 days following acute vascular injury in rat carotid arteries.We hereby report PROCR as a novel, NFAT-dependent gene that may be implicated in vascular restenosis and consequent inward remodeling.