Cyclin Y-mediated transcript profiling reveals several important functional pathways regulated by Cyclin Y in hippocampal neurons.
ABSTRACT: Cyclin Y (CCNY), which is a cyclin protein known to play a role in cell division, is unexpectedly and thus interestingly expressed in non-proliferating neuronal cells. There have been only a few studies reporting the neuronal functions of CCNY in synapse remodeling and hippocampal long-term potentiation. Therefore, we here provide global and comprehensive information on the putative functions of CCNY in biological and functional pathways in neuronal systems. We adopted high-throughput RNA-sequencing technology for analyzing transcriptomes regulated by CCNY and utilized bioinformatics for identifying putative molecules, biological processes, and functional pathways that are possibly connected to CCNY functions in hippocampal neuronal cells of rats. We revealed that several enriched annotation terms and pathways associated with CCNY expression within neurons, including apoptosis, learning or memory, synaptic plasticity, actin cytoskeleton, focal adhesion, extracellular matrix-receptor interaction and chemokine signaling pathway are targeted by CCNY. In addition, the mRNA levels of some genes enriched for those annotation terms and pathways or genes reported to be altered in Alzheimer's disease mouse model were further validated by quantitative real-time PCR in hippocampal neuronal cells. The present study provides an excellent resource for future investigations of CCNY functions in neuronal systems.
Project description:Cyclin Y (CCNY) is a member of the cyclin protein family, known to regulate cell division in proliferating cells. Interestingly, CCNY is expressed in neurons that do not undergo cell division. Here, we report that CCNY negatively regulates long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic strength through inhibition of AMPA receptor trafficking. CCNY is enriched in postsynaptic fractions from rat forebrain and is localized adjacent to postsynaptic sites in dendritic spines in rat hippocampal neurons. Using live-cell imaging of a pH-sensitive AMPA receptor, we found that during LTP-inducing stimulation, CCNY inhibits AMPA receptor exocytosis in dendritic spines. Furthermore, CCNY abolishes LTP in hippocampal slices. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that CCNY inhibits plasticity-induced AMPA receptor delivery to synapses and thereby blocks LTP, identifying a novel function for CCNY in post-mitotic cells.
Project description:We report the transcriptome changes mediated by Cyclin Y in rat hippocampal neurons. Overall design: Cultured hippocampal neurons were infected with lentivirus expressing EGFP (as control), CCNY-WT-EGFP (for CCNY overexpression) or CCNY-shRNA-EGFP (for CCNY knockdown) at DIV5-6 and the neuronal cell lysates were harvested at DIV14 for total RNA isolation and subsequent RNA-seq. Total 3 conditioned samples with duplicates each were performed.
Project description:PCTAIRE kinases (PCTK) are a highly conserved, but poorly characterized, subgroup of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK). They are characterized by a conserved catalytic domain flanked by N- and C-terminal extensions that are involved in cyclin binding. Vertebrate genomes contain three highly similar PCTAIRE kinases (PCTK1,2,3, a.k.a., CDK16,17,18), which are most abundant in post-mitotic cells in brain and testis. Consistent with this restricted expression pattern, PCTK1 (CDK16) has recently been shown to be essential for spermatogenesis. PCTAIREs are activated by cyclin Y (CCNY), a highly conserved single cyclin fold protein. By binding to N-myristoylated CCNY, CDK16 is targeted to the plasma membrane. Unlike conventional cyclin-CDK interactions, binding of CCNY to CDK16 not only requires the catalytic domain, but also domains within the N-terminal extension. Interestingly, phosphorylation within this domain blocks CCNY binding, providing a novel means of cyclin-CDK regulation. By using these functional characteristics, we analyzed "PCTAIRE" sequence containing protein kinase genes in genomes of various organisms and found that CCNY and CCNY-dependent kinases are restricted to eumetazoa and possibly evolved along with development of a central nervous system. Here, we focus on the structure and regulation of PCTAIREs and discuss their established functions.
Project description:Cyclin-dependent kinase 16 (CDK16, PCTK1) is a poorly characterized protein kinase, highly expressed in the testis and the brain. Here, we report that CDK16 is activated by membrane-associated cyclin Y (CCNY). Treatment of transfected human cells with the protein kinase A (PKA) activator forskolin blocked, while kinase inhibition promoted, CCNY-dependent targeting of CDK16-green fluorescent protein (GFP) to the cell membrane. CCNY binding to CDK16 required a region upstream of the kinase domain and was found to be inhibited by phosphorylation of serine 153, a potential PKA phosphorylation site. Thus, in contrast to other CDKs, CDK16 is regulated by phosphorylation-controlled cyclin binding. CDK16 isolated from murine testis was unphosphorylated, interacted with CCNY, and exhibited kinase activity. To investigate the function of CDK16 in vivo, we established a conditional knockout allele. Mice lacking CDK16 developed normally, but male mice were infertile. Spermatozoa isolated from their epididymis displayed thinning and elongation of the annulus region, adopted a bent shape, and showed impaired motility. Moreover, CDK16-deficient spermatozoa had malformed heads and excess residual cytoplasm, suggesting a role of CDK16 in spermiation. Thus, CDK16 is a membrane-targeted CDK essential for spermatogenesis.
Project description:A new member of the cyclin family cyclin Y (CCNY) is involved in the regulation of various physiological processes. In this study, the role of CCNY in energy metabolism was characterized. We found that compared with wild-type (WT) mice, Ccny knockout (KO) mice had both lower body weight and lower fat content. The Ccny KO mice also had a higher metabolic rate, resisted the stress of a high-fat diet, and were sensitive to calorie restriction. The expression levels of UCP1 and PGC1? were significantly higher in the brown adipose tissue (BAT) of the Ccny KO mice than that of the WT littermate controls, whereas there was no significant difference in BAT weight between the WT and the Ccny KO mice. In addition, the down-regulation of Ccny resulted in suppression of white adipocyte differentiation both in vivo and in vitro, while the expression of Ccny was up-regulated by C/EBP?. Furthermore, both hepatocytes and HepG2 cells that were depleted of Ccny were insensitive to insulin stimulation, consistent with the significant inhibition of insulin sensitivity in the liver of the Ccny KO mice, but no significant changes in WAT and muscle, indicating that CCNY is involved in regulating the hepatic insulin signaling pathway. The hepatic insulin resistance generated by Ccny depletion resulted in down-regulation of the sterol-regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP1) and fatty acid synthase (FASN). Together, these results provide a new link between CCNY and lipid metabolism in mice, and suggest that inhibition of CCNY may offer a therapeutic approach to obesity and diabetes.
Project description:BACKGROUND Cyclin Y (CCNY) is a member of the cyclin family of proteins that regulate the cell cycle. The aims of this study were to compare the expression of CCNY in normal liver and human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), in normal and HCC cell lines, and in mouse HCC tumor xenografts. MATERIAL AND METHODS Tumor tissues from 55 patients diagnosed with HCC were studied for CCNY expression. Human HCC cell lines, SK-Hep1, HepG2, HEP3B, HuH7 and L02 were studied using the MTT cell proliferation assay, cell apoptosis, transwell and wound healing assays. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blot were used to measure CCNY expression. Indirect immunofluorescence was used to assess cell apoptosis. In vivo xenograft mouse model was constructed and examined histologically. RESULTS Expression of CCNY in human HCC tumor tissues was significantly increased when compared with adjacent normal liver (all P<0.05). HCC cells grown in vitro showed significantly increased expression of CCNY, cell proliferation, and migration, and a reduced rate of apoptosis, compared with cells with CCNY knockdown (siRNA) (all P<0.05). In the xenograft mouse model, tumor volume and weight in the CCNY overexpression group were significantly increased, compared with CCNY knockdown (siRNA) group (all P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS In tissue samples of human HCC, and human HCC cell lines, increased expression of CCNY was significantly associated with cell proliferation and migration. Further studies are recommended to evaluate the role of CCNY as a potential diagnostic biomarker or target for treatment in human HCC.
Project description:Cyclin Y (CCNY) is a novel cyclin and highly conserved in metazoan species. Previous studies from our and other laboratory indicate that CCNY play a crucial role in tumor progression. There are two CCNY isoform which has different subcellular distributions, with cytoplasmic isoform (CCNYc) and membrane distribution isoform (CCNYm). However, the expression and function of CCNY isoforms is still unclear. We firstly found CCNYc was expressed in natural lung cancer tissue and cells through the subcellular distribution. Co-IP and immunofluorescence showed that both CCNYm and CCNYc could interact with PFTK1. Further studies illustrated that CCNYc but not CCNYm enhanced cell migration and invasion activity both <i>in vivo</i> and vitro. The function of CCNYc could be inhibited by suppression of PFTK1 expression. In addition, our data indicated that tropomyosin 4 (TPM4), a kind of actin-binding proteins, was down-regulated by suppression of CCNY. F-actin assembly could be controlled by CCNYc as well as PFTK1 and TPM4. As a result, CCNY was mainly expressed in lung cancer. CCNYc could promote cell motility and invasion. It indicated that CCNYc/PFTK1 complex could promote cell metastasis by regulating the formation of F-actin via TPM4.
Project description:Cyclin Y family can enhance Wnt/?-catenin signaling in mitosis. Their physiological roles in mammalian development are yet unknown. Here we show that Cyclin Y-like 1 (Ccnyl1) and Cyclin Y (Ccny) have overlapping function and are crucial for mouse embryonic development and mammary stem/progenitor cell functions. Double knockout of Ccnys results in embryonic lethality at E16.5. In pubertal development, mammary terminal end buds robustly express Ccnyl1. Depletion of Ccnys leads to reduction of Lrp6 phosphorylation, hampering ?-catenin activities and abolishing mammary stem/progenitor cell expansion in vitro. In lineage tracing experiments, Ccnys-deficient mammary cells lose their competitiveness and cease to contribute to mammary development. In transplantation assays, Ccnys-deficient mammary cells fail to reconstitute, whereas constitutively active ?-catenin restores their regeneration abilities. Together, our results demonstrate the physiological significance of Ccnys-mediated mitotic Wnt signaling in embryonic development and mammary stem/progenitor cells, and reveal insights in the molecular mechanisms orchestrating cell cycle progression and maintenance of stem cell properties.
Project description:Diabetes is associated with platelet hyper-reactivity and enhanced risk of thrombosis development. Here we compared protein expression in platelets from healthy donors and diabetic patients to identify differentially expressed proteins and their possible function in platelet activation. Mass spectrometry analyses identified cyclin Y (CCNY) in platelets and its reduced expression in platelets from diabetic patients, a phenomenon that could be attributed to the increased activity of calpains. To determine the role of CCNY in platelets, mice globally lacking the protein were studied. <i>CCNY</i><sup>-/-</sup> mice demonstrated lower numbers of circulating platelets but platelet responsiveness to thrombin and a thromboxane A<sub>2</sub> analogue were comparable with that of wild-type mice, as was agonist-induced ? and dense granule secretion. CCNY-deficient platelets demonstrated enhanced adhesion to fibronectin and collagen as well as an attenuated spreading and clot retraction, indicating an alteration in "outside in" integrin signalling. This phenotype was accompanied by a significant reduction in the agonist-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of ?3 integrin. Taken together we have shown that CCNY is present in anucleated platelets where it is involved in the regulation of integrin-mediated outside in signalling associated with thrombin stimulation.
Project description:Background:Laryngeal carcinoma is a common cancer among head and neck tumors, accounting for 0.5-1% new cancer cases or deaths of all tumors throughout the body. Despite improvements in diagnostic and therapy, the prognosis of laryngeal carcinoma patients still remains poor. Thus, it is very important to identify the biomarkers involved in the molecular pathogenesis of laryngeal carcinoma. Cyclin Y (CCNY) is a conserved cell cycle regulator that acts as a growth factor in many cancers. The clinical significance of CCNY in laryngeal carcinoma remains unknown. The function of CCNY in laryngocarcinoma was studied in this paper. Materials and Methods:CCNY knock-out cells were constructed by CRISPR/CAS9 technique. CCNY overexpression cells were also constructed based on CCNY knock-out cells. Cell growth ability was detected by MTS assay, high-content cell analysis, colony formation assays, and anchorage-independent growth assays. The protein levels in laryngocarcinoma cells were determined by Western blot. The role of CCNY in cell cycle progression was evaluated by flow cytometry. Results:CCNY knock-out cells and CCNY up-regulation cell models were obtained successfully. Suppression of CCNY expression inhibited Hep2 cell growth. Cell growth was enhanced by the up-regulation of CCNY. The percentage of cells in G1 phase was altered when CCNY expression was down-regulated or up-regulated. The phosphorylation level of MEK and ERK as well as cyclin E protein level was also regulated by the expression level of CCNY. Conclusion:In laryngocarcinoma cell line Hep2 cells, cell proliferation was controlled by CCNY. The expression of CCNY was involved in the cell cycle progress of Hep2 cells. It indicated that CCNY could promote cell growth by activating MEK/ERK/cyclin E signaling pathway.