The role of plant processing for the cancer preventive potential of Ethiopian kale (Brassica carinata).
ABSTRACT: Background: Ethiopian kale (Brassica carinata) is a horticulturally important crop used as leafy vegetable in large parts of East and Southern Africa. The leaves are reported to contain high concentrations of health-promoting secondary plant metabolites. However, scientific knowledge on their health benefits is scarce. Objective: This study aimed to determine the cancer preventive potential of B. carinata using a human liver in vitro model focusing on processing effects on the pattern of secondary plant metabolites and bioactivity. Design: B. carinata was cultivated under controlled conditions and differentially processed (raw, fermented, or cooked) after harvesting. Human liver cancer cells (HepG2) were treated with ethanolic extracts of raw or processed B. carinata leaves and analyzed for their anti-genotoxic, anti-oxidant, and cytostatic potential. Chemical analyses were carried out on glucosinolates including breakdown products, phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and chlorophyll content. Results: Pre-treatment with B. carinata extracts concentration dependently reduced aflatoxin-induced DNA damage in the Comet assay, reduced the production of reactive oxygen species as determined by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, and induced Nrf2-mediated gene expression. Increasing extract concentrations also promoted cytostasis. Processing had a significant effect on the content of secondary plant metabolites. However, different processing methodologies did not dramatically decrease bioactivity, but enhanced the protective effect in some of the endpoints studied. Conclusion: Our findings highlight the cancer preventive potential of B. carinata as indicated by the protection of human liver cells against aflatoxin in vitro. In general, consumption of B. carinata should be encouraged as part of chemopreventive measures to combat prevalence of aflatoxin-induced diseases.
Project description:The present human intervention trial investigated the health-promoting potential of B. carinata, with a focus on effects of thermal processing on bioactivity. Twenty-two healthy subjects consumed a B. carinata preparation from raw (allyl isothiocyanate-containing) or cooked (no allyl isothiocyanate) leaves for five days in a randomized crossover design. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were exposed to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), with or without metabolic activation using human S9 mix, and subsequently analyzed for DNA damage using the comet assay. Plasma was analyzed for total antioxidant capacity and prostaglandin E? (PGE?) levels. Cooked B. carinata significantly reduced DNA damage induced by AFB1 as compared to baseline levels (+S9 mix: 35%, -S9 mix: 33%, p ? 0.01, respectively). Raw B. carinata only reduced DNA damage by S9-activated AFB1 by 21% (p = 0.08). PGE? plasma levels were significantly reduced in subjects after consuming raw B. carinata. No changes in plasma antioxidant capacity were detectable. A balanced diet, including raw and cooked Brassica vegetables, might be suited to fully exploit the health-promoting potential. These results also advocate the promotion of B. carinata cultivation in Eastern Africa as a measure to combat effects of unavoidable aflatoxin exposure.
Project description:Aspergillus flavus is best known for producing the family of potent carcinogenic secondary metabolites known as aflatoxins. However, this opportunistic plant and animal pathogen also produces numerous other secondary metabolites, many of which have also been shown to be toxic. While about forty of these secondary metabolites have been identified from A. flavus cultures, analysis of the genome has predicted the existence of at least 56 secondary metabolite gene clusters. Many of these gene clusters are not expressed during growth of the fungus on standard laboratory media. This presents researchers with a major challenge of devising novel strategies to manipulate the fungus and its genome so as to activate secondary metabolite gene expression and allow identification of associated cluster metabolites. In this review, we discuss the genetic, biochemical and bioinformatic methods that are being used to identify previously uncharacterized secondary metabolite gene clusters and their associated metabolites. It is important to identify as many of these compounds as possible to determine their bioactivity with respect to fungal development, survival, virulence and especially with respect to any potential synergistic toxic effects with aflatoxin.
Project description:Intercropping is widespread in small-holder farming systems in tropical regions and is also practiced in the cultivation of indigenous vegetables, to alleviate the multiple burdens of malnutrition. Due to interspecific competition and/or complementation between intercrops, intercropping may lead to changes in plants accumulation of minerals and secondary metabolites and hence, alter nutritional quality for consumers. Intercropping aims to intensify land productivity, while ensuring that nutritional quality is not compromised. This study aimed to investigate changes in minerals and secondary plant metabolites in intercropped Brassica carinata and Solanum scabrum, two important African indigenous vegetables, and evaluated the suitability of this combination for dryer areas. B. carinata and S. scabrum were grown for 6 weeks under controlled conditions in a greenhouse trial. Large rootboxes (8000 cm3 volume) were specifically designed for this experiment. Each rootbox was planted with two plants, either of the same plant species (mono) or one of each plant species (mixed). A quartz sand/soil substrate was used and fertilized adequately for optimal plant growth. During the last 4 weeks of the experiment, the plants were either supplied with optimal (65% WHC) or low (30% WHC) irrigation, to test the effect of a late-season drought. Intercropping increased total glucosinolate content in B. carinata, while maintaining biomass production and the contents of other health related minerals in both B. carinata and S. scabrum. Moreover, low irrigation led to an increase in carotene accumulation in both mono and intercropped S. scabrum, but not in B. carinata, while the majority of kaempferol glycosides and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives of both species were decreased by intercropping and drought treatment. This study indicates that some health-related phytochemicals can be modified by intercropping or late-season drought, but field validation of these results is necessary before definite recommendation can be made to stakeholders.
Project description:We explored the transcriptomic changes of synthetic Brassica allohexaploid by comparing to its parents using a high-throughput RNA-Seq method. A total of 35644409 sequence reads were generated, and 32642 genes were aligned from the data. There were 29260, 29060 and 29697 genes identified in Brassica rapa, Brassica carinata, and Brassica allohexaploid, respectively. We screened differentially expressed genes (DEGs) by a standard of two-fold or greater change in expression and false discovery rate (FDR) no more than 0.001. As a result, 7397 DEGs were detected between Brassica hexaploid and its parents. A large proportion of the 3184 DEGs between Brassica hexaploid and its paternal parent B. rapa was involved in biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, plant-pathogen interaction, photosynthesis, and circadian rhythm. Between Brassica hexaploid and its maternal parent B. carinata, 2233 DEGs were screened. A lot of them had functions of plant-pathogen interaction, plant hormone signal transduction, ribosome, limonene and pinene degradation, photosynthesis, and also biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. In addition, we found many transcription factor genes, methyltransferase and methylation genes that showed differential expression between Brassica hexaploid and its parents. Leaf mRNA profiles of Brassica rapa, Brassica carinata, and Brassica allohexaploid
Project description:Of all the food-contaminating mycotoxins, aflatoxins, and most notably aflatoxin B? (AFB?), are found to be the most toxic and economically costly. Green farming is striving to replace fungicides and develop natural preventive strategies to minimize crop contamination by these toxic fungal metabolites. In this study, we demonstrated that an aqueous extract of the medicinal plant Micromeria graeca-known as hyssop-completely inhibits aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus without reducing fungal growth. The molecular inhibitory mechanism was explored by analyzing the expression of 61 genes, including 27 aflatoxin biosynthesis cluster genes and 34 secondary metabolism regulatory genes. This analysis revealed a three-fold down-regulation of aflR and aflS encoding the two internal cluster co-activators, resulting in a drastic repression of all aflatoxin biosynthesis genes. Hyssop also targeted fifteen regulatory genes, including veA and mtfA, two major global-regulating transcription factors. The effect of this extract is also linked to a transcriptomic variation of several genes required for the response to oxidative stress such as msnA, srrA, catA, cat2, sod1, mnsod, and stuA. In conclusion, hyssop inhibits AFB? synthesis at the transcriptomic level. This aqueous extract is a promising natural-based solution to control AFB? contamination.
Project description:This study reports the chemical investigation and bioactivity of the secondary metabolites produced by the endophytic fungus Fusarium solani isolated from Cassia alata Linn. growing in Bangladesh. This plant was collected from conservation forest in Bangladesh and belongs to the Caesalpiniaceae family. The endophytic fungus Fusarium solani was isolated from the tissue of root of this plant. The fungal strain was identified by morphological characters and DNA sequencing. The crude organic extract of the fungal strain was proven to be active when tested for cytotoxicity against Brine Shrimp Lethality Bioassay, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. The bioactivity guided fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract leads to the isolation of seven secondary metabolites in pure form. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by the analysis of NMR and mass spectroscopic data. Bioassay investigation of the isolated secondary metabolites suggested aza-anthraquinones are more potent bioactive compounds as anticancer and antimicrobial agent.
Project description:Impatiens balsamina is both an ornamental and pharmacologically important plant widely distributed in many Asian countries. The leaf of the plant contains many secondary metabolites possessing anti-microbial, anti-tumour and anti-cancer properties. Though there are many phytochemical studies done on the different natural extracts for this plant, not much of genetic information is currently available. This is the first transcriptome of I. balsamina leaf using paired-end Illumina HiSeq sequencing which generated 10.79?GB of raw data. Information of pre-processing (reads filtering), de novo assembly and functional annotation are presented. This data is accessible via NCBI BioProject (PRJNA505711).
Project description:In the framework of the first multi-centre Sub-Saharan Africa Total Diet Study (SSA-TDS), 2328 commonly consumed foods were purchased, prepared as consumed and pooled into 194 composite samples of cereals, tubers, legumes, vegetables, nuts and seeds, dairy, oils, beverages and miscellaneous. Those core foods were tested for mycotoxins and other fungal, bacterial and plant secondary metabolites by liquid chromatography, coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The highest aflatoxin concentrations were quantified in peanuts, peanut oil and maize. The mean concentration of the sum of aflatoxins AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 (AF<sub>tot</sub>) in peanut samples (56.4 µg/kg) exceeded EU (4 µg/kg) and Codex (15 µg/kg) standards. The AF<sub>tot</sub> concentration (max: 246.0 µg/kg) was associated with seasonal and geographic patterns and comprised, on average, 80% AFB1, the most potent aflatoxin. Although ochratoxin A concentrations rarely exceeded existing Codex standards, it was detected in unregulated foods. One palm oil composite sample contained 98 different metabolites, including 35.4 µg/kg of ochratoxin A. In total, 164 different metabolites were detected, with unspecific metabolites like asperglaucide, cyclo(L-pro-L-val), cyclo (L-pro-L-tyr), flavoglaucin, emodin and tryptophol occurring in more than 50% of composite samples. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), fumonisin B1 (FB1), sterigmatocystin (STC), ochratoxin A (OTA), citrinin (CIT) and many other secondary fungal metabolites are frequent co-contaminants in staple foods, such as maize and sorghum. Populations from North Cameroon and from Benin may, therefore, suffer chronic and simultaneous exposure to AFB1, FB1, STC, OTA and CIT, which are prevalent in their diet.
Project description:Aflatoxins are wide-spread harmful carcinogenic secondary metabolites produced by Aspergillus species, which cause serious feed and food contaminations and affect farm animals deleteriously with acute or chronic manifestations of mycotoxicoses. On farm, both pre-harvest and post-harvest strategies are applied to minimize the risk of aflatoxin contaminations in feeds. The great economic losses attributable to mycotoxin contaminations have initiated a plethora of research projects to develop new, effective technologies to prevent the highly toxic effects of these secondary metabolites on domestic animals and also to block the carry-over of these mycotoxins to humans through the food chain. Among other areas, this review summarizes the latest findings on the effects of silage production technologies and silage microbiota on aflatoxins, and it also discusses the current applications of probiotic organisms and microbial products in feeding technologies. After ingesting contaminated foodstuffs, aflatoxins are metabolized and biotransformed differently in various animals depending on their inherent and acquired physiological properties. These mycotoxins may cause primary aflatoxicoses with versatile, species-specific adverse effects, which are also dependent on the susceptibility of individual animals within a species, and will be a function of the dose and duration of aflatoxin exposures. The transfer of these undesired compounds from contaminated feed into food of animal origin and the aflatoxin residues present in foods become an additional risk to human health, leading to secondary aflatoxicoses. Considering the biological transformation of aflatoxins in livestock, this review summarizes (i) the metabolism of aflatoxins in different animal species, (ii) the deleterious effects of the mycotoxins and their derivatives on the animals, and (iii) the major risks to animal health in terms of the symptoms and consequences of acute or chronic aflatoxicoses, animal welfare and productivity. Furthermore, we traced the transformation and channeling of Aspergillus-derived mycotoxins into food raw materials, particularly in the case of aflatoxin contaminated milk, which represents the major route of human exposure among animal-derived foods. The early and reliable detection of aflatoxins in feed, forage and primary commodities is an increasingly important issue and, therefore, the newly developed, easy-to-use qualitative and quantitative aflatoxin analytical methods are also summarized in the review.
Project description:Diverse expression patterns for secondary metabolism gene clusters from Aspergillus flavus under different environmental conditions and in genetic mutants: Insights into regulation of cyclopiazonic acid along with aflatoxin Species of Aspergillus produce a diverse array of secondary metabolites, and recent genomic analysis predicts that these species have the capacity to synthesize many more compounds. It has been possible to infer the presence of 55 gene clusters associated with secondary metabolism in A. flavus. Presumably, secondary metabolites play important roles in the ecology of the producing species, but functions for most secondary metabolites remain unknown. Only three metabolic pathways have been associated with the predicted clusters in A. flavus. These include aflatoxin, cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), and aflatrem. To gain insight into the regulation of, and infer ecological significance for the 55 secondary metabolite gene clusters predicted in A. flavus, we examined their expression over 28 diverse conditions. Variables included culture media and temperature, fungal development, colonization of developing maize seeds, and misexpression of laeA, the global regulator of secondary metabolism. Hierarchical clustering analysis of expression profiles allowed us to categorize the gene clusters into four distinct clades. Gene clusters for the production of aflatoxins, CPA, and seven other unknown compound(s) were identified as belonging to one clade. To further explore the relationships found by gene expression analysis, aflatoxin and CPA production were quantified under five different cell culture environments known to be conducive or non-conducive for aflatoxin biosynthesis and during colonization of developing maize seeds. Results from these studies showed that secondary metabolism gene clusters have distinctive gene expression profiles. Aflatoxin and CPA were found to have unique regulation but similar enough that they would be expected to co-occur in commodities colonized with A. flavus. Overall design: Analysis of 75 different microarrays examining gene expression of A. flavus and A. oryzae over various conditions