Cardioprotective stress response in the human fetal heart.
ABSTRACT: We propose that the fetal heart is highly resilient to hypoxic stress. Our objective was to elucidate the human fetal gene expression profile in response to simulated ischemia and reperfusion to identify molecular targets that account for the innate cardioprotection exhibited by the fetal phenotype.Primary cultures of human fetal cardiac myocytes (gestational age, 15-20 weeks) were exposed to simulated ischemia and reperfusion in vitro by using a simulated ischemic buffer under anoxic conditions. Total RNA from treated and baseline cells were isolated, reverse transcribed, and labeled with Cy3 or Cy5 and hybridized to a human cDNA microarray for expression analysis. This analysis revealed a highly significant (false discovery rate, <3%) suppression of interleukin 6 transcript levels during the reperfusion phase confirmed by means of quantitative polymerase chain reaction (0.25 +/- 0.11-fold). Interleukin 6 signaling during ischemia and reperfusion was assessed at the protein expression level by means of Western measurements of interleukin 6 receptor, the signaling subunit of the interleukin 6 receptor complex (gp130), and signal transducer of activated transcription 3. Posttranslational changes in the protein kinase B signaling pathway were determined on the basis of the phosphorylation status of protein kinase B, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and glycogen synthase kinase 3beta. The effect of suppression of a prohypertrophic kinase, integrin-linked kinase, with short-interfering RNA was determined in an ischemia and reperfusion-stressed neonatal rat cardiac myocyte model. Endogenous secretion of interleukin 6 protein in culture supernatants was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Human fetal cardiac myocytes exhibited a significantly lower rate of apoptosis induction during ischemia and reperfusion and after exposure to staurosporine and recombinant interleukin 6 compared with that observed in neonatal rat cardiac myocytes ( P < .05 for all comparisons, analysis of variance). Exposure to exogenously added recombinant interleukin 6 increased the apoptotic rate in both rat and human fetal cardiac myocytes ( P < .05). Short-interfering RNA-mediated suppression of integrin-linked kinase, a prohypertrophy upstream kinase regulating protein kinase B and glycogen synthase kinase 3beta phosphorylation, was cytoprotective against ischemia and reperfusion-induced apoptosis in neonatal rat cardiac myocytes ( P < .05).Human fetal cardiac myocytes exhibit a uniquely adaptive transcriptional response to ischemia and reperfusion that is associated with an apoptosis-resistant phenotype. The stress-inducible fetal cardiac myocyte gene repertoire is a useful platform for identification of targets relevant to the mitigation of cardiac ischemic injury and highlights a novel avenue involving interleukin 6 modulation for preventing the cardiac myocyte injury associated with ischemia and reperfusion.
Project description:Recent evidence suggests that cross talk exists between cellular pathways important for pain signaling and ischemia-reperfusion injury. Here, the authors address whether the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel, important in pain signaling, is present in cardiac myocytes and regulates cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury.For biochemical analysis of TRPA1, techniques including quantitative polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunofluorescence were used. To determine how TRPA1 mediates cellular injury, the authors used an in vivo model of rat cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury and adult rat-isolated cardiac myocytes subjected to hypoxia-reoxygenation.The authors' biochemical analysis indicates that TRPA1 is within the cardiac myocytes. Further, using a rat in vivo model of cardiac injury, the TRPA1 activators ASP 7663 and optovin reduce myocardial injury (45?±?5%* and 44?±?8%,* respectively, vs. control, 66?±?6% infarct size/area at risk; n = 6 per group; mean ± SD; *P < 0.001). TRPA1 inhibition also blocked the infarct size-sparing effects of morphine. In isolated cardiac myocytes, the TRPA1 activators ASP 7663 and optovin reduce cardiac myocyte cell death when given during reoxygenation (20?±?3%* and 22?±?4%* vs. 36?±?3%; percentage of dead cells per field, n = 6 per group; mean ± SD; *P < 0.05). For a rat in vivo model of cardiac injury, the infarct size-sparing effect of TRPA1 activators also occurs during reperfusion.The authors' data suggest that TRPA1 is present within the cardiac myocytes and is important in regulating myocardial reperfusion injury. The presence of TRPA1 within the cardiac myocytes may potentially explain why certain pain relievers that can block TRPA1 activation, such as cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors or some nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, could be associated with cardiovascular risk.
Project description:The Akt protein kinase is an important mediator of cardiac myocyte growth and survival. To identify factors with novel therapeutic applications in cardiac diseases, we focused on the identification of factors secreted from Akt1-activated cells that have cardioprotective effects through autocrine/paracrine mechanisms.Using an inducible Akt1 transgenic mouse model, we have found that follistatin-like 1 (Fstl1) protein and transcript expression are increased 4.0- and 2.0-fold, respectively, by Akt activation in the heart (P<0.05). Fstl1 transcript was also upregulated in response to myocardial stresses including transverse aortic constriction, ischemia/reperfusion injury, and myocardial infarction. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of Fstl1 protected cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes from hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced apoptosis (P<0.01), and this protective effect was dependent on the upregulation of both Akt and ERK activities. Conversely, knockdown of Fstl1 in cardiac myocytes decreased basal Akt signaling and increased the frequency of apoptotic death in vitro (P<0.01). The intravenous administration of an adenoviral encoding Fstl1 to mice resulted in a 66.0% reduction in myocardial infarct size after ischemia/reperfusion injury that was accompanied by a 70.9% reduction in apoptosis in the heart (P<0.01).These results indicate that Fstl1 is a cardiac-secreted factor that functions as an antiapoptotic protein. Fstl1 could play a role in myocardial maintenance and repair in response to harmful stimuli.
Project description:Acute coronary syndrome is a leading cause of death in developed countries. Follistatin-like 1 (FSTL1) is a myocyte-derived secreted protein that is upregulated in the heart in response to ischemic insult. Here, we investigated the therapeutic impact of FSTL1 on acute cardiac injury in small and large preclinical animal models of ischemia/reperfusion and dissected its molecular mechanism.Administration of human FSTL1 protein significantly attenuated myocardial infarct size in a mouse or pig model of ischemia/reperfusion, which was associated with a reduction of apoptosis and inflammatory responses in the ischemic heart. Administration of FSTL1 enhanced the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase in the ischemia/reperfusion-injured heart. In cultured cardiac myocytes, FSTL1 suppressed apoptosis in response to hypoxia/reoxygenation and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated expression of proinflammatory genes through its ability to activate AMP-activated protein kinase. Ischemia/reperfusion led to enhancement of bone morphogenetic protein-4 expression and Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation in the heart, and FSTL1 suppressed the increased phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 in ischemic myocardium. Treating cardiac myocytes with FSTL1 abolished the bone morphogenetic protein-4-stimulated increase in apoptosis, Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation, and proinflammatory gene expression. In cultured macrophages, FSTL1 diminished lipopolysaccharide-stimulated expression of proinflammatory genes via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase and abolished bone morphogenetic protein-4-dependent induction of proinflammatory mediators.Our data indicate that FSTL1 can prevent myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury by inhibiting apoptosis and inflammatory response through modulation of AMP-activated protein kinase- and bone morphogenetic protein-4-dependent mechanisms, suggesting that FSTL1 could represent a novel therapeutic target for post-myocardial infarction, acute coronary syndrome.
Project description:Canine neutrophils can be induced to adhere in vitro to isolated adult cardiac myocytes by stimulation of the neutrophils with chemotactic factors such as zymosan-activated serum (ZAS) only if the myocytes have been previously exposed to cytokines such as interleukin 1 (IL-1) or tumor necrosis factor-alpha. These cytokines induce synthesis and surface expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) on the myocyte, and neutrophil adhesion is almost entirely CD18 and ICAM-1 dependent. The present study examines cardiac-specific lymph collected from awake dogs during 1-h coronary occlusion and 3 d of reperfusion for its ability to induce both ICAM-1 expression in cardiac myocytes, and neutrophil-myocyte adherence. Reperfusion lymph induced ICAM-1 expression in isolated myocytes, and myocyte adherence to ZAS-stimulated neutrophils that was completely inhibited by anti-CD18 and anti-ICAM-1 monoclonal antibodies. This activity peaked at 90 min of reperfusion and persisted for up to 72 h. Preischemic lymph was not stimulatory. IL-1 appeared not to be a stimulating factor in lymph in that dilutions of lymph were found to inhibit the stimulatory effects of recombinant IL-1 beta. However, investigation of interleukin 6 (IL-6) revealed that recombinant IL-6 stimulated myocyte adhesiveness for ZAS-stimulated neutrophils (ED50 = 0.002 U/ml) and expression of ICAM-1 by isolated myocytes. IL-6 neutralizing antibody markedly reduced the ability of reperfusion lymph to stimulate adhesion and ICAM-1 expression, and estimates of levels of IL-6 in reperfusion lymph ranged from 0.035 to 0.14 U/ml. These results indicate that cytokines capable of promoting neutrophil-myocyte adhesion occur in extracellular fluid during reperfusion of ischemic myocardium, and that one of these cytokines is IL-6. Neutrophil-myocyte adhesion may be of pathogenic significance because it may enhance the cytotoxic activity of the neutrophil.
Project description:The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response (ERSR) is activated when folding of nascent proteins in the ER lumen is impeded. Myocardial ischemia was recently shown to activate the ERSR; however, the role of this complex signaling system in the heart is not well understood. ER stress activates the transcription factor ATF6, which induces expression of proteins targeted to the ER, where they restore protein folding, thus fostering cytoprotection. We previously developed a transgenic mouse line that expresses a conditionally activated form of ATF6 in the heart. In this mouse line, ATF6 activation decreased ischemic damage in an ex vivo model of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion and induced numerous genes, including mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF). In the present study, MANF expression was shown to be induced in cardiac myocytes and in other cell types in the hearts of mice subjected to in vivo myocardial infarction. Additionally, simulated ischemia induced MANF in an ATF6-dependent manner in neonatal rat ventricular myocyte cultures. In contrast to many other ER-resident ERSR proteins, MANF lacks a canonical ER-retention sequence, consistent with our finding that MANF was readily secreted from cultured cardiac myocytes. Knockdown of endogenous MANF with micro-RNA increased cell death upon simulated ischemia/reperfusion, whereas addition of recombinant MANF to media protected cultured cardiac myocytes from simulated ischemia/reperfusion-mediated death. Thus, a possible function of the ERSR in the heart is the ischemia-mediated induction of secreted proteins, such as MANF, that can function in an autocrine/paracrine manner to modulate myocardial damage from ER stresses, including ischemia.
Project description:Caveolae, lipid-rich microdomains of the sarcolemma, localize and enrich cardiac-protective signaling molecules. Caveolin-3 (Cav-3), the dominant isoform in cardiac myocytes, is a determinant of caveolar formation. We hypothesized that cardiac myocyte-specific overexpression of Cav-3 would enhance the formation of caveolae and augment cardiac protection in vivo.Ischemic preconditioning in vivo increased the formation of caveolae. Adenovirus for Cav-3 increased caveolar formation and phosphorylation of survival kinases in cardiac myocytes. A transgenic mouse with cardiac myocyte-specific overexpression of Cav-3 (Cav-3 OE) showed enhanced formation of caveolae on the sarcolemma. Cav-3 OE mice subjected to ischemia/reperfusion injury had a significantly reduced infarct size relative to transgene-negative mice. Endogenous cardiac protection in Cav-3 OE mice was similar to wild-type mice undergoing ischemic preconditioning; no increased protection was observed in preconditioned Cav-3 OE mice. Cav-3 knockout mice did not show endogenous protection and showed no protection in response to ischemic preconditioning. Cav-3 OE mouse hearts had increased basal Akt and glycogen synthase kinase-3beta phosphorylation comparable to wild-type mice exposed to ischemic preconditioning. Wortmannin, a phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor, attenuated basal phosphorylation of Akt and glycogen synthase kinase-3beta and blocked cardiac protection in Cav-3 OE mice. Cav-3 OE mice had improved functional recovery and reduced apoptosis at 24 hours of reperfusion.Expression of caveolin-3 is both necessary and sufficient for cardiac protection, a conclusion that unites long-standing ultrastructural and molecular observations in the ischemic heart. The present results indicate that increased expression of caveolins, apparently via actions that depend on phosphoinositide 3-kinase, has the potential to protect hearts exposed to ischemia/reperfusion injury.
Project description:Increased levels of extracellular superoxide dismutase (ecSOD) induced by preconditioning or gene therapy protect the heart from ischemia/reperfusion injury. To elucidate the mechanism responsible for this action, we studied the effects of increased superoxide scavenging on nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability in a cardiac myocyte-specific ecSOD transgenic (Tg) mouse. Results indicated that ecSOD overexpression increased cardiac myocyte-specific ecSOD activity 27.5-fold. Transgenic ecSOD was localized to the sarcolemma and, notably, the cytoplasm of cardiac myocytes. Ischemia/reperfusion injury was attenuated in ecSOD Tg hearts, in which infarct size was decreased and LV functional recovery was improved. Using the ROS spin trap, DMPO, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy demonstrated a significant decrease in ROS in Tg hearts during the first 20 min of reperfusion. This decrease in ROS was accompanied by an increase in NO production determined by EPR using the NO spin trap, Fe-MGD. Attenuated ROS in ecSOD Tg myocytes was also supported by decreased production of peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)). Increased NO bioavailability was confirmed by attenuated guanylate cyclase-dependent (p-VASP) signaling. In conclusion, attenuation of ROS levels by cardiac-specific ecSOD overexpression increases NO bioavailability in response to ischemia/reperfusion and protects against reperfusion injury. These findings are the first to demonstrate increased NO bioavailability with attenuation of ROS by direct measurement of these reactive species (EPR, reactive fluorescent dyes) with cardiac-specific ecSOD expression. This is also the first indication that the predominantly extracellular SOD isoform is capable of cytosolic localization that affects myocardial intracellular signal transduction and function.
Project description:Our data suggest that, after a myocardial infarction, integrin-associated protein CD47 on cardiac myocytes is elevated. In culture, increased CD47 on the surface of dying cardiomyocytes impairs phagocytic removal by immune cell macrophages. After myocardial ischemia and reperfusion, acute CD47 inhibition with blocking antibodies enhanced dead myocyte clearance by cardiac phagocytes and also improved the resolution of cardiac inflammation, reduced infarct size, and preserved cardiac contractile function. Early targeting of CD47 in the myocardium after reperfusion may be a new strategy to enhance wound repair in the ischemic heart.
Project description:The proto-oncogene Casitas b-lineage lymphoma (c-Cbl) is an adaptor protein with an intrinsic E3 ubiquitin ligase activity that targets receptor and nonreceptor tyrosine kinases, resulting in their ubiquitination and downregulation. However, the function of c-Cbl in the control of cardiac function is currently unknown. In this study, we examined the role of c-Cbl in myocyte death and cardiac function after myocardial ischemia.We show increased c-Cbl expression in human ischemic and dilated cardiomyopathy hearts and in response to pathological stress stimuli in mice. c-Cbl-deficient mice demonstrated a more robust functional recovery after myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury and significantly reduced myocyte apoptosis and improved cardiac function. Ubiquitination and downregulation of key survival c-Cbl targets, epidermal growth factor receptors and focal adhesion kinase, were significantly reduced in c-Cbl knockout mice. Inhibition of c-Cbl expression or its ubiquitin ligase activity in cardiac myocytes offered protection against H2O2 stress. Interestingly, c-Cbl deletion reduced the risk of death and increased cardiac functional recovery after chronic myocardial ischemia. This beneficial effect of c-Cbl deletion was associated with enhanced neoangiogenesis and increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-a and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor type 2 in the infarcted region.c-Cbl activation promotes myocyte apoptosis, inhibits angiogenesis, and causes adverse cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction. These findings point to c-Cbl as a potential therapeutic target for the maintenance of cardiac function and remodeling after myocardial ischemia.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Adult mammalian cardiac myocytes are generally assumed to be terminally differentiated; nonetheless, a small fraction of cardiac myocytes have been shown to replicate during ventricular remodeling. However, the expression of Replication Factor C (RFC; RFC140/40/38/37/36) and DNA polymerase ? (Pol ?) proteins, which are required for DNA synthesis and cell proliferation, in the adult normal and hypertrophied hearts has been rarely studied. METHODS: We performed qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis to determine the levels of RFC and Pol ? message and proteins in the adult normal cardiac myocytes and cardiac fibroblasts, as well as in adult normal and pulmonary arterial hypertension induced right ventricular hypertrophied hearts. Immunohistochemical analyses were performed to determine the localization of the re-expressed DNA replication and cell cycle proteins in adult normal (control) and hypertrophied right ventricle. We determined right ventricular cardiac myocyte polyploidy and chromosomal missegregation/aneuploidy using Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for rat chromosome 12. RESULTS: RFC40-mRNA and protein was undetectable, whereas Pol ? message was detectable in the cardiac myocytes isolated from control adult hearts. Although RFC40 and Pol ? message and protein significantly increased in hypertrophied hearts as compared to the control hearts; however, this increase was marginal as compared to the fetal hearts. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that in addition to RFC40, proliferative and mitotic markers such as cyclin A, phospho-Aurora A/B/C kinase and phospho-histone 3 were also re-expressed/up-regulated simultaneously in the cardiac myocytes. Interestingly, FISH analyses demonstrated cardiac myocytes polyploidy and chromosomal missegregation/aneuploidy in these hearts. Knock-down of endogenous RFC40 caused chromosomal missegregation/aneuploidy and decrease in the rat neonatal cardiac myocyte numbers. CONCLUSION: Our novel findings suggest that transcription of RFC40 is suppressed in the normal adult cardiac myocytes and its insufficient re-expression may be responsible for causing chromosomal missegregation/aneuploidy and in cardiac myocytes during right ventricular hypertrophy.