Differential analysis of genome-wide methylation and gene expression in mesenchymal stem cells of patients with fractures and osteoarthritis.
ABSTRACT: Insufficient activity of the bone-forming osteoblasts leads to low bone mass and predisposes to fragility fractures. The functional capacity of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), the precursors of osteoblasts, may be compromised in elderly individuals, in relation with the epigenetic changes associated with aging. However, the role of hMSCs in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis is still unclear. Therefore, we aimed to characterize the genome-wide methylation and gene expression signatures and the differentiation capacity of hMSCs from patients with hip fractures. We obtained hMSCs from the femoral heads of women undergoing hip replacement due to hip fractures and controls with hip osteoarthritis. DNA methylation was explored with the Infinium 450K bead array. Transcriptome analysis was done by RNA sequencing. The genomic analyses revealed that most differentially methylated loci were situated in genomic regions with enhancer activity, distant from gene bodies and promoters. These regions were associated with differentially expressed genes enriched in pathways related to hMSC growth and osteoblast differentiation. hMSCs from patients with fractures showed enhanced proliferation and upregulation of the osteogenic drivers RUNX2/OSX. Also, they showed some signs of accelerated methylation aging. When cultured in osteogenic medium, hMSCs from patients with fractures showed an impaired differentiation capacity, with reduced alkaline phosphatase activity and poor accumulation of a mineralized matrix. Our results point to 2 areas of potential interest for discovering new therapeutic targets for low bone mass disorders and bone regeneration: the mechanisms stimulating MSCs proliferation after fracture and those impairing their terminal differentiation.
Project description:Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) have the capacity to differentiate into several cell types including osteoblasts and are therefore an important cell source for bone tissue regeneration. A crucial issue is to identify mechanisms that trigger hMSC osteoblast differentiation to promote osteogenic potential. Casitas B lineage lymphoma (Cbl) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that ubiquitinates and targets several molecules for degradation. We hypothesized that attenuation of Cbl-mediated degradation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) may promote osteogenic differentiation in hMSCs. We show here that specific inhibition of Cbl interaction with RTKs using a Cbl mutant (G306E) promotes expression of osteoblast markers (Runx2, alkaline phosphatase, type 1 collagen, osteocalcin) and increases osteogenic differentiation in clonal bone marrow-derived hMSCs and primary hMSCs. Analysis of molecular mechanisms revealed that the Cbl mutant increased PDGF receptor ? and FGF receptor 2 but not EGF receptor expression in hMSCs, resulting in increased ERK1/2 and PI3K signaling. Pharmacological inhibition of FGFR or PDGFR abrogated in vitro osteogenesis induced by the Cbl mutant. The data reveal that specific inhibition of Cbl interaction with RTKs promotes the osteogenic differentiation program in hMSCs in part by decreased Cbl-mediated PDGFR? and FGFR2 ubiquitination, providing a novel mechanistic approach targeting Cbl to promote the osteogenic capacity of hMSCs.
Project description:Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) from bone marrow are regarded as putative osteoblast progenitors in vivo and differentiate into osteoblasts in vitro. Positive signaling by the canonical wingless (Wnt) pathway is critical for the differentiation of MSCs into osteoblasts. In contrast, activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma)-mediated pathway results in adipogenesis. We therefore compared the effect of glycogen-synthetase-kinase-3beta (GSK3beta) inhibitors and PPARgamma inhibitors on osteogenesis by hMSCs. Both compounds altered the intracellular distribution of beta-catenin and GSK3beta in a manner consistent with activation of Wnt signaling. With osteogenic supplements, the GSK3beta inhibitor 6-bromo-indirubin-3'-oxime (BIO) and the PPARgamma inhibitor GW9662 (GW) enhanced early osteogenic markers, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and osteoprotegerin (OPG) by hMSCs and transcriptome analysis demonstrated up-regulation of genes encoding bone-related structural proteins. At higher doses of the inhibitors, ALP levels were attenuated, but dexamethasone-induced biomineralization was accelerated. When hMSCs were pretreated with BIO or GW and implanted into experimentally induced nonself healing calvarial defects, GW treatment substantially increased the capacity of the cells to repair the bone lesion, whereas BIO treatment had no significant effect. Further investigation indicated that unlike GW, BIO induced cell cycle inhibition in vitro. Furthermore, we found that GW treatment significantly reduced expression of chemokines that may exacerbate neutrophil- and macrophage-mediated cell rejection. These data suggest that use of PPARgamma inhibitors during the preparation of hMSCs may enhance the capacity of the cells for osteogenic cytotherapy, whereas adenine analogs such as BIO can adversely affect the viability of hMSC preparations in vitro and in vivo.
Project description:With an aging population, skeletal fractures are increasing in incidence, including the typical closed and the less common open fractures in normal bone, as well as fragility fractures in patients with osteoporosis. For the older age group, there is an urgent unmet need to induce predictable bone formation as well as improve implant fixation in situations such as hip joint replacement. Using a murine model of slow-healing fractures, we have previously shown that coverage of the fracture with muscle accelerated fracture healing and increased union strength. Here, we show that cells from muscle harvested after 3 d of exposure to an adjacent fracture differentiate into osteoblasts and form bone nodules in vitro. The osteogenic potential of these cells exceeds that of adipose and skin-derived stromal cells and is equivalent to bone marrow stromal cells. Supernatants from human fractured tibial bone fragments promote osteogenesis and migration of muscle-derived stromal cells (MDSC) in vitro. The main factor responsible for this is TNF-?, which promotes first MDSC migration, then osteogenic differentiation at low concentrations. However, TNF-? is inhibitory at high concentrations. In our murine model, addition of TNF-? at 1 ng/mL at the fracture site accelerated healing. These data indicate that manipulating the local inflammatory environment to recruit, then differentiate adjacent MDSC, may be a simple yet effective way to enhance bone formation and accelerate fracture repair. Our findings are based on a combination of human specimens and an in vivo murine model and may, therefore, translate to clinical care.
Project description:Shockwave treatment promotes bone healing of nonunion fractures. In this study, we investigated whether this effect could be due to adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) release-induced differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) into osteoprogenitor cells. Cultured bone marrow-derived hMSCs were subjected to shockwave treatment and ATP release was assessed. Osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of hMSCs were evaluated by examining alkaline phosphatase activity, osteocalcin production, and calcium nodule formation. Expression of P2X7 receptors and c-fos and c-jun mRNA was determined with real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. P2X7-siRNA, apyrase, P2 receptor antagonists, and p38 MAPK inhibitors were used to evaluate the roles of ATP release, P2X7 receptors, and p38 MAPK signaling in shockwave-induced osteogenic hMSCs differentiation. Shockwave treatment released significant amounts (? 7 ?M) of ATP from hMSCs. Shockwaves and exogenous ATP induced c-fos and c-jun mRNA transcription, p38 MAPK activation, and hMSC differentiation. Removal of ATP with apyrase, targeting of P2X7 receptors with P2X7-siRNA or selective antagonists, or blockade of p38 MAPK with SB203580 prevented osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs. Our findings indicate that shockwaves release cellular ATP that activates P2X7 receptors and downstream signaling events that caused osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs. We conclude that shockwave therapy promotes bone healing through P2X7 receptor signaling, which contributes to hMSC differentiation.
Project description:Tissue-specific (or adult) stem/progenitor cells are regarded as the source for normal tissue homeostasis and tissue repair. They also provide tremendous promise for regenerative medicine because of their capacity to proliferate and differentiate into a variety of mature cell types. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) can differentiate into osteocytes, adipocytes, chondrocytes, muscle cells, and neurons. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these differentiation processes are poorly understood. We screened a synthetic siRNA library targeting 5,000 human genes to identify the endogenous repressors of osteogenic specification, which when silenced could initiate differentiation of hMSCs into osteoblasts. This screen yielded 53 candidate suppressors, and 12 of those were further confirmed for their dynamic roles in suppressing osteogenic specification in hMSCs. Furthermore, cAMP was identified to play opposing roles in osteogenesis vs. adipogenesis. This study provides a basis for further elucidation of the genetic network controlling osteogenesis and, potentially, the molecular rationale for treating bone diseases.
Project description:Bone marrow stromal cells maintain the adult skeleton by forming osteoblasts throughout life that regenerate bone and repair fractures. We discovered that subsets of these stromal cells, osteoblasts, osteocytes, and hypertrophic chondrocytes secrete a C-type lectin domain protein, Clec11a, which promotes osteogenesis. Clec11a-deficient mice appeared developmentally normal and had normal hematopoiesis but reduced limb and vertebral bone. Clec11a-deficient mice exhibited accelerated bone loss during aging, reduced bone strength, and delayed fracture healing. Bone marrow stromal cells from Clec11a-deficient mice showed impaired osteogenic differentiation, but normal adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. Recombinant Clec11a promoted osteogenesis by stromal cells in culture and increased bone mass in osteoporotic mice in vivo. Recombinant human Clec11a promoted osteogenesis by human bone marrow stromal cells in culture and in vivo. Clec11a thus maintains the adult skeleton by promoting the differentiation of mesenchymal progenitors into mature osteoblasts. In light of this, we propose to call this factor Osteolectin.
Project description:Adult human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) have the potential to differentiate into chondrogenic, adipogenic, or osteogenic lineages, providing a potential source for tissue regeneration. An important issue for efficient bone regeneration is to identify factors that can be targeted to promote the osteogenic potential of hMSCs. Using transcriptome analysis, we found that integrin alpha5 (ITGA5) expression is up-regulated during dexamethasone-induced osteoblast differentiation of hMSCs. Gain-of-function studies showed that ITGA5 promotes the expression of osteoblast phenotypic markers and in vitro osteogenesis of hMSCs. Down-regulation of endogenous ITGA5 using specific shRNAs blunted osteoblast marker gene expression and osteogenic differentiation. Molecular analyses showed that the enhanced osteoblast differentiation induced by ITGA5 was mediated by activation of focal adhesion kinase/ERK1/2-MAPKs and PI3K signaling pathways. Remarkably, activation of endogenous ITGA5 using agonists such as a specific antibody that primes the integrin or a peptide that specifically activates ITGA5 was sufficient to enhance ERK1/2-MAPKs and PI3K signaling and to promote osteoblast differentiation and osteogenic capacity of hMSCs. Importantly, we demonstrated that hMSCs engineered to overexpress ITGA5 exhibited a marked increase in their osteogenic potential in vivo. Taken together, these findings not only reveal that ITGA5 is required for osteoblast differentiation of adult hMSCs but also provide a targeted strategy using ITGA5 agonists to promote the osteogenic capacity of hMSCs. This may be used for tissue regeneration in bone disorders where the recruitment or capacity of hMSCs is compromised.
Project description:Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) present in the bone marrow are the precursors of osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes, and hold tremendous potential for osteoregenerative therapy. However, achieving directed differentiation into osteoblasts has been a major concern. The use of lithium for enhancing osteogenic differentiation has been documented in animal models but its effect in humans is not clear. We, therefore, performed high throughput transcriptome analysis of lithium-treated hMSCs to identify altered gene expression and its relevance to osteogenic differentiation. Our results show suppression of proliferation and enhancement of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity upon lithium treatment of hMSCs under non-osteogenic conditions. Microarray profiling of lithium-stimulated hMSC revealed decreased expression of adipogenic genes (CEBPA, CMKLR1, HSD11B1) and genes involved in lipid biosynthesis. Interestingly, osteoclastogenic factors and immune responsive genes (IL7, IL8, CXCL1, CXCL12, CCL20) were also downregulated. Negative transcriptional regulators of the osteogenic program (TWIST1 and PBX1) were suppressed while genes involved in mineralization like CLEC3B and ATF4 were induced. Gene ontology analysis revealed enrichment of upregulated genes related to mesenchymal cell differentiation and signal transduction. Lithium priming led to enhanced collagen 1 synthesis and osteogenic induction of lithium pretreated MSCs resulted in enhanced expression of Runx2, ALP and bone sialoprotein. However, siRNA-mediated knockdown of RRAD, CLEC3B and ATF4 attenuated lithium-induced osteogenic priming, identifying a role for RRAD, a member of small GTP binding protein family, in osteoblast differentiation. In conclusion, our data highlight the transcriptome reprogramming potential of lithium resulting in higher propensity of lithium "primed" MSCs for osteoblastic differentiation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) into osteoblasts (OBs) is a prerequisite for bone formation. However, little is known about the definitive surface markers for OBs during osteogenesis. METHODS:To study the surface markers on OBs, we generated and used monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against surface molecules on transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1)-treated cancer cells. The generated MAbs were further selected toward expression changes on hMSCs cultured with TGF-?1/bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) or osteogenic differentiation medium (ODM) by flow cytometry. Immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry were performed to identify target antigens of selected MAbs. Expression changes of the target antigens were evaluated in hMSCs, human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs), and human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) during osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and flow cytometry. hMSCs were also sorted by the MAbs using magnetic-activated cell sorting system, and osteogenic potential of sorted cells was evaluated via Alizarin Red S (ARS) staining and qPCR. RESULTS:The binding reactivity of MR14-E5, one of the MAbs, was downregulated in hMSCs with ODM while the binding reactivity of ER7-A7, ER7-A8, and MR1-B1 MAbs was upregulated. Mass spectrometry and overexpression identified that MR14-E5, ER7-A7/ER7-A8, and MR1-B1 recognized integrin ?2, ?3, and ?V, respectively. Upon osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs, the expression of integrin ?2 was drastically downregulated, but the expression of integrin ?3 and ?V was upregulated in accordance with upregulation of osteogenic markers. Expression of integrin ?3 and ?V was also upregulated in hPDLCs and hDPCs during osteogenic differentiation. Cell sorting showed that integrin ?V-high hMSCs have a greater osteogenic potential than integrin ?V-low hMSCs upon the osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs. Cell sorting further revealed that the surface expression of integrin ?V is more dramatically induced even in integrin ?V-low hMSCs. CONCLUSION:These findings suggest that integrin ?3 and ?V induction is a good indicator of OB differentiation. These findings also shed insight into the expression dynamics of integrins upon osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs and provide the reason why different integrin ligands are required for OB differentiation of hMSCs.
Project description:Small fractures in bone tissue can heal by themselves, but in case of larger defects current therapies are not completely successful due to several drawbacks. A possible strategy relies on the combination of additive manufactured polymeric scaffolds and human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs). The architecture of bone tissue is characterized by a structural gradient. Long bones display a structural gradient in the radial direction, while flat bones in the axial direction. Such gradient presents a variation in bone density from the cancellous bone to the cortical bone. Therefore, scaffolds presenting a gradient in porosity could be ideal candidates to improve bone tissue regeneration. In this study, we present a construct with a discrete gradient in pore size and characterize its ability to further support the osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs. Furthermore, we studied the behaviour of hMSCs within the different compartments of the gradient scaffolds, showing a correlation between osteogenic differentiation and ECM mineralization, and pore dimensions. Alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium content increased with increasing pore dimensions. Our results indicate that designing structural porosity gradients may be an appealing strategy to support gradual osteogenic differentiation of adult stem cells.