Characterization of two novel intronic OPA1 mutations resulting in aberrant pre-mRNA splicing.
ABSTRACT: We report two novel splice region mutations in OPA1 in two unrelated families presenting with autosomal-dominant optic atrophy type 1 (ADOA1) (ADOA or Kjer type optic atrophy). Mutations in OPA1 encoding a mitochondrial inner membrane protein are a major cause of ADOA.We analyzed two unrelated families including four affected individuals clinically suspicious of ADOA. Standard ocular examinations were performed in affected individuals of both families. All coding exons, as well as exon-intron boundaries of the OPA1 gene were sequenced. In addition, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) was performed to uncover copy number variations in OPA1. mRNA processing was monitored using RT-PCR and subsequent cDNA analysis.We report two novel splice region mutations in OPA1 in two unrelated individuals and their affected relatives, which were previously not described in the literature. In one family the heterozygous insertion and deletion c.[611-37_611-38insACTGGAGAATGTAAAGGGCTTT;611-6_611-16delCATATTTATCT] was found in all investigated family members leading to the activation of an intronic cryptic splice site. In the second family sequencing of OPA1 disclosed a de novo heterozygous deletion c.2012+4_2012+7delAGTA resulting in exon 18 and 19 skipping, which was not detected in healthy family members.We identified two novel intronic mutations in OPA1 affecting the correct OPA1 pre-mRNA splicing, which was confirmed by OPA1 cDNA analysis. This study shows the importance of transcript analysis to determine the consequences of unclear intronic mutations in OPA1 in proximity to the intron-exon boundaries.
Project description:PURPOSE: To describe the genotype-phenotype correlation in four Greek pedigrees with autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA) and OPA1 mutations. METHODS: Seven patients from four unrelated families (F1, F2, F3, F4) were clinically assessed for visual acuity, color vision, ptosis, afferent pupillary defects, and visual fields and underwent orthoptic assessment, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, and fundus examination to establish their clinical status. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples from all participants. The coding region (exons 1-28), including the intron-exon boundaries of the OPA1 gene, was screened in the probands of the four families, as well as in seven additional family members (four affected and three unaffected) with PCR and direct DNA sequencing. RESULTS: All patients presented bilateral decrease in best-corrected visual acuity and temporal pallor of the optic disc. The visual fields of the adult patients showed characteristic scotomata. Other signs were present in some patients such as decreased color discrimination and a gray crescent within the neuroretinal rim. After the OPA1 gene was sequenced, a previously undescribed heterozygous splice-site mutation c.784-1G>T in intron 7 was detected in family F2. In families F1, F3, and F4, a previously reported in-frame deletion c.876_878delTGT/p.(Val294del), the frameshift c.2366delA/p.(Asn789Metfs*11), and splice-site c.1140+5G>C mutations were detected, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of molecular characterization of Greek patients with ADOA. Our findings provide additional information regarding the genotype-phenotype correlation and establish the role of the OPA1 gene in Greek patients with ADOA.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA, Kjer disease, MIM #165500) is the most common form of hereditary optic neuropathy. Mutations in OPA1 located at chromosome 3q28 are the predominant cause for ADOA explaining between 32 and 89% of cases. Although deletions of OPA1 were recently reported in ADOA, the frequency of OPA1 genomic rearrangements in Denmark, where ADOA has a high prevalence, is unknown. The aim of the study was to identify copy number variations in OPA1 in Danish ADOA patients. METHODS: Forty unrelated ADOA patients, selected from a group of 100 ADOA patients as being negative for OPA1 point mutations, were tested for genomic rearrangements in OPA1 by multiplex ligation probe amplification (MLPA). When only one probe was abnormal results were confirmed by additional manually added probes. Segregation analysis was performed in families with detected mutations when possible. RESULTS: Ten families had OPA1 deletions, including two with deletions of the entire coding region and eight with intragenic deletions. Segregation analysis was possible in five families, and showed that the deletions segregated with the disease. CONCLUSION: Deletions in the OPA1 gene were found in 10 patients presenting with phenotypic autosomal dominant optic neuropathy. Genetic testing for deletions in OPA1 should be offered for patients with clinically diagnosed ADOA and no OPA1 mutations detected by DNA sequencing analysis.
Project description:PURPOSE: To report the clinical features and identification of two novel mutations in two Chinese pedigrees with autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA). METHODS: Two families (F1 and F2) including ten affected members and nine unaffected family individuals were examined clinically. After informed consent was obtained, peripheral blood samples of all the participants were obtained, and genomic DNA was extracted. Linkage analysis was performed with two microsatellite markers around the OPA1 gene (D3S2305 and D3S3562) in family F1. The coding region (exon 1-28), including intron-exon boundary of the OPA1 gene, were screened in the 2 families by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct DNA sequencing. Whenever substitutions were identified in a patient, single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis was performed on all available family members and 100 normal controls. To characterize a splicing site mutation, RT-PCR of total RNA of leukocytes obtained from three patients and seven unaffected individuals of family F1 was performed with the specific primers. RESULTS: The affected individuals all presented with bilateral visual failure and temporal or total pallor of the optic discs. Genotyping of family F1 revealed the linkage to the OPA1 gene on 3q28-29. After sequencing of OPA1 gene, a novel heterozygous splicing site mutation c.985 -2A>G in intron 9 was found in family F1. RT-PCR result showed the skipping of the exon 10 in the mutant transcript, which results in loss of 27 amino acids in the OPA1 protein. A novel heterozygous nonsense mutation c.2197C>T(p.R733X)was detected in family F2. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings expand the spectrum of OPA1 mutations and further established the role of OPA1 gene in Chinese patients with ADOA.
Project description:The genetic diagnosis in inherited optic neuropathies often remains challenging, and the emergence of complex neurological phenotypes that involve optic neuropathy is puzzling. Here we unravel two novel principles of genetic mechanisms in optic neuropathies: deep intronic OPA1 mutations, which explain the disease in several so far unsolved cases; and an intralocus OPA1 modifier, which explains the emergence of syndromic 'optic atrophy plus' phenotypes in several families. First, we unravelled a deep intronic mutation 364 base pairs 3' of exon 4b in OPA1 by in-depth investigation of a family with severe optic atrophy plus syndrome in which conventional OPA1 diagnostics including gene dosage analyses were normal. The mutation creates a new splice acceptor site resulting in aberrant OPA1 transcripts with retained intronic sequence and subsequent translational frameshift as shown by complementary DNA analysis. In patient fibroblasts we demonstrate nonsense mediated messenger RNA decay, reduced levels of OPA1 protein, and impairment of mitochondrial dynamics. Subsequent site-specific screening of >360 subjects with unexplained inherited optic neuropathy revealed three additional families carrying this deep intronic mutation and a base exchange four nucleotides upstream, respectively, thus confirming the clinical significance of this mutational mechanism. Second, in all severely affected patients of the index family, the deep intronic mutation occurred in compound heterozygous state with an exonic OPA1 missense variant (p.I382M; NM_015560.2). The variant alone did not cause a phenotype, even in homozygous state indicating that this long debated OPA1 variant is not pathogenic per se, but acts as a phenotypic modifier if it encounters in trans with an OPA1 mutation. Subsequent screening of whole exomes from >600 index patients identified a second family with severe optic atrophy plus syndrome due to compound heterozygous p.I382M, thus confirming this mechanism. In summary, we provide genetic and functional evidence that deep intronic mutations in OPA1 can cause optic atrophy and explain disease in a substantial share of families with unsolved inherited optic neuropathies. Moreover, we show that an OPA1 modifier variant explains the emergence of optic atrophy plus phenotypes if combined in trans with another OPA1 mutation. Both mutational mechanisms identified in this study-deep intronic mutations and intragenic modifiers-might represent more generalizable mechanisms that could be found also in a wide range of other neurodegenerative and optic neuropathy diseases.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Investigation of the OPA1 mutation spectrum in autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA) in Denmark. METHODS: Index patients from 93 unrelated ADOA families were assessed for a common Danish founder mutation (c.2826_2836delinsGGATGCTCCA) inOPA1. If negative, direct DNA sequencing of the coding sequence and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) were performed. Results from MLPA analysis have been previously reported. Haplotype analysis was carried out analysing single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). Retrospective clinical data were retrieved from medical files. RESULTS: Probably causative mutations were identified in 84 out of 93 families (90%) including 15 novel mutations. Three mutations c.983A?>?G, c.2708_2711delTTAG and c.2826_2836delinsGGATGCTCCA, were responsible for ADOA in10, 11 and 28 families, respectively, corresponding to 11%, 12% and 30%. A common haplotype in nine of ten c.983A?>?G families suggests that they descend from a single founder. The c.2708_2711delTTAG mutation was present on at least two haplotypes and has been repeatedly reported in various ethnic groups,thus represents a mutational hotspot. Clinical examinations of index patients with the two latter mutations demonstrated large inter- and intra-familial variations apparently. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic testing for OPA1mutations assist in the diagnosis. We have identified mutations in OPA1 in 90% of families including 15 novel mutations. Both DNA sequencing and MLPA analysis are necessary to achieve a high detection rate. More than half of the affected families in Denmark are represented by three common mutations, at least two of which are due to a founder effect, which may account for the high prevalence of ADOA in Denmark.
Project description:PurposeAutosomal-dominant optic atrophy (ADOA), often associated with mutations in the OPA1 gene (chromosome 3q28-q29) is rarely reported in Asia. Our aim was to identify and describe this condition in an Asian population in Singapore.Patients and methodsPreliminary cross-sectional study at the Singapore National Eye Centre, including patients with clinical suspicion of ADOA, who subsequently underwent genetic testing by direct sequencing of the OPA1 gene.ResultsAmong 12 patients (10 families) with clinically suspected ADOA, 7 patients (5 families) from 3 different ethnic origins (Chinese, Indian, and Malay) carried a heterozygous pathogenic variant in the OPA1 gene. The OPA1 mutations were located on exons 8, 9, 11, and 17: c.869G>A (p.Arg290Glu), c.892A>G (p.Ser298Gly), c.1140G>A (splicing mutation), and c.1669C>T (p.Arg557*), respectively. One splicing mutation (c.871-1G>A) was identified in intron 8. We also identified a novel mutation causing optic atrophy and deafness (c.892A>G (p.Ser298Gly)). Among the phenotypic features, colour pupillometry disclosed a dissociation between low vision and preserved pupillary light reflex in ADOA.ConclusionWe report the first cases of genetically confirmed OPA1-related ADOA from Singapore, including a novel mutation causing 'ADOA plus' syndrome. Further epidemiological studies are needed in order to determine the prevalence of ADOA in South-East Asia.
Project description:Autosomal Dominant Optic Atrophy (ADOA) is characterized by the selective degeneration of retinal ganglion cells. The occurrence of mutations in the gene encoding the dynamin-like GTPase protein Optic Atrophy 1 (OPA1) has been observed in about 60-70% of ADOA cases. A subset of missense mutations, mostly within the GTPase domain, has recently been associated with a syndromic ADOA form called "OPA1 plus" phenotype presenting, at muscle level, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) instability. In this study we disclosed two OPA1 gene mutations in independent probands from two families affected by OPA1 plus phenotype: the previously reported c.985-2A>G substitution and a novel microdeletion (c.2819-1_2821del). The correlation between genotype and phenotype and the effects of these variants at the transcript level and in the muscle tissue were investigated, confirming the broad complexity in the phenotypic spectrum associated with these OPA1 mutations.
Project description:PURPOSE: Autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA) is the most common form of hereditary optic neuropathy caused by mutations in the optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) gene. It is characterized by insidious onset with a selective degeneration of retinal ganglion cells, variable loss of visual acuity, temporal optic nerve pallor, tritanopia, and development of central, paracentral, or cecocentral scotomas. Here we describe the clinical and molecular findings in a large Italian family with ADOA. METHODS: Routine ophthalmologic examination and direct sequencing of all coding regions of the OPA1 gene were performed. Further characterization of a new OPA1 gene insertion was performed by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) of RNA from patients and control subjects. RESULTS: We identified an Alu-element insertion located in intron 7 of OPA1 causing an in-frame deletion of exon 8 in 18 family members. CONCLUSIONS: The predicted consequence of this mutation is the loss of the guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) activity of OPA1. Alu insertions have been reported in the literature as causing human genetic disease. However, this is the first report of a pathogenic OPA1 gene mutation resulting from an Alu insertion.
Project description:Autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA) is genetically heterogeneous, with OPA1 on 3q28 being the most prevalently mutated gene. Additional loci are OPA3, OPA4, and OPA5, located at 19q13.2, 18q12.2, and 22q12.1-q13.1, respectively. Mutations in the WFS1 gene, at 4p16.3, are associated with either optic atrophy (OA) as part of the autosomal recessive Wolfram syndrome or with autosomal dominant progressive low frequency sensorineural hearing loss (LFSNHL) without any ophthalmological abnormalities. Linkage and sequence mutation analyses of the ADOA candidate genes OPA1, OPA3, OPA4, and OPA5, including the genes WFS1, GJB2, and GJB6 associated with recessive inherited OA or dominant LFSNHL, were performed. We identified one novel WFS1 missense mutation E864K, c.2590G-->A in exon 8 that co-segregates with ADOA combined with hearing impairment and impaired glucose regulation. This is the first example of autosomal dominant optic atrophy and hearing loss associated with a WFS1 mutation, supporting the notion that mutations in WFS1 as well as in OPA1 may lead to ADOA combined with impaired hearing.
Project description:Inherited optic neuropathies (ION) present an important cause of blindness in the European working-age population. Recently we reported the discovery of four independent families with deep intronic mutations in the main inherited optic neuropathies gene OPA1. These deep intronic mutations cause mis-splicing of the OPA1 pre-messenger-RNA transcripts by creating cryptic acceptor splice sites. As a rescue strategy we sought to prevent mis-splicing of the mutant pre-messenger-RNA by applying 2'O-methyl-antisense oligonucleotides (AONs) with a full-length phosphorothioate backbone that target the cryptic acceptor splice sites and the predicted novel branch point created by the deep intronic mutations, respectively. Transfection of patient-derived primary fibroblasts with these AONs induced correct splicing of the mutant pre-messenger-RNA in a time and concentration dependent mode of action, as detected by pyrosequencing of informative heterozygous variants. The treatment showed strong rescue effects (~55%) using the cryptic acceptor splice sites targeting AON and moderate rescue (~16%) using the branch point targeting AON. The highest efficacy of Splice correction could be observed 4 days after treatment however, significant effects were still seen 14 days post-transfection. Western blot analysis revealed increased amounts of OPA1 protein with maximum amounts at ~3 days post-treatment. In summary, we provide the first mutation-specific in vitro rescue strategy for OPA1 deficiency using synthetic AONs.