Chemical group-dependent plasma polymerisation preferentially directs adipose stem cell differentiation towards osteogenic or chondrogenic lineages.
ABSTRACT: Human adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) are being explored for the repair of craniofacial defects due to their multi-differentiation potential and ease of isolation and expansion. Crucial to using ADSCs for craniofacial repair is the availability of materials with appropriate biomechanical properties that can support their differentiation into bone and cartilage. We tested the hypothesis that different modifications of chemical groups on the surface of a nanocomposite polymer could increase human ADSC adhesion and selectively enhance their osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. We show that the COOH modification significantly promoted initial cell adhesion and proliferation over 14days compared to NH2 surfaces. Expression of focal adhesion kinase and vinculin was enhanced after plasma surface polymerisation at 24h. The COOH modification significantly enhanced chondrogenic differentiation as indicated by up-regulation of aggrecan and collagen II transcripts. In contrast, NH2 group functionalised scaffolds promoted osteogenic differentiation with significantly enhanced expression of collagen I, alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin both at the gene and protein level. Finally, chorioallantoic membrane grafting demonstrated that both NH2 and COOH functionalised scaffolds seeded with ADSCs were biocompatible and supported vessel ingrowth apparently to a greater degree than unmodified scaffolds. In summary, our study shows the ability to direct ADSC chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation by deposition of different chemical groups through plasma surface polymerisation. Hence this approach could be used to selectively enhance bone or cartilage formation before implantation in vivo to repair skeletal defects.Human adipose derived stem cells (hADSCs) are an exciting stem cell source for regenerative medicine due to their plentiful supply and ease of isolation. However, the optimal environmental cues to direct stem cells towards certain lineages change have to has not been identified. We have shown that by modifying the surface of the scaffold with specific chemical groups using plasma surface polymerisation techniques we can control ADSCs differentiation. This study shows that ADSCs can be differentiated towards osteogenic and chondrogenic lineages on amine (NH2) and carboxyl (COOH) modified scaffolds respectively. Plasma polymerisation can be easily applied to other biomaterial surfaces to direct stem cell differentiation for the regeneration of bone and cartilage.
Project description:Bone and cartilage craniofacial defects due to trauma or congenital deformities pose a difficult problem for reconstructive surgeons. Human adipose stem cells (ADSCs) can differentiate into bone and cartilage and together with suitable scaffolds could provide a promising system for skeletal tissue engineering. It has been suggested that nanomaterials can direct cell behavior depending on their surface nanotopographies. Thus, this study examined whether by altering a nanoscaffold surface using radiofrequency to excite gases, argon (Ar), nitrogen (N2) and oxygen (O2) with a single step technique, we could enhance the osteogenic and chondrogenic potential of ADSCs. At 24?h, Ar modification promoted the highest increase in ADSCs adhesion as indicated by upregulation of vinculin and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) expression compared to O2 and N2 scaffolds. Furthermore, ADSCs on Ar-modified nanocomposite polymer POSS-PCU scaffolds upregulated expression of bone markers, alkaline phosphatase, collagen I and osteocalcin after 3?weeks. Cartilage markers, aggrecan and collagen II, were also upregulated on Ar-modified scaffolds at the mRNA and protein level. Finally, all plasma treated scaffolds supported tissue ingrowth and angiogenesis after grafting onto the chick chorioallantoic membrane. Ar promoted greater expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and laminin in ovo compared to O2 and N2 scaffolds as shown by immunohistochemistry. This study provides an important understanding into which surface chemistries best support the osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of ADSCs that could be harnessed for regenerative skeletal applications. Argon surface modification is a simple tool that can promote ADSC skeletal differentiation that is easily amenable to translation into clinical practice.
Project description:BACKGROUND This study aimed to investigate the effects of three-dimensional (3D) printed titanium (3DTi) scaffolds on osteogenic differentiation and new bone formation by 3D cultured adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) in vitro, and the effects of bone regeneration in vivo using a full-thickness mandibular defect rat model, and the mechanisms involved. MATERIAL AND METHODS Alpha-beta titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) 3DTi scaffolds were prepared with Cellmatrix hydrogel and 3D culture medium. ADSCs were impregnated into the 3DTi scaffolds. ADSC viability and proliferation were assessed using the cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels were measured. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot were performed to assess the expression of osteogenesis-related mRNA for RUNX2, OPN, OCN, and IGF-1 genes and proteins. A rat model of full-thickness mandibular defect was evaluated with micro-computed tomography (microCT) scanning, and histochemistry with Alizarin red and von Giesen's stain were used to evaluate osteogenesis. RESULTS ADSC viability and proliferation were not affected by culture with 3DTi scaffolds. Expression of osteogenesis-related mRNA and proteins for RUNX2, OPN, OCN, and IGF-1, expression of ALP, and histochemical findings showed that the use of 3DTi scaffolds enhanced osteogenic differentiation and new bone formation by ADSCs, with upregulation of components of the IGF-1R/AKT/mTORC1 pathway. CONCLUSIONS The 3D culture of ADSCs with 3DTi scaffolds enhanced osteogenic differentiation and new bone formation through the IGF-1R/AKT/mTORC1 pathway. This improved method of osteointegration may have clinical application in the preparation of bone grafts before implantation for improved repair of mandibular bone defects.
Project description:Adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) are of interest for regenerative medicine as they are isolated easily and can differentiate into multiple cell lineages. Studies of their in vitro proliferation, survival, and differentiation are common; however, genetic effects on these phenotypes remain unknown. To test if these phenotypes are genetically regulated, ADSCs were isolated from three genetically diverse inbred mouse strains--C57BL/6J (B6), BALB/cByJ (BALB), and DBA/2J (D2)--in which genetic regulation of hematopoietic stem function is well known. ADSCs from all three strains differentiated into osteogenic and chondrogenic lineages in vitro. ADSCs from BALB grew least well in vitro, probably due to apoptotic cell death after several days in culture. BALB ADSCs were also the most susceptible to the free radical inducers menadione and H2O2. ADSCs from the three possible F1 hybrids were employed to further define genetic regulation of ADSC phenotypes. D2, but not B6, alleles stimulated ADSC expansion in BALB cells. In contrast, B6, but not D2, alleles rescued BALB H2O2 resistance. We conclude that low oxidative stress resistance does not limit BALB ADSC growth in vitro, as these phenotypes are genetically regulated independently. In addition, ADSCs from these strains are an appropriate model system to investigate genetic regulation of ADSC apoptosis and stress resistance in future studies. Such investigations are essential to optimize cell expansion and differentiation and thus, potential for regenerative medicine.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) have been isolated, expanded, and applied in the treatment of many diseases. ADSCs have also been used to treat injured articular cartilage. However, there is controversy regarding the treatment efficiency. We considered that ADSC transplantation with activated platelet-rich plasma (PRP) may improve injured articular cartilage compared with that of ADSC transplantation alone. In this study, we determined the role of PRP in ADSC transplantation to improve the treatment efficiency. METHODS:ADSCs were isolated and expanded from human adipose tissue. PRP was collected and activated from human peripheral blood. The effects of PRP were evaluated in vitro and in ADSC transplantation in vivo. In vitro, the effects of PRP on ADSC proliferation, differentiation into chondrogenic cells, and inhibition of angiogenic factors were investigated at three concentrations of PRP (10%, 15% and 20%). In vivo, ADSCs pretreated with or without PRP were transplanted into murine models of injured articular cartilage. RESULTS:PRP promoted ADSC proliferation and differentiation into chondrogenic cells that strongly expressed collagen II, Sox9 and aggrecan. Moreover, PRP inhibited expression of the angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor. As a result, PRP-pretreated ADSCs improved healing of injured articular cartilage in murine models compared with that of untreated ADSCs. CONCLUSION:Pretreatment of ADSCs with PRP is a simple method to efficiently apply ADSCs in cartilage regeneration. This study provides an important step toward the use of autologous ADSCs in the treatment of injured articular cartilage.
Project description:Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are an attractive cell source for bone tissue engineering and have great potential for bone regeneration and defect repair. The transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) has been demonstrated to modulate osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. However, its roles during ADSC differentiation and therapeutic potentials for bone regeneration have as yet not been well established.TAZ expression was measured during osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs in vitro. Both loss-of-function and gain-of-function approaches by TAZ knockdown or enforced overexpression were utilized to determine its functions during osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs. TM-25659, a chemical activator of TAZ, was used to determine whether pharmacological activation of TAZ in ADSCs enhanced osteogenic differentiation in vitro and bone formation in animal models. The molecular mechanisms underlying TAZ in promoting osteogenesis of ADSCs were also explored.Increased TAZ expression was observed during osteogenic differentiation of human ADSCs. TAZ knockdown resulted in compromised osteogenic differentiation and enhanced adipogenic differentiation of ADSCs. In contrast, enforced TAZ overexpression yielded increased osteogenic differentiation and bone regeneration in vivo, and impaired adipogenic differentiation of ADSCs. Pharmacological activation of TAZ by its chemical activator TM-25659 facilitated osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs. Noticeably, transient treatment of ADSCs with TM-25659 or intraperitoneal injection of TM-25659 significantly enhanced bone regeneration of ADSCs loaded with porous ?-TCP in vivo. Mechanistically, TM-25659 exposure significantly promoted TAZ phosphorylation and nuclear translocation, and potentiated the assembly of the TAZ-Runx2 complex. Subsequently, the TAZ-Runx2 complex was further recruited to the promoter of osteocalcin and in turn enhanced its transcription.Our findings indicate that TAZ is a key mediator that promotes ADSC commitment to the osteoblast lineage. Pharmacological activation of TAZ in ADSCs might become a feasible and promising approach to enhance bone regeneration and repair.
Project description:Tissue engineering, based on a combination of 3D printing, biomaterials blending and stem cell technology, offers the potential to establish customized, transplantable autologous implants using a patient's own cells. Graphene, as a two-dimensional (2D) version of carbon, has shown great potential for tissue engineering. Here, we describe a novel combination of graphene with 3D printed alginate (Alg)-based scaffolds for human adipose stem cell (ADSC) support and osteogenic induction. Alg printing was enabled through addition of gelatin (Gel) that was removed after printing, and the 3D structure was then coated with graphene oxide (GO). GO was chemically reduced with a biocompatible reductant (ascorbic acid) to provide electrical conductivity and cell affinity sites. The reduced 3D graphene oxide (RGO)/Alg scaffold has good cytocompatibility and can support human ADSC proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. Our finding supports the potential for the printed scaffold's use for in vitro engineering of bone and other tissues using ADSCs and potentially other human stem cells, as well as in vivo regenerative medicine.
Project description:Human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are an attractive multipotent stem cell source with therapeutic applicability across diverse fields for the repair and regeneration of acute and chronically damaged tissues. In recent years, there has been increasing interest in ADSC for tissue engineering applications. However, the mechanisms underlying the regulation of ADSC proliferation are not fully understood. Here we show that 47 transcripts are up-regulated while 23 are down-regulated in ADSC compared to terminally differentiated cells based on global mRNA profiling and microRNA profiling. Among the up-regulated genes, the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is fine-tuned by miR-199a-5p. Further investigation indicates that VEGF accelerates ADSC proliferation whereas the multipotency of ADSC remains stable in terms of adipogenic, chondrogenic and osteogenic potentials after VEGF treatment, suggesting that VEGF may serve as an excellent supplement for accelerating ADSC proliferation during in vitro expansion.
Project description:Human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) can release exosomes; however, their specific functions remain elusive. In this study, we verified that exosomes derived from osteogenically differentiated ADSCs can promote osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs. Furthermore, in order to investigate the importance of exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) in osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs, we used microarray assays to analyze the expression profiles of exosomal miRNAs derived from undifferentiated as well as osteogenically differentiated ADSCs; 201 miRNAs were upregulated and 33 miRNAs were downregulated between the two types of exosomes. Additionally, bioinformatic analyses, which included gene ontology analyses, pathway analysis, and miRNA-mRNA-network investigations, were performed. The results of these analyses revealed that the differentially expressed exosomal miRNAs participate in multiple biological processes, such as gene expression, synthesis of biomolecules, cell development, differentiation, and signal transduction, among others. Moreover, we found that these differentially expressed exosomal miRNAs connect osteogenic differentiation to processes such as axon guidance, MAPK signaling, and Wnt signaling. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to identify and characterize exosomal miRNAs derived from osteogenically differentiated ADSCs. This study confirms that alterations in the expression of exosomal miRNAs can promote osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs, which also provides the foundation for further research on the regulatory functions of exosomal miRNAs in the context of ADSC osteogenesis.
Project description:Leydig cells (LCs) are the primary source of testosterone in the testis, and testosterone deficiency caused by LC functional degeneration can lead to male reproductive dysfunction. LC replacement transplantation is a very promising approach for this disease therapy. Here, we report that human adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) can be differentiated into Leydig-like cells using a novel differentiation method based on molecular compounds. The isolated human ADSCs expressed positive CD29, CD44, CD59 and CD105, negative CD34, CD45 and HLA-DR using flow cytometry, and had the capacity of adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation. ADSCs derived Leydig-like cells (ADSC-LCs) acquired testosterone synthesis capabilities, and positively expressed LC lineage-specific markers LHCGR, STAR, SCARB1, SF-1, CYP11A1, CYP17A1, HSD3B1 and HSD17B3 as well as negatively expressed ADSC specific markers CD29, CD44, CD59 and CD105. When ADSC-LCs labelled with lipophilic red dye (PKH26) were injected into rat testes which were selectively eliminated endogenous LCs using ethylene dimethanesulfonate (EDS, 75 mg/kg), the transplanted ADSC-LCs could survive and function in the interstitium of testes, and accelerate the recovery of blood testosterone levels and testis weights. These results demonstrated that ADSCs could be differentiated into Leydig-like cells by few defined molecular compounds, which might lay the foundation for further clinical application of ADSC-LC transplantation therapy.
Project description:Purpose:Electrospun scaffolds have been studied extensively for their potential use in bone tissue engineering. However, their hydrophobicity and relatively low matrix stiffness constrain their osteoinduction capacities. In the present study, we studied polymer electrospun scaffolds coated with hydrophilic hematite nanoparticles (αFeNPs) constructed using layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly to construct a bioactive interface between the scaffolds and cells, to improve the osteoinduction capacities of the scaffolds. Materials and methods:The morphology of the αFeNPs was assessed. Surface properties of the scaffolds were tested by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), surface water contact angle, and in vitro protein adsorption test. The stiffness of the coating was tested using an atomic force microscope (AFM). In vitro cell assays were performed using rat adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). Results:Morphology characterizations showed that αFeNPs assembled on the surface of the scaffold, where the nano assemblies improved hydrophilicity and increased surface roughness, with increased surface stiffness. Enhanced initial ADSC cell spread was found in the nano assembled groups. Significant enhancements in osteogenic differentiation, represented by enhanced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, elevated expression of osteogenic marker genes, and increased mineral synthesis by the seeded ADSCs, were detected. The influencing factors were attributed to the better hydrophilicity, rougher surface topography, and harder interface stiffness. In addition, the presence of nanoparticles was believed to provide better cell adhesion sites. Conclusion:The results suggested that the construction of a bioactive interface by LbL assembly using αFeNPs on traditional scaffolds should be a promising method for bone tissue engineering.