Association Between Contact Sports and Colonization with Staphylococcus aureus in a Prospective Cohort of Collegiate Athletes.
ABSTRACT: Athletes have a higher risk of infection with Staphylococcus aureus than the general population. Most studies in athletes have included primarily male contact sports participants and have not assessed S. aureus carriage over time. We aimed to examine the epidemiology and risk factors of S. aureus carriage in a cohort of male and female collegiate athletes.We conducted a prospective cohort study of 377 varsity collegiate athletes from August 2008 to April 2010. A baseline questionnaire ascertained risk factors for colonization. Nasal and oropharyngeal swabs were obtained at enrollment and monthly thereafter to detect S. aureus colonization. The primary outcome was S. aureus colonization, both with methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant S. aureus, as defined by bacterial culture and molecular confirmation. Secondary outcomes were time to colonization with S. aureus and carriage profile, defined as non-carrier, intermittent carrier, or persistent carrier.Overall, 224 contact sports and 153 non-contact sports athletes were enrolled. Contact sports athletes had a higher risk of carrying S. aureus over time: They had higher odds of being colonized with MRSA (OR 2.36; 95 % CI 1.13-4.93) and they tended to carry S. aureus for longer periods of time (intermittent carriage OR 3.60; 95 % CI 2.02-6.40; persistent carriage OR 2.39; 95 % CI 1.21-4.72). Athletes engaged in contact sports also acquired S. aureus more quickly (HR 1.61; 95 % CI 1.02-2.55).Staphylococcus aureus carriage was common in contact sports athletes. These findings suggest that efforts to prevent transmission of S. aureus among athletes should be focused on contact sports teams.
Project description:<h4>Context</h4>Although sport-related internal organ injuries among athletes are relatively infrequent, combining data sources enables a more comprehensive examination of their incidence.<h4>Objective</h4>To describe the incidence and characteristics of sport-related internal organ injuries due to direct-contact mechanisms among high school (HS) and collegiate athletes from 2005-2006 through 2014-2015.<h4>Design</h4>Descriptive epidemiology study.<h4>Setting</h4>United States HS and collegiate sports data from 3 national sports injury-surveillance systems: High School Reporting Information Online (HS RIO), the National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance Program (ISP), and the National Center for Catastrophic Sport Injury Research.<h4>Patients or other participants</h4>High school and collegiate athletes in organized sports.<h4>Main outcome measure(s)</h4>Characteristics of the athlete, event, and injury were examined and stratified by data source and sport. Descriptive statistics of internal organ injuries via direct-contact mechanisms consisted of frequencies and incidence rates (IRs) per 1?000?000 athlete-exposures and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).<h4>Results</h4>During the 10-year period, 174 internal organ injuries were captured: 124 in HS RIO and 41 in the ISP; 9 were catastrophic. Most noncatastrophic injuries occurred among males (RIO = 85%, ISP = 89%), in football (RIO = 65%, ISP = 58%), and during competitions (RIO = 67%, ISP = 49%) and were due to player-player contact (RIO = 78%, ISP = 68%). The highest injury rates were in male contact sports: RIO football (IR = 11.7; 95% CI = 9.1, 14.2) and lacrosse (IR = 10.0; 95% CI = 3.1, 16.9); ISP: football (IR = 8.3; 95% CI = 5.0, 11.6) and ice hockey (IR = 7.9; 95% CI = 1.0, 14.7). A quarter of noncatastrophic injuries were season ending (RIO = 25%, ISP = 23%). Of the 9 catastrophic injuries, most occurred in HS (7/9) and football (7/9) and were due to player-player contact (6/9). Four resulted in death.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Direct-contact internal organ injuries occur infrequently; yet when they do occur, they may result in severe outcomes. These findings suggest that early recognition and a better understanding of the activities associated with the event and use or nonuse of protective equipment are needed.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Staphylococcus aureus (SA) is a leading cause of infectious diseases in sports teams. In recent decades, community-associated SA (CA-SA) strains have emerged worldwide and have been responsible for outbreaks in sports teams. There are very few data on the prevalence of these strains in France, and none on the carriage among athletes. METHODS:We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the SA carriage proportion among athletes practicing sports at risk for CA-SA infection in a French county, and determined the methicillin-resistant and/or CA-SA proportion. We also analyzed SA carriage according to risks factors and studied the SA clonality in a sample of our population. RESULTS:We included 300 athletes; SA carriage proportion was 61% (n = 183) and one was MRSA carrier (0.33%). The MRSA strain belonged to the clonal complex ST5. None of the strain produced Panton Valentine Leucocidin, and we did not find clonal distribution within the teams. Interestingly, we found a high throat-only carriage (n = 57), 31.1% of the SA carriers. CONCLUSION:We found a high SA carriage with a local epidemiology quite different than that reported in a similar population in the USA. Further studies on SA carriage should include throat sampling. TRIAL REGISTRATION:The approved protocol was registered on ClinicalTrial.gov , NCT01148485.
Project description:Livestock-associated Staphylococcus aureus (LA-SA) has been documented worldwide. However, much remains unknown about LA-SA colonization and infection, especially in rural environments.We conducted a large-scale prospective study of 1342 Iowans, including individuals with livestock contact and a community-based comparison group. Nasal and throat swabs were collected to determine colonization at enrollment, and skin infection swabs over 17 months were assessed for S. aureus. Outcomes included carriage of S. aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), tetracycline-resistant S. aureus (TRSA), multidrug-resistant S. aureus (MDRSA), and LA-SA.Of 1342 participants, 351 (26.2%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 23.8%-28.6%) carried S. aureus. MRSA was isolated from 34 (2.5%; 95% CI, 1.8%-3.5%) and LA-SA from 131 (9.8%; 95% CI, 8.3%-11.5%) of the 1342 participants. Individuals with current swine exposure were significantly more likely to carry S. aureus (prevalence ratio [PR], 1.8; 95% CI, 1.4-2.2), TRSA (PR, 8.4; 95% CI, 5.6-12.6), MDRSA (PR, 6.1; 95% CI, 3.8-10.0), and LA-SA (PR, 5.8; 95% CI, 3.9-8.4) than those lacking exposure. Skin infections (n = 103) were reported from 67 individuals, yielding an incidence rate of 6.6 (95% CI, 4.9-8.9) per 1000 person-months.Current swine workers are 6 times more likely to carry MDRSA than those without current swine exposure. We observed active infections caused by LA-SA. This finding suggests that individuals with livestock contact may have a high prevalence of exposure to, and potentially infection with, antibiotic-resistant S. aureus strains, including LA-SA strains.
Project description:Although eye injuries constitute a small percentage of high school and college sports injuries, they have the potential to be permanently debilitating.Eye injury rates will vary by sport, sex, and between the high school and college age groups.Descriptive epidemiology study.Level 3.Data from eye injury reports in high school and college athletes were obtained from the National High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance System, High School Reporting Information Online (HS RIO) database over a 10-year span (2005-2006 through 2014-2015 school years) and the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Injury Surveillance Program (ISP) over an 11-year span (2004-2005 through 2014-2015 school years). Injury rates per 100,000 athlete-exposures (AEs), injury rate ratios (RRs), and 95% CIs were calculated. Distributions of eye injuries by diagnosis, mechanism, time loss, and surgery needs were also examined.A total of 237 and 273 eye injuries were reported in the HS RIO and the NCAA ISP databases, respectively. The sports with the highest eye injury rates (per 100,000 AEs) for combined high school and college athletes were women's basketball (2.36), women's field hockey (2.35), men's basketball (2.31), and men's wrestling (2.07). Overall eye injury rates at the high school and college levels were 0.68 and 1.84 per 100,000 AEs, respectively. Eye injury rates were higher in competition than practice in high school (RR, 3.47; 95% CI, 2.69-4.48) and college (RR, 3.13; 95% CI, 2.45-3.99). Most injuries were contusions (high school, 35.9%; college, 33.3%) and due to contact (high school, 89.9%; college, 86.4%). Only a small percentage of injuries resulted in time loss over 21 days (high school, 4.2%; college, 3.0%).Eye injury rates and patterns vary by sport, sex, and between the high school and college age groups. Although severe injuries do occur, most eye injuries sustained by high school and college athletes are minor, with limited time loss and full recovery.Additional focus needs to be placed on preventing eye injuries at the collegiate level in women's and men's basketball, women's field hockey, and men's wrestling.
Project description:The natural history of contemporary Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization was evaluated in community children during a 1-year period. Methicillin-susceptible S. aureus nasal carriage was more persistent than methicillin-resistant S. aureus nasal carriage, which was usually self-limited. Children with persistent staphylococcal colonization often carried identical strains. Identification of persistent methicillin-resistant S. aureus carriers might inform strategies for decolonization and reduction of staphylococcal transmission.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Infection by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Colonization by S. aureus increases the risk of infection. Little is known about decolonization strategies for S. aureus beyond antibiotics, however probiotics represent a promising alternative. A randomized controlled trial was conducted to determine the efficacy of Lactobacillus rhamnosus (L. rhamnosus) HN001 in reducing carriage of S. aureus at multiple body sites. METHODS:One hundred thirteen subjects, positive for S. aureus carriage, were recruited from the William S. Middleton Memorial Medical Center, Madison, WI, USA, and randomized by initial site of colonization, either gastrointestinal (GI) or extra-GI, to 4-weeks of oral L. rhamnosus HN001 probiotic, or placebo. Nasal, oropharyngeal, and axillary/groin swabs were obtained, and serial blood and fecal samples were collected. Differences in prevalence of S. aureus carriage at the end of the 4-weeks of treatment were assessed. RESULTS:The probiotic and placebo groups were similar in age, gender, and health history at baseline. S. aureus colonization within the stool samples of the extra-GI group was 15% lower in the probiotic than placebo group at the endpoint of the trial. Those in the probiotic group compared to the placebo group had 73% reduced odds (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.07-0.98) of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus presence, and 83% reduced odds (OR 0.17, 95% CI 0.04-0.73) of any S. aureus presence in the stool sample at endpoint. CONCLUSION:Use of daily oral L. rhamnosus HN001 reduced odds of carriage of S. aureus in the GI tract, however it did not eradicate S. aureus from other body sites. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01321606 . Registered March 21, 2011.
Project description:Medical laboratory staff are a high-risk population for colonization of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) due to direct and dense contact with the pathogens; however, there is limited information about this colonization. This study sought to determine the prevalence and molecular characteristics of nasal colonization by S. aureus in medical laboratory staff in Guangzhou, southern China, and to compare the differences between microbiological laboratory (MLS) and non-microbiological laboratory (NMLS) staff.S. aureus colonization was assessed by nasal swab cultures from 434 subjects, including 130 MLSs and 304 NMLSs from 33 hospitals in Guangzhou. All S. aureus isolates underwent the antimicrobial susceptibility test, virulence gene detection and molecular typing.The overall prevalence of S. aureus carriage was 20.1% (87/434), which was higher in MLSs than in NMLSs (26.2% vs. 17.4%, P?<?0.05), while the prevalence of Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was similar. Living with hospital staff was associated with S. aureus carriage. The majority of the isolates harboured various virulence genes, and those in MLSs appeared less resistant to antibiotics and more virulent than their counterparts. A total of 37 different spa types were detected; among these, t338, t437, t189 and t701 were the most frequently encountered types. T338 was the main spa type contributing to nasal colonization Methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) (13.0%), and t437-SCCmec IV was predominant in MRSA isolates (40%).These findings provide insight into the risk factors, molecular epidemiology and virulence gene profiles of S. aureus nasal carriage among the medical laboratory staff in Guangzhou.
Project description:Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage is a risk factor for subsequent infection. Estimates of colonization duration vary widely among studies, and factors influencing the time to loss of colonization, especially the impact of antibiotics, remain unclear. We conducted a prospective study on patients naive for S. aureus colonization in 4 French long-term-care facilities. Data on nasal colonization status and potential factors for loss of colonization were collected weekly. We estimated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) colonization durations using the Kaplan-Meier method and investigated factors for loss of colonization using shared-frailty Cox proportional hazards models. A total of 285 S. aureus colonization episodes were identified in 149 patients. The median time to loss of MRSA or MSSA colonization was 3 weeks (95% confidence interval, 2 to 8 weeks) or 2 weeks (95% confidence interval, 2 to 3 weeks), respectively. In multivariable analyses, the methicillin resistance phenotype was not associated with S. aureus colonization duration (P = 0.21); the use of fluoroquinolones (hazard ratio, 3.37; 95% confidence interval, 1.31 to 8.71) and having a wound positive for a nonnasal strain (hazard ratio, 2.17; 95% confidence interval, 1.15 to 4.07) were associated with earlier loss of MSSA colonization, while no factor was associated with loss of MRSA colonization. These results suggest that the methicillin resistance phenotype does not influence the S. aureus colonization duration and that fluoroquinolones are associated with loss of MSSA colonization but not with loss of MRSA colonization.
Project description:Investigations regarding Staphylococcus aureus carriage among Brazilian children are scarce. We evaluated the determinants of S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) nasal carriage in infants attending day care centers (DCCs) and the molecular features of the MRSA strains. A total of 1,192 children aged 2 months to 5 years attending 62 DCCs were screened for S. aureus and MRSA nasal carriage. MRSA isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multilocus sequence typing, spa typing, staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC) mec typing and the presence of the Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene. Logistic regression was performed to determine risk factors associated with S. aureus and MRSA colonization. S. aureus and MRSA carriage were detected in 371 (31.1%) and 14 (1.2%) children, respectively. Variables found to be independently associated with an increased risk for S. aureus carriage included being older than 24 months (odds ratio [OR], 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3 to 2.6) and previous DCC attendance (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.0 to 2.2). Having a mother with a high level of education was a protective factor for nasal colonization (OR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2 to 0.8). Moreover, we observed that more children carrying MRSA had younger siblings than children not colonized by MRSA. Among the 14 MRSA strains, three SCCmec types (IIIA, IV, and V) were detected, together with a multidrug-resistant dominant MRSA lineage sharing 82.7% genetic similarity with the Brazilian clone (ST239-MRSA-IIIA; ST indicates the sequence type determined by multilocus sequence typing). Although SCCmec type V was recovered from one healthy child who had been exposed to known risk factors for hospital-associated MRSA, its genetic background was compatible with community-related MRSA. Our data suggest that DCC attendees could be contributing to MRSA cross-transmission between health care and community settings.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Sport participation has many physical and psychosocial benefits, but there is also an inherent risk of injury, subsequent osteoarthritis and psychological challenges that can negatively impact quality of life (QOL). Considering the multifaceted impacts of sport participation on QOL across the lifespan, there is a need to consolidate and present the evidence on QOL in former sport participants. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate QOL and life satisfaction in former sport participants, and determine what factors are associated with QOL and life satisfaction in this population. METHODS:Eight electronic databases were systematically searched in July 2018 to retrieve all articles that evaluated QOL or life satisfaction in former sport participants. Two authors independently screened titles/abstracts and full texts, extracted data, and appraised methodological quality using a modified Downs and Black Checklist. Random-effects meta-analysis estimated pooled mean and 95% confidence intervals (Cis) for Mental Component Scores (MCS) and Physical Component Scores (PCS) derived from the SF-12, SF-36, VR-12 and VR-36 measures. MCS and PCS were pooled for all former sport participants, as well as professional- and collegiate-athlete subgroups. Data that were inappropriate for meta-analysis (i.e. EQ-5D, PROMIS and life-satisfaction outcomes) were collated and reported descriptively. RESULTS:Seventeen articles evaluated QOL or life satisfaction in a total of 6692 former athletes [eight studies (n?=?4255) former professional athletes; six studies (n?=?1946) former collegiate athletes; two studies (n?=?491) included both] with a mean age ranging from 21 to 66 years. Most studies were cross-sectional (15 of 17 articles) and 12 studies had a moderate risk of bias (n?=?1 high-risk, n?=?4 low-risk). Unpublished data were provided for five studies. Meta-analysis of seven studies resulted in a pooled PCS mean (95% CI) of 50.0 (46.6-53.3) [former professional athletes from two studies: 46.7 (42.1-51.2), former collegiate athletes from five studies: 51.2 (48.4-53.9)] and a pooled MCS of 51.4 (50.5-52.2) [former professional athletes: 52.7 (51.3-54.2), former collegiate athletes: 50.9 (50.0-51.8)]. Factors associated with worse QOL or life satisfaction in former athletes included involuntary retirement from sport (three studies), collision/high-contact sport compared with low/no-contact sport (three studies), three or more concussions compared with no/fewer concussions (two studies), increased body mass index (BMI) (worse PCS, three studies), and osteoarthritis or musculoskeletal issues (worse PCS and MCS, three studies; worse PCS but not MCS, two studies). CONCLUSIONS:Former athletes had similar PCS and better MCS, compared to general-population norms. Former athletes with impaired PCS reported better MCS than population norms, highlighting the need to use an instrument that differentiates between physical and mental components of QOL in former sport participants. Factors associated with worse QOL that may explain between-study variation include involuntary retirement, collision/high contact sports, concussion, BMI and osteoarthritis. PROSPERO:CRD42018104319.