Differential Binding of Three Major Human ADAR Isoforms to Coding and Long Non-Coding Transcripts.
ABSTRACT: RNA editing by deamination of adenosine to inosine is an evolutionarily conserved process involved in many cellular pathways, from alternative splicing to miRNA targeting. In humans, it is carried out by no less than three major adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs): ADAR1-p150, ADAR1-p110, and ADAR2. However, the first two derive from alternative splicing, so that it is currently impossible to delete ADAR1-p110 without also knocking out ADAR1-p150 expression. Furthermore, the expression levels of ADARs varies wildly among cell types, and no study has systematically explored the effect of each of these isoforms on the cell transcriptome. In this study, RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP)-sequencing on overexpressed ADAR isoforms tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP) shows that each ADAR is associated with a specific set of differentially expressed genes, and that they each bind to distinct set of RNA targets. Our results show a good overlap with known edited transcripts, establishing RIP-seq as a valid method for the investigation of RNA editing biology.
Project description:Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) catalyze the deamination of adenosine (A) to inosine (I). A-to-I RNA editing targets double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), and increases the complexity of gene regulation by modulating base pairing-dependent processes such as splicing, translation, and microRNA (miRNA)-mediated gene silencing. This study investigates the genome-wide binding preferences of the nuclear constitutive isoforms ADAR1-p110 and ADAR2 on human miRNA species by RNA immunoprecipitation of ADAR-bound small RNAs (RIP-seq). Our results suggest that secondary structure predicted by base-pairing probability in the mainly double-stranded region of a pre-miRNA or mature miRNA duplex may determine ADAR isoform preference for binding distinct subpopulations of miRNAs. Furthermore, we identify 31 unique editing sites with statistical significance, 19 sites of which are novel editing sites. Editing sites are enriched in the seed region responsible for target recognition by miRNAs, and isoform-specific nucleotide motifs in the immediate vicinity and opposite of editing sites are consistent with previous studies, and further reveal that ADAR2 may edit A/C bulges more frequently than ADAR1-p110 in the context of miRNA.
Project description:Long double-stranded RNA may undergo hyper-editing by adenosine deaminases that act on RNA (ADARs), where up to 50% of adenosine residues may be converted to inosine. However, although numerous RNAs may undergo hyper-editing, the role for inosine-containing hyper-edited double-stranded RNA in cells is poorly understood. Nevertheless, editing plays a critical role in mammalian cells, as highlighted by the analysis of ADAR-null mutants. In particular, the long form of ADAR1 (ADAR1(p150)) is essential for viability. Moreover, a number of studies have implicated ADAR1(p150) in various stress pathways. We have previously shown that ADAR1(p150) localized to cytoplasmic stress granules in HeLa cells following either oxidative or interferon-induced stress. Here, we show that the Z-DNA-binding domain (Z?(ADAR1)) exclusively found in ADAR1(p150) is required for its localization to stress granules. Moreover, we show that fusion of Z?(ADAR1) to either green fluorescent protein (GFP) or polypyrimidine binding protein 4 (PTB4) also results in their localization to stress granules. We additionally show that the Z? domain from other Z-DNA-binding proteins (ZBP1, E3L) is likewise sufficient for localization to stress granules. Finally, we show that Z-RNA or Z-DNA binding is important for stress granule localization. We have thus identified a novel role for Z-DNA-binding domains in mammalian cells.
Project description:Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) catalyze the C-6 deamination of adenosine (A) to produce inosine (I), which behaves as guanine (G), thereby altering base pairing in RNAs with double-stranded character. Two genes, adar1 and adar2, are known to encode enzymatically active ADARs in mammalian cells. Furthermore, two size forms of ADAR1 are expressed by alternative promoter usage, a short (p110) nuclear form that is constitutively made and a long (p150) form that is interferon inducible and present in both the cytoplasm and nucleus. ADAR2 is also a constitutively expressed nuclear protein. Extensive A-to-G substitution has been described in mouse polyomavirus (PyV) RNA isolated late times after infection, suggesting modification by ADAR. To test the role of ADAR in PyV infection, we used genetically null mouse embryo fibroblast cells deficient in either ADAR1 or ADAR2. The single-cycle yields and growth kinetics of PyV were comparable between adar1(-/-) and adar2(-/-) genetic null fibroblast cells. While large T antigen was expressed to higher levels in adar1(-/-) cells than adar2(-/-) cells, less difference was seen in VP1 protein expression levels between the two knockout MEFs. However, virus-induced cell killing was greatly enhanced in PyV-infected adar1(-/-) cells compared to that of adar2(-/-) cells. Complementation with p110 protected cells from PyV-induced cytotoxicity. UV-irradiated PyV did not display any enhanced cytopathic effect in adar1(-/-) cells. Reovirus and vesicular stomatitis virus single-cycle yields were comparable between adar1(-/-) and adar2(-/-) cells, and neither reovirus nor VSV showed enhanced cytotoxicity in adar1(-/-)-infected cells. These results suggest that ADAR1 plays a virus-selective role in the host response to infection.
Project description:The conversion of adenosine to inosine within RNA transcripts is regulated by a family of double-stranded RNA-specific adenosine deaminases referred to as adenosine deaminases that act on RNA (ADARs). Little is known regarding the developmental expression of ADAR family members or the mechanisms responsible for the specific patterns of editing observed for ADAR substrates. We have examined the spatiotemporal expression patterns for ADAR1 and ADAR2 in mouse forebrain. ADAR1 and ADAR2 are broadly distributed in most regions of the mouse forebrain by P0, including the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and diencephalon. High expression levels were maintained into adulthood. Colocalization studies demonstrated ADAR1 and ADAR2 expression in neurons but not astrocytes. Editing for specific ADAR mRNA targets precedes high expression of ADAR proteins, suggesting that region-specific differences in editing patterns may not be mediated solely by ADAR expression levels.
Project description:Mutations in ADAR, which encodes the ADAR1 RNA-editing enzyme, cause Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS), a severe autoimmune disease associated with an aberrant type I interferon response. How ADAR1 prevents autoimmunity remains incompletely defined. Here, we demonstrate that ADAR1 is a specific and essential negative regulator of the MDA5-MAVS RNA sensing pathway. Moreover, we uncovered a MDA5-MAVS-independent function for ADAR1 in the development of multiple organs. We showed that the p150 isoform of ADAR1 uniquely regulated the MDA5 pathway, whereas both the p150 and p110 isoforms contributed to development. Abrupt deletion of ADAR1 in adult mice revealed that both of these functions were required throughout life. Our findings delineate genetically separable roles for both ADAR1 isoforms in vivo, with implications for the human diseases caused by ADAR mutations.
Project description:Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) are enzymes that convert adenosine to inosine in duplex RNA, a modification that exhibits a multitude of effects on RNA structure and function. Recent studies have identified ADAR1 as a potential cancer therapeutic target. ADARs are also important in the development of directed RNA editing therapeutics. A comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanism of the ADAR reaction will advance efforts to develop ADAR inhibitors and new tools for directed RNA editing. Here we report the X-ray crystal structure of a fragment of human ADAR2 comprising its deaminase domain and double stranded RNA binding domain 2 (dsRBD2) bound to an RNA duplex as an asymmetric homodimer. We identified a highly conserved ADAR dimerization interface and validated the importance of these sequence elements on dimer formation via gel mobility shift assays and size exclusion chromatography. We also show that mutation in the dimerization interface inhibits editing in an RNA substrate-dependent manner for both ADAR1 and ADAR2.
Project description:Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing, catalyzed by Adenosine DeAminases acting on double-stranded RNA(dsRNA) (ADAR), occurs predominantly in the 3' untranslated regions (3'UTRs) of spliced mRNA. Here we uncover an unanticipated link between ADARs (ADAR1 and ADAR2) and the expression of target genes undergoing extensive 3'UTR editing. Using METTL7A (Methyltransferase Like 7A), a novel tumor suppressor gene with multiple editing sites at its 3'UTR, we demonstrate that its expression could be repressed by ADARs beyond their RNA editing and double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) binding functions. ADARs interact with Dicer to augment the processing of pre-miR-27a to mature miR-27a. Consequently, mature miR-27a targets the METTL7A 3'UTR to repress its expression level. In sum, our study unveils that the extensive 3'UTR editing of METTL7A is merely a footprint of ADAR binding, and there are a subset of target genes that are equivalently regulated by ADAR1 and ADAR2 through their non-canonical RNA editing and dsRNA binding-independent functions, albeit maybe less common. The functional significance of ADARs is much more diverse than previously appreciated and this gene regulatory function of ADARs is most likely to be of high biological importance beyond the best-studied editing function. This non-editing side of ADARs opens another door to target cancer.
Project description:Transcripts encoding ADAR1, a double-stranded, RNA-specific adenosine deaminase involved in the adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) editing of mammalian RNAs, can be alternatively spliced to produce an interferon-inducible protein isoform (p150) that is up-regulated in both cell culture and in vivo model systems in response to pathogen or interferon stimulation. In contrast to other tissues, p150 is expressed at extremely low levels in the brain and it is unclear what role, if any, this isoform may play in the innate immune response of the central nervous system (CNS) or whether the extent of editing for RNA substrates critical for CNS function is affected by its induction. To investigate the expression of ADAR1 isoforms in response to viral infection and subsequent alterations in A-to-I editing profiles for endogenous ADAR targets, we used a neurotropic strain of reovirus to infect neonatal mice and quantify A-to-I editing in discrete brain regions using a multiplexed, high-throughput sequencing strategy. While intracranial injection of reovirus resulted in a widespread increase in the expression of ADAR1 (p150) in multiple brain regions and peripheral organs, significant changes in site-specific A-to-I conversion were quite limited, suggesting that steady-state levels of p150 expression are not a primary determinant for modulating the extent of editing for numerous ADAR targets in vivo.
Project description:Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA-1 (ADAR1) involves adenosine to inosine RNA editing and microRNA processing. ADAR1 is known to be involved in the replication of various viruses, including hepatitis C and D. However, the role of ADAR1 in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has not yet been elucidated. Here, for the first time, we demonstrated ADAR1 antiviral activity against HBV. ADAR1 has two splicing isoforms in human hepatocytes: constitutive p110 protein and interferon-? (IFN-?)-responsive p150 protein. We found that overexpression of ADAR1 decreased HBV RNA in an HBV culture model. A catalytic-site mutant ADAR1 also decreased HBV RNA levels, whereas another adenosine deaminases that act on the RNA (ADAR) family protein, ADAR2, did not. Moreover, the induction of ADAR1 by stimulation with IFN-? also reduced HBV RNA levels. Decreases in endogenous ADAR1 expression by knock-down or knock-out increased HBV RNA levels. A major hepatocyte-specific microRNA, miRNA-122, was found to be positively correlated with ADAR1 expression, and exogenous miRNA-122 decreased both HBV RNA and DNA, whereas, conversely, transfection with a miRNA-122 inhibitor increased them. The reduction of HBV RNA by ADAR1 expression was abrogated by p53 knock-down, suggesting the involvement of p53 in the ADAR1-mediated reduction of HBV RNA. This study demonstrated, for the first time, that ADAR1 plays an antiviral role against HBV infection by increasing the level of miRNA-122 in hepatocytes.
Project description:Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) are best known for altering the coding sequences of mRNA through RNA editing, as in the GluR-B Q/R site. ADARs have also been shown to affect RNA interference (RNAi) and microRNA processing by deamination of specific adenosines to inosine. Here, we show that ADAR proteins can affect RNA processing independently of their enzymatic activity. We show that ADAR2 can modulate the processing of mir-376a2 independently of catalytic RNA editing activity. In addition, in a Drosophila assay for RNAi deaminase-inactive ADAR1 inhibits RNAi through the siRNA pathway. These results imply that ADAR1 and ADAR2 have biological functions as RNA-binding proteins that extend beyond editing per se and that even genomically encoded ADARs that are catalytically inactive may have such functions.