Disparities in receipt of 5As for smoking cessation in diverse primary care and HIV clinics.
ABSTRACT: Clinical practice guidelines recommend that clinicians implement the 5As (Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, and Arrange) for smoking cessation at every clinical encounter. We sought to examine the prevalence of patient- and clinician-reported 5As in two primary care and one HIV care clinics in San Francisco, California between August 2013 and March 2014 (n = 462 patients and n = 61 clinicians). We used multivariable logistic regression analysis to identify factors associated with receipt of the 5As, adjusting for patient demographics, patient insurance, clinic site, patient tobacco use, and patient comorbidities. The patient-reported prevalence of 5As receipt was as follows: Ask, 49.9%; Advise, 47.2%; Assess, 40.6%; any Assist, 44.9%; and Arrange, 22.4%. In multivariable analysis, receipt of Advise, Assess, and Assist were associated with older patient age. Whereas patients with HIV had a lower odds of reporting being advised (AOR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3-0.8) or assessed for readiness to quit (AOR 0.6, 95% CI 0.4-0.9), patients with pulmonary diseases had higher odds of reporting being assisted (AOR 1.6, 95% 1.0-2.6) than patients without these diagnoses. Although the majority of clinicians reported asking (91.8%), advising (91.8%), and assessing (93.4%) tobacco use 'most of the time' or 'always' during a clinical encounter, fewer reported assisting (65.7%) or arranging (19.7%) follow-up. Only half of patients reported being screened for tobacco use and fewer reported receipt of the other 5As, with significant disparities in receipt of the 5As among patients with HIV. Our findings confirm the need for interventions to increase clinician-delivered cessation treatment in primary and HIV care.
Project description:The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) found a reduction in lung cancer mortality among participants screened with low-dose computed tomography vs chest radiography. In February 2015, Medicare announced its decision to cover annual lung screening for patients with a significant smoking history. These guidelines promote smoking cessation treatment as an adjunct to screening, but the frequency and effectiveness of clinician-delivered smoking cessation interventions delivered after lung screening are unknown.To determine the association between the reported clinician-delivered 5As (ask, advise, assess, assist [talk about quitting or recommend stop-smoking medications or recommend counseling], and arrange follow-up) after lung screening and smoking behavior changes.A matched case-control study (cases were quitters and controls were continued smokers) of 3336 NLST participants who were smokers at enrollment examined participants' rates and patterns of 5A delivery after a lung screen and reported smoking cessation behaviors.Prevalence of the clinician-delivered 5As and associated smoking cessation after lung screening.Delivery of the 5As 1 year after screening were as follows: ask, 77.2%; advise, 75.6%; assess, 63.4%; assist, 56.4%; and arrange follow-up, 10.4%. Receipt of ask, advise, and assess was not significantly associated with quitting in multivariate models that adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, medical history, screening results, nicotine dependence, and motivation to quit. Assist was associated with a 40% increase in the odds of quitting (odds ratio, 1.40; 95% CI,?1.21-1.63), and arrange was associated with a 46% increase in the odds of quitting (odds ratio, 1.46; 95% CI,?1.19-1.79).Assist and arrange follow-up delivered by primary care providers to smokers who were participating in the NLST were associated with increased quitting; less intensive interventions (ask, advise, and assess) were not. However, rates of assist and arrange follow-up were relatively low. Our findings confirm the need for and benefit of clinicians taking more active intervention steps in helping patients who undergo screening to quit smoking.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Pregnancy is an opportunity for health providers to support women to stop smoking. OBJECTIVES:Identify the pooled prevalence for health providers in providing components of smoking cessation care to women who smoke during pregnancy. DESIGN:A systematic review synthesising original articles that reported on (1) prevalence of health providers' performing the 5As ('Ask', 'Advise', 'Assess', 'Assist', 'Arrange'), prescribing nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and (2) factors associated with smoking cessation care. DATA SOURCES:MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycINFO databases searched using 'smoking', 'pregnancy' and 'health provider practices'. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES:Studies included any design except interventions (self-report, audit, observed consultations and women's reports), in English, with no date restriction, up to June 2017. PARTICIPANTS:Health providers of any profession. DATA EXTRACTION, APPRAISAL AND ANALYSIS:Data were extracted, then appraised with the Hawker tool. Meta-analyses pooled percentages for performing each of the 5As and prescribing NRT, using, for example, 'often/always' and 'always/all'. Meta-regressions were performed of 5As for 'often/always'. RESULTS:Of 3933 papers, 54 were included (n=29?225 participants): 33 for meta-analysis. Health providers included general practitioners, obstetricians, midwives and others from 10 countries. Pooled percentages of studies reporting practices 'often/always' were: 'Ask' (n=9) 91.6% (95% CI 88.2% to 95%); 'Advise' (n=7) 90% (95% CI 72.5% to 99.3%), 'Assess' (n=3) 79.2% (95% CI 76.5% to 81.8%), 'Assist (cessation support)' (n=5) 59.1% (95% CI 56% to 62.2%), 'Arrange (referral)' (n=6) 33.3% (95% CI 20.4% to 46.2%) and 'prescribing NRT' (n=6) 25.4% (95% CI 12.8% to 38%). Heterogeneity (I2) was 95.9%-99.1%. Meta-regressions for 'Arrange' were significant for year (p=0.013) and country (p=0.037). CONCLUSIONS:Health providers 'Ask', 'Advise' and 'Assess' most pregnant women about smoking. 'Assist', 'Arrange' and 'prescribing NRT' are reported at lower rates: strategies to improve these should be considered. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER:CRD42015029989.
Project description:PURPOSE:The purpose of this study was to examine the incremental effect of performance coaching, delivered as part of a multicomponent intervention (Ottawa Model for Smoking Cessation [OMSC]), in increasing rates of tobacco-dependence treatment by primary care clinicians. METHODS:In a cluster-randomized controlled trial, 15 primary care practices were randomly assigned to 1 of the following active-treatment conditions: OMSC or OMSC plus performance coaching (OMSC+). All practices received support to implement the OMSC. In addition, clinicians in the OMSC+ group participated in a 1.5-hour skills-based coaching session and received an individualized performance report. All clinicians and a cross-sectional sample of their patients were surveyed before and 4 months after introduction of the interventions. The primary outcome measure was rates of tobacco-dependence treatment strategy (Ask, Advise, Assist, Arrange) delivery. Secondary outcomes were patient quit attempts and smoking abstinence measured at 6 months' follow-up. RESULTS:Primary care clinicians (166) and patients (1,990) were enrolled in the trial. Clinicians in the OMSC+ group had statistically greater rates of delivery for Ask (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.69; 95% CI, 1.05-2.72), Assist (AOR = 1.64; 95% CI, 1.08-2.49), and Arrange (AOR = 2.01; 95% CI, 1.22-3.31). Sensitivity analysis found that the rate of delivery for Advise was greater only among those clinicians who attended the coaching session (AOR = 1.65; 95% CI, 1.10-2.49; P = .02). No differences were documented between groups for cessation outcomes. CONCLUSIONS:Performance coaching significantly increased rates of tobacco-dependence treatment by primary care clinicians when delivered as part of a multicomponent intervention.
Project description:Limited time and lack of knowledge are barriers to physical activity counseling in primary care. The objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a clinician-targeted intervention that used the 5As (Ask, Advise, Agree, Assist, Arrange) approach to physical activity counseling in a medically underserved patient population.Family medicine clinicians at 2 community health centers were randomized to Group 1 or Group 2 intervention. Both clinician groups participated in 4 training sessions on the 5As for physical activity counseling; Group 2 training took place 8 months after Group 1 training. Both groups were trained to refer patients to a community exercise program. We used a pre-post analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention on clinician use of 5As. Eligible patients (n = 319) rated their clinicians' counseling skills by using a modified Physical Activity Exit Interview (PAEI) survey. Clinicians (n = 10) self-assessed their use of the 5As through a survey and interviews.Both patient and clinician groups had similar sociodemographic characteristics. The PAEI score for both groups combined increased from 6.9 to 8.6 (on a scale of 0-15) from baseline to immediately postintervention (P = .01) and was 8.2 (P = .09) at 6-month follow-up; most of the improvement in PAEI score was due to increased use of 5As skills by Group 2 clinicians. Group 1 reported difficulty with problem solving, whereas Group 2 reported ease of referral to the community exercise program.A clinician training intervention showed mixed results for 5As physical activity counseling.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Smoking is the most important preventable cause of adverse pregnancy outcomes, but provision of smoking cessation support (SCS) to pregnant women is poor. We examined the association between midwives' implementation of SCS (5As - Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, Arrange follow-up) and reported barriers/enablers to implementation. METHODS:On-line anonymous survey of midwives providing antenatal care in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, assessing provision of the 5As and barriers/enablers to their implementation, using the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF). Factor analyses identified constructs underlying the 5As; and barriers/enablers. Multivariate general linear models examined relationships between the barrier/enabler factors and the 5As factors. RESULTS:Of 750 midwives invited, 150 (20%) participated. Respondents more commonly reported Asking and Assessing than Advising, Assisting, or Arranging follow-up (e.g. 77% always Ask smoking status; 17% always Arrange follow-up). Three 5As factors were identified- 'Helping', 'Assessing quitting' and 'Assessing dependence'. Responses to barrier/enabler items showed greater knowledge, skills, intentions, and confidence with Assessment than Assisting; endorsement for SCS as a priority and part of midwives' professional role; and gaps in training and organisational support for SCS. Nine barrier/enabler factors were identified. Of these, the factors of 'Capability' (knowledge, skills, confidence); 'Work Environment' (service has resources, capacity, champions and values SCS) and 'Personal priority' (part of role and a priority) predicted 'Helping'. CONCLUSION:The TDF enabled systematic identification of barriers to providing SCS, and the multivariate models identified key contributors to poor implementation. Combined with qualitative data, these results have been mapped to intervention components to develop a comprehensive intervention to improve SCS.
Project description:Government regulations have created new incentives for health systems to implement changes in electronic health records (EHRs) to reduce tobacco use among patients. The purpose of this study is to conduct a content analysis of EHR modifications aimed at supporting tobacco cessation and to document these modifications using a 5 A's framework (i.e., Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, Arrange). Fourteen trials were identified that met inclusion criteria. A content analysis of EHR functionality in these trials was conducted by two independent reviewers between February and June 2015. For "Ask," all trials provided for the documentation of smoking status in the EHR. For "Advise," 35.7 % of EHRs provided functionality related to helping a clinician provide advice to quit. For "Assess," more than half (57.1 %) of EHRs included a feature to document a patient's willingness to quit. For "Assist," EHRs offered features for medication prescribing (78.6 %), providing educational materials to patients (57.1 %), referring a patient to the quitline (50.0 %), referring a patient to a tobacco treatment specialist (42.9 %), and documenting the provision of counseling (35.7 %). Finally, for "Arrange," EHRs supported the following up of patients (35.7 %) and allowed tobacco treatment specialists to "pass back" patient notes to primary care providers (28.6 %). Studies that have modified EHRs for tobacco treatment have done so across the steps in the 5 As model, with most modifications occurring to support documenting smoking status (Ask) and assisting with medication prescribing (Assist). As health systems attempt to comply with Meaningful Use regulations, an understanding of the range of EHR modifications to support tobacco treatment is warranted.
Project description:Tobacco dependence counseling is recommended to be included as core curriculum for US medical students. To date, there has been little information on students' self-reported skills and practice opportunities to provide 5A's (Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, and Arrange) counseling for tobacco cessation.We conducted anonymous surveys of second year and fourth year students at multiple US medical schools between February 2004 and March 2005 (overall response rate 70%). We report on the tobacco control practices of the 860 second year and 827 fourth year students completing the survey.Fourth year students reported multiple opportunities to learn tobacco counseling in case-based discussions, simulated patient encounters, and clinical skills courses. They reported more instruction in family medicine (79%) and Internal Medicine (70%) than Pediatrics (54%), Obstetrics/Gynecology (41%), and Surgery clerkships (16%). Compared with asking patients about smoking, advising smokers to quit, and assessing patient willingness to quit, fourth year students were less likely to have multiple practice opportunities to assist the patient with a quit plan and arrange follow-up contact. More than half of second year students reported multiple opportunities for asking patients about smoking but far fewer opportunities for practicing the other 4 As.By the beginning of their fourth year, most students in this group of medical schools reported multiple opportunities for training and practicing basic 5A counseling, although clear deficits for assisting patients with a quit plan and arranging follow-up care exist. Addressing these deficits and integrating tobacco teaching through tailored specific instruction across all clerkships, particularly in Surgery, Pediatrics, and Obstetrics/Gynecology is a challenge for medical school education.
Project description:Background: Smoke-free hospital policies are becoming increasingly common to promote good health and quit attempts among patients who smoke. This study aims to assess: staff perceived enforcement and compliance with smoke-free policy; the current provision of smoking cessation care; and the characteristics of staff most likely to report provision of care to patients. Methods: An online cross-sectional survey of medical, nursing, and allied staff from two Australian public hospitals was conducted. Staff report of: patient and staff compliance with smoke-free policy; perceived policy enforcement; the provision of the 5As for smoking cessation (Ask, Assess, Advise, Assist, and Arrange follow-up); and the provision of stop-smoking medication are described. Logistic regressions were used to determine respondent characteristics related to the provision of the 5As and stop-smoking medication use during hospital admission. Results: A total of 805 respondents participated. Self-reported enforcement of smoke-free policy was low (60.9%), together with compliance for both patients (12.9%) and staff (23.6%). The provision of smoking cessation care was variable, with the delivery of the 5As ranging from 74.7% (ask) to 18.1% (arrange follow-up). Medical staff (odds ratio (OR) = 2.09, CI = 1.13, 3.85, p = 0.018) and full time employees (OR = 2.03, CI = 1.06, 3.89, p = 0.033) were more likely to provide smoking cessation care always/most of the time. Stop-smoking medication provision decreased with increasing age of staff (OR = 0.98, CI = 0.96, 0.99, p = 0.008). Conclusions: Smoke-free policy enforcement and compliance and the provision of smoking cessation care remains low in hospitals. Efforts to improve smoking cessation delivery by clinical staff are warranted.
Project description:Tobacco consumption is a risk factor for chronic diseases and worldwide around six million people die from long-term exposure to first- or second-hand smoke annually. One effective approach to tobacco control is smoking cessation counseling by primary care physicians. However, research suggests that smoking cessation counseling is not sufficiently implemented in primary care. In order to understand and address the discrepancy between evidence and practice, an overview of counseling practices is needed. Therefore, the aim of this systematic literature review is to assess the frequency of smoking cessation counseling in primary care. Self-reported counseling behavior by physicians is categorized according to the 5A's strategy (ask, advise, assess, assist, arrange). An electronic database search was performed in Embase, Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library and overall, 3491 records were identified. After duplicates were removed, the title and abstracts of 2468 articles were screened for eligibility according to inclusion/exclusion criteria. The remaining 97 full-text articles reporting smoking cessation counseling by primary care physicians were assessed for eligibility. Eligible studies were those that measured physicians' self-reported smoking cessation counseling activities via questionnaire. Thirty-five articles were included in the final review (1 intervention and 34 cross-sectional studies). On average, behavior corresponding to the 5A's was reported by 65% of physicians for "Ask", 63% for "Advise", 36% for "Assess", 44% for "Assist", and 22% of physicians for "Arrange", although the measurement and reporting of each of these counseling practices varied across studies. Overall, the results indicate that the first strategies (ask, advise) were more frequently reported than the subsequent strategies (assess, assist, arrange). Moreover, there was considerable variation in the items used to assess counseling behaviour and developing a standardized instrument to assess the counseling strategies implemented in primary care would help to identify and address current gaps in practice.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Although evidence-based, the 5A's (Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, and Arrange) for smoking cessation are often incompletely delivered by primary care providers. This study examines whether a computer tablet 5A's intervention improves primary care provider adherence to the 5A's. STUDY DESIGN:Cluster RCT. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS:All primary care providers in three urban, adult primary care clinics were randomized for participation. Any English- or Spanish-speaking patient with a primary care appointment who had smoked >100 lifetime cigarettes and at least one cigarette in the past week was eligible. INTERVENTION:A cluster RCT comparing computer-facilitated 5A's with usual care assessed effects on provider adherence to each of the 5A's as determined by patient report. Intervention subjects used a computer tablet to complete the 5A's immediately before a primary care appointment. A tailored, patient handout and a structured, clinician guide were generated. Data were collected in 2014-2015 and analyzed in 2016-2017. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Provider adherence to the 5A's. RESULTS:Providers (N=221) saw 961 patients (n=412 intervention, n=549 control) for a total of n=1,340 encounters with n=1,011 completed post-visit interviews (75.4% completion). Intervention providers had significantly higher odds of completing Assess (AOR=1.32, 95% CI=1.02, 1.73) and Assist (AOR=1.45, 95% CI=1.08, 1.94). When looking at first study visits only, intervention providers had higher odds for Arrange (AOR=1.72, 95% CI=1.23, 2.40) and all 5A's (AOR=2.04, 95% CI=1.35, 3.07) but study visit did not influence receipt of the other 5A's. CONCLUSIONS:A computer-facilitated 5A's delivery model was effective in improving the fidelity of provider-delivered 5A's to diverse primary care patients. This relatively low-cost, time-saving intervention has great potential for smoking cessation and other health behaviors. Future studies should identify ways to promote and sustain technology implementation. TRIAL REGISTRATION:This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT02046408.