Polypyrimidine Tract-Binding Protein 1 promotes proliferation, migration and invasion in clear-cell renal cell carcinoma by regulating alternative splicing of PKM.
ABSTRACT: Polypyrimidine Tract-Binding Protein 1 (PTBP1) is an essential RNA-binding protein that regulates diverse biological events through regulating alternative splice of mRNA. PTBP1 induces cancer-promoting splice variants and is related to tumorigenesis in several cancers. However, both the expression patterns and biological mechanisms of PTBP1 in clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) are unclear. We investigated PTBP1 expression in 533 ccRCC patients from TCGA and 30 ccRCC patients by immunohistochemistry, and found that PTBP1 expression levels were significantly increased in ccRCC tissues and that high PTBP1 expression was closely correlated with advanced tumor stage, AJCC stage and poor prognosis. Cell biological assays with siRNA-mediated knockdown and lentivirus vector-mediated over-expression demonstrated that PTBP1 promoted proliferation, migration and invasion in ccRCC cells in vitro. Furthermore, PTBP1 increased the transformation from pyruvate kinase muscle 1 (PKM1) to PKM2. Knockdown of PKM2 mainly abolished PTBP1-induced proliferation, migration and invasion in ccRCC cells in vitro. In conclusion, our study indicates that PTBP1 plays a tumorigenic role in ccRCC by mediating PKM2 alternative splicing and it may be a potential prognostic marker and a promising target for treatment of ccRCC.
Project description:Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an aggressive and incurable disease. Poor prognosis is due to multiple reasons, including acquisition of resistance to gemcitabine, the first-line chemotherapeutic approach. Thus, there is a strong need for novel therapies, targeting more directly the molecular aberrations of this disease. We found that chronic exposure of PDAC cells to gemcitabine selected a subpopulation of cells that are drug-resistant (DR-PDAC cells). Importantly, alternative splicing (AS) of the pyruvate kinase gene (PKM) was differentially modulated in DR-PDAC cells, resulting in promotion of the cancer-related PKM2 isoform, whose high expression also correlated with shorter recurrence-free survival in PDAC patients. Switching PKM splicing by antisense oligonucleotides to favor the alternative PKM1 variant rescued sensitivity of DR-PDAC cells to gemcitabine and cisplatin, suggesting that PKM2 expression is required to withstand drug-induced genotoxic stress. Mechanistically, upregulation of the polypyrimidine-tract binding protein (PTBP1), a key modulator of PKM splicing, correlated with PKM2 expression in DR-PDAC cell lines. PTBP1 was recruited more efficiently to PKM pre-mRNA in DR- than in parental PDAC cells. Accordingly, knockdown of PTBP1 in DR-PDAC cells reduced its recruitment to the PKM pre-mRNA, promoted splicing of the PKM1 variant and abolished drug resistance. Thus, chronic exposure to gemcitabine leads to upregulation of PTBP1 and modulation of PKM AS in PDAC cells, conferring resistance to the drug. These findings point to PKM2 and PTBP1 as new potential therapeutic targets to improve response of PDAC to chemotherapy.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Highly proliferating cancer cells exhibit the Warburg effect by regulation of PKM alternative splicing and promoting the expression of PKM2. Majority of the alternative splicing events are known to occur in the nuclear matrix where various MARBPs actively participate in the alternative splicing events. SMAR1, being a MARBP and an important tumor suppressor, is known to regulate the splicing of various cancer-associated genes. This study focuses on the regulation of PKM alternative splicing and inhibition of the Warburg effect by SMAR1.<h4>Methods</h4>Immunohistochemistry was performed in breast cancer patient samples to establish the correlation between SMAR1 and PKM isoform expression. Further, expression of PKM isoforms upon modulation in SMAR1 expression in breast cancer cell lines was quantified by qRT-PCR and western blot. The acetylation status of PTBP1 was estimated by immunoprecipitation along with its enrichment on PKM pre-mRNA by CLIP in SMAR1 knockdown conditions. The role of SMAR1 in tumor metabolism and tumorigenesis was explored by in vitro enzymatic assays and functional assays upon SMAR1 knockdown. Besides, in vivo tumor formation by injecting adeno-SMAR1-transduced MDA-MB-231 cells in NOD/SCID mice was performed.<h4>Results</h4>The expression profile of SMAR1 and PKM isoforms in breast cancer patients revealed that SMAR1 has an inverse correlation with PKM2 and a positive correlation with PKM1. Further quantitative PKM isoform expression upon modulation in SMAR1 expression also reflects that SMAR1 promotes the expression of PKM1 over tumorigenic isoform PKM2. SMAR1 deacetylates PTBP1 via recruitment of HDAC6 resulting in reduced enrichment of PTBP1 on PKM pre-mRNA. SMAR1 inhibits the Warburg effect, tumorigenic potential of cancer cells, and in vivo tumor generation in a PKM2-dependent manner.<h4>Conclusions</h4>SMAR1 regulates PKM alternative splicing by causing HDAC6-dependent deacetylation of PTBP1, resulting in reduced enrichment of PTBP1 on PKM pre-mRNA. Additionally, SMAR1 suppresses glucose utilization and lactate production via repression of PKM2 expression. This suggests that tumor suppressor SMAR1 inhibits tumor cell metabolism and tumorigenic properties of cancer cells via regulation of PKM alternative splicing.
Project description:BACKGROUND:An emerging metabolic theory of pulmonary hypertension (PH) suggests that cellular and mitochondrial metabolic dysfunction underlies the pathology of this disease. We and others have previously demonstrated the existence of hyperproliferative, apoptosis-resistant, proinflammatory adventitial fibroblasts from human and bovine hypertensive pulmonary arterial walls (PH-Fibs) that exhibit constitutive reprogramming of glycolytic and mitochondrial metabolism, accompanied by an increased ratio of glucose catabolism through glycolysis versus the tricarboxylic acid cycle. However, the mechanisms responsible for these metabolic alterations in PH-Fibs remain unknown. We hypothesized that in PH-Fibs microRNA-124 (miR-124) regulates PTBP1 (polypyrimidine tract binding protein 1) expression to control alternative splicing of pyruvate kinase muscle (PKM) isoforms 1 and 2, resulting in an increased PKM2/PKM1 ratio, which promotes glycolysis and proliferation even in aerobic environments. METHODS:Pulmonary adventitial fibroblasts were isolated from calves and humans with severe PH (PH-Fibs) and from normal subjects. PTBP1 gene knockdown was achieved via PTBP1-siRNA; restoration of miR-124 was performed with miR-124 mimic. TEPP-46 and shikonin were used to manipulate PKM2 glycolytic function. Histone deacetylase inhibitors were used to treat cells. Metabolic products were determined by mass spectrometry-based metabolomics analyses, and mitochondrial function was analyzed by confocal microscopy and spectrofluorometry. RESULTS:We detected an increased PKM2/PKM1 ratio in PH-Fibs compared with normal subjects. PKM2 inhibition reversed the glycolytic status of PH-Fibs, decreased their cell proliferation, and attenuated macrophage interleukin-1? expression. Furthermore, normalizing the PKM2/PKM1 ratio in PH-Fibs by miR-124 overexpression or PTBP1 knockdown reversed the glycolytic phenotype (decreased the production of glycolytic intermediates and byproducts, ie, lactate), rescued mitochondrial reprogramming, and decreased cell proliferation. Pharmacological manipulation of PKM2 activity with TEPP-46 and shikonin or treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitors produced similar results. CONCLUSIONS:In PH, miR-124, through the alternative splicing factor PTBP1, regulates the PKM2/PKM1 ratio, the overall metabolic, proliferative, and inflammatory state of cells. This PH phenotype can be rescued with interventions at various levels of the metabolic cascade. These findings suggest a more integrated view of vascular cell metabolism, which may open unique therapeutic prospects in targeting the dynamic glycolytic and mitochondrial interactions and between mesenchymal inflammatory cells in PH.
Project description:The metabolism in tumor cells shifts from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis even in an aerobic environment. This phenomenon is known as the Warburg effect. This effect is regulated mainly by polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 1 (PTBP1), which is a splicer of the mRNA for the rate-limiting enzymes of glycolysis, pyruvate kinase muscle 1 and 2 (PKM1 and PKM2). In the present study, we demonstrated that miR-133b reduced PTBP1 expression at translational level and that the expression levels of miR-133b were significantly downregulated in gastric cancer clinical samples and human cell lines, whereas the protein expression level of PTBP1 was upregulated in 80% of the 20 clinical samples of gastric cancer examined. Ectopic expression of miR-133b and knockdown of PTBP1 in gastric cancer cells inhibited cell proliferation through the induction of autophagy by the switching of PKM isoform expression from PKM2-dominant to PKM1-dominant. The growth inhibition was partially canceled by an autophagy inhibitor 3-MA or a reactive oxygen species scavenger N-acetylcysteine. These findings indicated that miR-133b acted as a tumor-suppressor through negative regulation of the Warburg effect in gastric cancer cells.
Project description:Serine and arginine rich splicing factor 3 (SRSF3), an SR-rich family protein, has an oncogenic function in various kinds of cancer. However, the detailed mechanism of the function had not been previously clarified. Here, we showed that the SRSF3 splicer regulated the expression profile of the pyruvate kinase, which is one of the rate-limiting enzymes in glycolysis. Most cancer cells express pyruvate kinase muscle 2 (PKM2) dominantly to maintain a glycolysis-dominant energy metabolism. Overexpression of SRSF3, as well as that of another splicer, polypyrimidine tract binding protein 1 (PTBP1) and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNPA1), in clinical cancer samples supported the notion that these proteins decreased the Pyruvate kinase muscle 1 (PKM1)/PKM2 ratio, which positively contributed to a glycolysis-dominant metabolism. The silencing of <i>SRSF3</i> in human colon cancer cells induced a marked growth inhibition in both in vitro and in vivo experiments and caused an increase in the PKM1/PKM2 ratio, thus resulting in a metabolic shift from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation. At the same time, the silenced cells were induced to undergo autophagy. SRSF3 contributed to PKM mRNA splicing by co-operating with PTBP1 and hnRNPA1, which was validated by the results of RNP immunoprecipitation (RIP) and immunoprecipitation (IP) experiments. These findings altogether indicated that SRSF3 as a <i>PKM</i> splicer played a positive role in cancer-specific energy metabolism.
Project description:The M2 isoform of pyruvate kinase (PKM2) plays an important role in aerobic glycolysis and is a mediator of the Warburg effect in tumors. It was previously thought that tumor cells switch expression of PKM from normal tissue-expressed PKM1 to tumor-specific PKM2 via an alternative splicing mechanism. This view was challenged by a recent report demonstrating that PKM2 is already the major PKM isoform expressed in many differentiated normal tissues. Here, through analyses on sixteen tumor types using the cancer genome atlas RNA-Seq and exon array datasets, we confirmed that isoform switch from PKM1 to PKM2 occurred in glioblastomas but not in other tumor types examined. Despite lacking of isoform switches, PKM2 expression was found to be increased in all cancer types examined, and correlated strongly to poor prognosis in head and neck cancers. We further demonstrated that elevated PKM2 expression correlated well with the hypomethylation status of intron 1 of the PKM gene in multiple cancer types, suggesting epigenetic regulation by DNA methylation as a major mechanism in controlling PKM transcription in tumors. Our study suggests that isoform switch of PKM1 to PKM2 in cancers is tissue-specific and targeting PKM2 activity in tumors remains a promising approach for clinical intervention of multiple cancer types.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by abnormal growth and enhanced glycolysis of pulmonary artery endothelial cells. However, the mechanisms underlying alterations in energy production have not been identified. METHODS:Here, we examined the miRNA and proteomic profiles of blood outgrowth endothelial cells (BOECs) from patients with heritable PAH caused by mutations in the bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2 (BMPR2) gene and patients with idiopathic PAH to determine mechanisms underlying abnormal endothelial glycolysis. We hypothesized that in BOECs from patients with PAH, the downregulation of microRNA-124 (miR-124), determined with a tiered systems biology approach, is responsible for increased expression of the splicing factor PTBP1 (polypyrimidine tract binding protein), resulting in alternative splicing of pyruvate kinase muscle isoforms 1 and 2 (PKM1 and 2) and consequently increased PKM2 expression. We questioned whether this alternative regulation plays a critical role in the hyperglycolytic phenotype of PAH endothelial cells. RESULTS:Heritable PAH and idiopathic PAH BOECs recapitulated the metabolic abnormalities observed in pulmonary artery endothelial cells from patients with idiopathic PAH, confirming a switch from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis. Overexpression of miR-124 or siRNA silencing of PTPB1 restored normal proliferation and glycolysis in heritable PAH BOECs, corrected the dysregulation of glycolytic genes and lactate production, and partially restored mitochondrial respiration. BMPR2 knockdown in control BOECs reduced the expression of miR-124, increased PTPB1, and enhanced glycolysis. Moreover, we observed reduced miR-124, increased PTPB1 and PKM2 expression, and significant dysregulation of glycolytic genes in the rat SUGEN-hypoxia model of severe PAH, characterized by reduced BMPR2 expression and endothelial hyperproliferation, supporting the relevance of this mechanism in vivo. CONCLUSIONS:Pulmonary vascular and circulating progenitor endothelial cells isolated from patients with PAH demonstrate downregulation of miR-124, leading to the metabolic and proliferative abnormalities in PAH ECs via PTPB1 and PKM1/PKM2. Therefore, the manipulation of this miRNA or its targets could represent a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of PAH.
Project description:Understanding of the microRNAs (miRNAs) regulatory system has become indispensable for physiological/oncological research. Tissue and organ specificities are key features of miRNAs that should be accounted for in cancer research. Further, cancer-specific energy metabolism, referred to as the Warburg effect, has been positioned as a key cancer feature. Enhancement of the glycolysis pathway in cancer cells is what primarily characterizes the Warburg effect. Pyruvate kinase M1/2 (PKM1/2) are key molecules of the complex glycolytic system; their distribution is organ-specific. In fact, PKM2 overexpression has been detected in various cancer cells. PKM isoforms are generated by alternative splicing by heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins. In addition, polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 1 (PTBP1) is essential for the production of PKM2 in cancer cells. Recently, several studies focusing on non-coding RNA elucidated PTBP1 or PKM2 regulatory mechanisms, including control by miRNAs, and their association with cancer. In this review, we discuss the strong relationship between the organ-specific distribution of miRNAs and the expression of PKM in the context of PTBP1 gene regulation. Moreover, we focus on the impact of PTBP1-targeting miRNA dysregulation on the Warburg effect.
Project description:It is known that pyruvate kinase in muscle (PKM), which is a rate-limiting glycolytic enzyme, has essential roles in the Warburg effect and that expression of cancer-dominant PKM2 is increased by polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 1 (PTBP1), which is a splicer of the PKM gene. In other words, PKM2 acts as a promoter of the Warburg effect. Previously, we demonstrated that the Warburg effect was partially established by down-regulation of several microRNAs (miRs) that bind to PTBP1 and that ectopic expression of these miRs suppressed the Warburg effect. In this study, we investigated the functions of miR-1 and -133b, which are well known as muscle-specific miRs, from the viewpoint of the Warburg effect in colorectal tumors. The expression levels of miR-1 and -133b were relatively high in colon tissue except muscle and very frequently down-regulated in 75 clinical colorectal tumors samples, even in adenomas, compared with those of the adjacent normal tissue samples. The ectopic expression of these miRs induced growth suppression and autophagic cell death through the switching of PKM isoform expression from PKM2 to PKM1 by silencing PTBP1 expression both in vitro and in vivo. Also, we showed that the resultant increase in the intracellular level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was involved in this mechanism. Furthermore, PTBP1 was highly expressed in most of the 30 clinical colorectal tumor samples examined, even in adenomas. Our results suggested that PTBP1 and PTBP1-associated miR-1 and -133b are crucial molecules for the maintenance of the Warburg effect in colorectal tumors.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The deregulated alternative splicing of key glycolytic enzyme, Pyruvate Kinase muscle isoenzyme (PKM) is implicated in metabolic adaptation of cancer cells. The splicing switch from normal PKM1 to cancer-specific PKM2 isoform allows the cancer cells to meet their energy and biosynthetic demands, thereby facilitating the cancer cells growth. We have investigated the largely unexplored epigenetic mechanism of PKM splicing switch in head and neck cancer (HNC) cells. Considering the reversible nature of epigenetic marks, we have also examined the utility of dietary-phytochemical in reverting the splicing switch from PKM2 to PKM1 isoform and thereby inhibition of HNC tumorigenesis.<h4>Methods</h4>We present HNC-patients samples, showing the splicing-switch from PKM1-isoform to PKM2-isoform analyzed via immunoblotting and qRT-PCR. We performed methylated-DNA-immunoprecipitation to examine the DNA methylation level and chromatin-immunoprecipitation to assess the BORIS (Brother of Regulator of Imprinted Sites) recruitment and polII enrichment. The effect of dietary-phytochemical on the activity of denovo-DNA-methyltransferase-3b (DNMT3B) was detected by DNA-methyltransferase-activity assay. We also analyzed the Warburg effect and growth inhibition using lactate, glucose uptake assay, invasion assay, cell proliferation, and apoptosis assay. The global change in transcriptome upon dietary-phytochemical treatment was assayed using Human Transcriptome Array 2.0 (HTA2.0).<h4>Results</h4>Here, we report the role of DNA-methylation mediated recruitment of the BORIS at exon-10 of PKM-gene regulating the alternative-splicing to generate the PKM2-splice-isoform in HNC. Notably, the reversal of Warburg effect was achieved by employing a dietary-phytochemical, which inhibits the DNMT3B, resulting in the reduced DNA-methylation at exon-10 and hence, PKM-splicing switch from cancer-specific PKM2 to normal PKM1. Global-transcriptome-analysis of dietary-phytochemical-treated cells revealed its effect on alternative splicing of various genes involved in HNC.<h4>Conclusion</h4>This study identifies the epigenetic mechanism of PKM-splicing switch in HNC and reports the role of dietary-phytochemical in reverting the splicing switch from cancer-specific PKM2 to normal PKM1-isoform and hence the reduced Warburg effect and growth inhibition of HNC. We envisage that this approach can provide an effective way to modulate cancer-specific-splicing and thereby aid in the treatment of HNC.