RNF146 Inhibits Excessive Autophagy by Modulating the Wnt-?-Catenin Pathway in Glutamate Excitotoxicity Injury.
ABSTRACT: Glutamate induced excitotoxicity is common in diverse neurological disorders. RNF146 as an E3 ubiquitin ligase protects neurons against excitotoxicity via interfering with Poly (ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymer-induced cell death (parthanatos). However, the neuroprotective role of RNF146 has not been fully understood. We aimed to investigate the role of RNF146 in modulating autophagy in HT22 cells under glutamate excitotoxicity injury. Here we found that induction of RNF146 decreased the cellular damage and excitotoxicity induced by glutamate. RNF146 also suppressed the excessive autophagy, which is detrimental to HT22 cells survival, induced by glutamate or rapamycin treatment. In addition, we find that Wnt/?-catenin was a negative regulation factor for autophagy in glutamate excitotoxicity. Over-expression of RNF146 promoted Wnt/?-catenin signaling, which was related to destabilization of ?-catenin destruction complex. These results indicated that RNF146 acted as a neuroprotective agent against glutamate-induced excitatory damage, and this neuroprotection might be at least partly dependent on the inhibition of excessive autophagy by regulating Wnt/?-catenin signaling.
Project description:Canonical Wnt signaling is controlled intracellularly by the level of ?-catenin protein, which is dependent on Axin scaffolding of a complex that phosphorylates ?-catenin to target it for ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation. This function of Axin is counteracted through relocalization of Axin protein to the Wnt receptor complex to allow for ligand-activated Wnt signaling. AXIN1 and AXIN2 protein levels are regulated by tankyrase-mediated poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARsylation), which destabilizes Axin and promotes signaling. Mechanistically, how tankyrase limits Axin protein accumulation, and how tankyrase levels and activity are regulated for this function, are currently under investigation. By RNAi screening, we identified the RNF146 RING-type ubiquitin E3 ligase as a positive regulator of Wnt signaling that operates with tankyrase to maintain low steady-state levels of Axin proteins. RNF146 also destabilizes tankyrases TNKS1 and TNKS2 proteins and, in a reciprocal relationship, tankyrase activity reduces RNF146 protein levels. We show that RNF146, tankyrase, and Axin form a protein complex, and that RNF146 mediates ubiquitylation of all three proteins to target them for proteasomal degradation. RNF146 is a cytoplasmic protein that also prevents tankyrase protein aggregation at a centrosomal location. Tankyrase auto-PARsylation and PARsylation of Axin is known to lead to proteasome-mediated degradation of these proteins, and we demonstrate that, through ubiquitylation, RNF146 mediates this process to regulate Wnt signaling.
Project description:Epilepsy is the most common childhood neurologic disorder. Status epilepticus (SE), which refers to continuous epileptic seizures, occurs more frequently in children than in adults, and approximately 40–50% of all cases occur in children under 2 years of age. Conventional antiepileptic drugs currently used in clinical practice have a number of adverse side effects. Drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) can progressively develop in children with persistent SE, necessitating the development of novel therapeutic drugs. During SE, the persistent activation of neurons leads to decreased glutamate clearance with corresponding glutamate accumulation in the synaptic extracellular space, increasing the chance of neuronal excitotoxicity. Our previous study demonstrated that after developmental seizures in rats, E-64d exerts a neuroprotective effect on the seizure-induced brain damage by modulating lipid metabolism enzymes, especially ApoE and ApoJ/clusterin. In this study, we investigated the impact and mechanisms of E-64d administration on neuronal excitotoxicity. To test our hypothesis that E-64d confers neuroprotective effects by regulating autophagy and mitochondrial pathway activity, we simulated neuronal excitotoxicity in vitro using an immortalized hippocampal neuron cell line (HT22). We found that E-64d improved cell viability while reducing oxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis. In addition, E-64d treatment regulated mitochondrial pathway activity and inhibited chaperone-mediated autophagy in HT22 cells. Our findings indicate that E-64d may alleviate glutamate-induced damage via regulation of mitochondrial fission and apoptosis, as well as inhibition of chaperone-mediated autophagy. Thus, E-64d may be a promising therapeutic treatment for hippocampal injury associated with SE.
Project description:Studies have suggested a possible correlation between the newly identified E3 ubiquitin ligase ring finger protein 146 (RNF146) and tumor development. However, until now, studies on RNF146 have been restricted to poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation and ubiquitin ligation, whereas the role of RNF146 in tumor biology has rarely been reported. In the present study, the role of RNF146 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was investigated. The results showed that the expression of RNF146 was increased in clinical lung cancer samples and cell lines. RNF146 expression correlated with tumor size, differentiation level, lymphatic metastasis, pTNM staging, and prognosis of patients in stage I. RNF146 expression was negatively correlated with Axin expression but positively correlated with the nuclear expression of ?-catenin in NSCLC tissues. RNF146 downregulated the expression of Axin in lung cancer cell lines and induced the expression and nuclear distribution of ?-catenin. Overexpression of RNF146 in NSCLC cell lines increased the levels of cyclinD1, cyclinE, and CDK4, promoted cell cycle G0/G1-S transitions, and regulated cell proliferation. Overexpression of RNF146 led to upregulated levels of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 7 and enhanced lung cancer cell invasiveness, events that were mediated by the classical Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway. In summary, the data in the present study indicate that RNF146 regulated the development and progression of NSCLC by enhancing cell growth, invasion, and survival, suggesting that RNF146 may be a potential treatment target in NSCLC.
Project description:Specific E3 ligases target tumor suppressors for degradation. Inhibition of such E3 ligases may be an important approach to cancer treatment. RNF146 is a RING domain and PARylation-dependent E3 ligase that functions as an activator of the β-catenin/Wnt and YAP/Hippo pathways by targeting the degradation of several tumor suppressors. Tankyrases 1 and 2 (TNKS1/2) are the only known poly-ADP-ribosyltransferases that require RNF146 to degrade their substrates. However, systematic identification of RNF146 substrates have not yet been performed. To uncover substrates of RNF146 that are targeted for degradation, we generated RNF146 knockout cells and TNKS1/2-double knockout cells and performed proteome profiling with label-free quantification as well as transcriptome analysis. We identified 160 potential substrates of RNF146, which included many known substrates of RNF146 and TNKS1/2 and 122 potential TNKS-independent substrates of RNF146. In addition, we validated OTU domain-containing protein 5 and Protein mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase PARP10 as TNKS1/2-independent substrates of RNF146 and SARDH as a novel substrate of TNKS1/2 and RNF146. Our study is the first proteome-wide analysis of potential RNF146 substrates. Together, these findings not only demonstrate that proteome profiling can be a useful general approach for the systemic identification of substrates of E3 ligases but also reveal new substrates of RNF146, which provides a resource for further functional studies.
Project description:Recent evidence indicates that autophagy-mediated mitochondrial homeostasis is crucial for oxidative stress-related brain damage and repair. The highest concentration of melatonin is in the mitochondria of cells, and melatonin exhibits well-known antioxidant properties. We investigated the impact and mechanism involved in mitochondrial function and the mitochondrial oxidative stress/autophagy regulator parameters of glutamate cytotoxicity in mouse HT22 hippocampal neurons. We tested the hypothesis that melatonin confers neuroprotective effects via protecting against mitochondrial impairment and mitophagy. Cells were divided into four groups: the control group, melatonin alone group, glutamate injury group, and melatonin pretreatment group. We found that glutamate induced significant changes in mitochondrial function/oxidative stress-related parameters. Leptin administration preserved mitochondrial function, and this effect was associated with increased superoxide dismutase, glutathione (GSH), and mitochondrial membrane potential and decreased GSSG (oxidized glutathione) and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species. Melatonin significantly reduced the fluorescence intensity of mitophagy via the Beclin-1/Bcl-2 pathway, which involves Beclin-1 and Bcl-2 proteins. The mitophagy inhibitor CsA corrected these glutamate-induce changes, as measured by the fluorescence intensity of Mitophagy-Tracker Red CMXROS, mitochondrial ROS, and mitochondrial membrane potential changes. These findings indicate that melatonin exerts neuroprotective effects against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity by reducing mitophagy-related oxidative stress and maintaining mitochondrial function.
Project description:Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) is an autosomal dominant human disorder characterized by abnormal bone development that is mainly due to defective intramembranous bone formation by osteoblasts. Here, we describe a mouse strain lacking the E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF146 that shows phenotypic similarities to CCD. Loss of RNF146 stabilized its substrate AXIN1, leading to impairment of WNT3a-induced ?-catenin activation and reduced Fgf18 expression in osteoblasts. We show that FGF18 induces transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) expression, which is required for osteoblast proliferation and differentiation through transcriptional enhancer associate domain (TEAD) and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) transcription factors, respectively. Finally, we demonstrate that adipogenesis is enhanced in Rnf146-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Moreover, mice with loss of RNF146 within the osteoblast lineage had increased fat stores and were glucose intolerant with severe osteopenia because of defective osteoblastogenesis and subsequent impaired osteocalcin production. These findings indicate that RNF146 is required to coordinate ?-catenin signaling within the osteoblast lineage during embryonic and postnatal bone development.
Project description:RNF146 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that specifically recognizes and polyubiquitinates poly (ADP-ribose) (PAR)-conjugated substrates for proteasomal degradation. RNF146 has been shown to be neuroprotective against PAR polymerase-1 (PARP1)-induced cell death during stroke. Here we report that RNF146 expression and RNF146 inducers can prevent cell death elicited by Parkinson's disease (PD)-associated and PARP1-activating stimuli. In SH-SY5Y cells, RNF146 expression conferred resistance to toxic stimuli that lead to PARP1 activation. High-throughput screen using a luciferase construct harboring the RNF146 promoter identified liquiritigenin as an RNF146 inducer. We found that RNF146 expression by liquiritigenin was mediated by estrogen receptor activation and contributed to cytoprotective effect of liquiritigenin. Finally, RNF146 expression by liquiritigenin in mouse brains provided dopaminergic neuroprotection in a 6-hydroxydopamine PD mouse model. Given the presence of PARP1 activity and RNF146 deficits in PD, it could be a potential therapeutic strategy to restore RNF146 expression by natural compounds or estrogen receptor activation.
Project description:Bone undergoes continuous remodeling due to balanced bone formation and resorption mediated by osteoblasts and osteoclasts, respectively. Osteoclasts arise from the macrophage lineage, and their differentiation is dependent on RANKL, a member of the TNF family of cytokines. Here, we have provided evidence that RANKL controls the expression of 3BP2, an adapter protein that is required for activation of SRC tyrosine kinase and simultaneously coordinates the attenuation of ?-catenin, both of which are required to execute the osteoclast developmental program. We found that RANKL represses the transcription of the E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF146 through an NF-?B-related inhibitory element in the RNF146 promoter. RANKL-mediated suppression of RNF146 results in the stabilization of its substrates, 3BP2 and AXIN1, which consequently triggers the activation of SRC and attenuates the expression of ?-catenin, respectively. Depletion of RNF146 caused hypersensitivity to LPS-induced TNF-? production in vivo. RNF146 thus acts as an inhibitory switch to control osteoclastogenesis and cytokine production and may be a control point underlying the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases.
Project description:Ring finger protein 146 (RNF146) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase whose activity prevents poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1)-dependent neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD). Previously, we reported that rhododendrin is a chemical inducer that increases RNF146 expression. However, the molecular mechanism of rhododendrin-induced RNF146 expression is largely unknown and its translational application for the treatment of Parkinson's disease remains unexplored. Here we found that rhododendrin increased RNF146 expression via estrogen receptor ? (ER?) activation. Rhododendrin stimulated ER? nuclear translocation and binding to the RNF146 promoter, thereby enhancing its transcription. Rhododendrin is cytoprotective against 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced cell death, which is largely dependent on ER? activity and RNF146 expression. Finally, we demonstrated that rhododendrin treatment resulted in RNF146 expression in dopaminergic neurons in mice. Moreover, dopaminergic neuron viability was markedly enhanced by pretreatment with rhododendrin in 6-OHDA-induced mouse models for PD. Our findings indicate that estrogen receptor activation plays a neuroprotective role and that rhododendrin could be a potential therapeutic agent in preventing PARP1-dependent dopaminergic cell loss in PD.
Project description:Aberrant activation of the Wnt signal transduction pathway triggers the development of colorectal cancer. The ADP-ribose polymerase Tankyrase (TNKS) mediates proteolysis of Axin-a negative regulator of Wnt signaling-and provides a promising therapeutic target for Wnt-driven diseases. Proteolysis of TNKS substrates is mediated through their ubiquitination by the poly-ADP-ribose (pADPr)-dependent RING-domain E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF146/Iduna. Like TNKS, RNF146 promotes Axin proteolysis and Wnt pathway activation in some cultured cell lines, but in contrast with TNKS, RNF146 is dispensable for Axin degradation in colorectal carcinoma cells. Thus, the contexts in which RNF146 is essential for TNKS-mediated Axin destabilization and Wnt signaling remain uncertain. Herein, we tested the requirement for RNF146 in TNKS-mediated Axin proteolysis and Wnt pathway activation in a range of in vivo settings. Using null mutants in Drosophila, we provide genetic and biochemical evidence that Rnf146 and Tnks function in the same proteolysis pathway in vivo Furthermore, like Tnks, Drosophila Rnf146 promotes Wingless signaling in multiple developmental contexts by buffering Axin levels to ensure they remain below the threshold at which Wingless signaling is inhibited. However, in contrast with Tnks, Rnf146 is dispensable for Wingless target gene activation and the Wingless-dependent control of intestinal stem cell proliferation in the adult midgut during homeostasis. Together, these findings demonstrate that the requirement for Rnf146 in Tnks-mediated Axin proteolysis and Wingless pathway activation is dependent on physiological context, and suggest that, in some cell types, functionally redundant pADPr-dependent E3 ligases or other compensatory mechanisms promote the Tnks-dependent proteolysis of Axin in both mammalian and Drosophila cells.