Genome-association analysis of Korean Holstein milk traits using genomic estimated breeding value.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:Holsteins are known as the world's highest-milk producing dairy cattle. The purpose of this study was to identify genetic regions strongly associated with milk traits (milk production, fat, and protein) using Korean Holstein data. METHODS:This study was performed using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip data (Illumina BovineSNP50 Beadchip) of 911 Korean Holstein individuals. We inferred each genomic estimated breeding values based on best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) and ridge regression using BLUPF90 and R. We then performed a genome-wide association study and identified genetic regions related to milk traits. RESULTS:We identified 9, 6, and 17 significant genetic regions related to milk production, fat and protein, respectively. These genes are newly reported in the genetic association with milk traits of Holstein. CONCLUSION:This study complements a recent Holstein genome-wide association studies that identified other SNPs and genes as the most significant variants. These results will help to expand the knowledge of the polygenic nature of milk production in Holsteins.
Project description:Previous studies in Holstein have shown 35% to 51.8% heritability in milk production traits, such as milk yield, fat, and protein, using pedigree data. Other studies in complex human traits could be captured by common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and their genetic variations, attributed to chromosomes, are in proportion to their length. Using genome-wide estimation and partitioning approaches, we analyzed three quantitative Holstein traits relevant to milk production in Korean Holstein data harvested from 462 individuals genotyped for 54,609 SNPs. For all three traits (milk yield, fat, and protein), we estimated a nominally significant (p = 0.1) proportion of variance explained by all SNPs on the Illumina BovineSNP50 Beadchip (h (2) G ). These common SNPs explained approximately most of the narrow-sense heritability. Longer genomic regions tended to provide more phenotypic variation information, with a correlation of 0.46~0.53 between the estimate of variance explained by individual chromosomes and their physical length. These results suggested that polygenicity was ubiquitous for Holstein milk production traits. These results will expand our knowledge on recent animal breeding, such as genomic selection in Holstein.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The availability of a unique unselected Holstein line since 1964 provided a direct comparison between selected and unselected Holstein genomes whereas large Holstein samples provided unprecedented statistical power for identifying high-confidence SNP effects. Utilizing these unique resources, we aimed to identify genome changes affected by selection since 1964. RESULTS:Direct comparison of genome-wide SNP markers between a Holstein line unselected since 1964 and contemporary Holsteins showed that the 40 years of artificial selection since 1964 resulted in genome landscape changes. Among the regions affected by selection, the regions containing 198 genes with fertility functions had a larger negative correlation than that of all SNPs between the SNP effects on milk yield and daughter pregnancy rate. These results supported the hypothesis that hitchhiking of genetic selection for milk production by negative effects of fertility genes contributed to the unintended declines in fertility since 1964. The genome regions subjected to selection also contained 67 immunity genes, the bovine MHC region of Chr23 with significantly decreased heterozygosity in contemporary Holsteins, and large gene clusters including T-cell receptor and immunoglobulin genes. CONCLUSIONS:This study for the first time provided direct evidence that genetic selection for milk production affected fertility and immunity genes and that the hitchhiking of genetic selection for milk production by negative fertility effects contributed to the fertility declines since 1964, and identified a large number of candidate fertility and immunity genes affected by selection. The results provided novel understanding about genome changes due to artificial selection and their impact on fertility and immunity genes and could facilitate developing genetic methods to reverse the declines in fertility and immunity in Holstein cattle.
Project description:We investigated diverse genomic selections using high-density single nucleotide polymorphism data of five distinct cattle breeds. Based on allele frequency differences, we detected hundreds of candidate regions under positive selection across Holstein, Angus, Charolais, Brahman, and N'Dama. In addition to well-known genes such as KIT, MC1R, ASIP, GHR, LCORL, NCAPG, WIF1, and ABCA12, we found evidence for a variety of novel and less-known genes under selection in cattle, such as LAP3, SAR1B, LRIG3, FGF5, and NUDCD3. Selective sweeps near LAP3 were then validated by next-generation sequencing. Genome-wide association analysis involving 26,362 Holsteins confirmed that LAP3 and SAR1B were related to milk production traits, suggesting that our candidate regions were likely functional. In addition, haplotype network analyses further revealed distinct selective pressures and evolution patterns across these five cattle breeds. Our results provided a glimpse into diverse genomic selection during cattle domestication, breed formation, and recent genetic improvement. These findings will facilitate genome-assisted breeding to improve animal production and health.
Project description:Our initial genome-wide association study (GWAS) demonstrated that two SNPs (ARS-BFGL-NGS-33248, UA-IFASA-9288) within the protein tyrosine kinase 2 (PTK2) gene were significantly associated with milk production traits in Chinese Holstein dairy cattle. To further validate if the statistical evidence provided in GWAS were true-positive findings, a replication study was performed herein through genotype-phenotype associations. The two tested SNPs were found to show significant associations with milk production traits, which confirmed the associations observed in the original study. Specifically, SNPs lying in the PTK2 gene were also detected by sequencing 14 unrelated sires in Chinese Holsteins and a total of thirty-three novel SNPs were identified. Thirteen out of these identified SNPs were genotyped and tested for association with milk production traits in an independent resource population. After Bonferroni correction for multiple testing, twelve SNPs were statistically significant for more than two milk production traits. Analyses of pairwise D' measures of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between all SNPs were also explored. Two haplotype blocks were inferred and the association study at haplotype level revealed similar effects on milk production traits. In addition, the RNA expression analyses revealed that a non-synonymous coding SNP (g.4061098T>G) was involved in the regulation of gene expression. Thus the findings presented here provide strong evidence for associations of PTK2 variants with dairy production traits and may be applied in Chinese Holstein breeding program.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Milk production is an economically important sector of global agriculture. Much attention has been paid to the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with milk, fat, and protein yield and the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying them. Copy number variation (CNV) is an emerging class of variants which may be associated with complex traits. RESULTS: In this study, we performed a genome-wide association between CNVs and milk production traits in 26,362 Holstein bulls and cows. A total of 99 candidate CNVs were identified using Illumina BovineSNP50 array data, and association tests for each production trait were performed using a linear regression analysis with PCA correlation. A total of 34 CNVs on 22 chromosomes were significantly associated with at least one milk production trait after false discovery rate (FDR) correction. Some of those CNVs were located within or near known QTL for milk production traits. We further investigated the relationship between associated CNVs with neighboring SNPs. For all 82 combinations of traits and CNVs (less than 400 kb in length), we found 17 cases where CNVs directly overlapped with tag SNPs and 40 cases where CNVs were adjacent to tag SNPs. In 5 cases, CNVs located were in strong linkage disequilibrium with tag SNPs, either within or adjacent to the same haplotype block. There were an additional 20 cases where CNVs did not have a significant association with SNPs, suggesting that the effects of those CNVs were probably not captured by tag SNPs. CONCLUSION: We conclude that combining CNV with SNP analyses reveals more genetic variations underlying milk production traits than those revealed by SNPs alone.
Project description:In the presented research, BovineSNP50 microarrays (Illumina) were applied to determine runs of homozygosity in the genomes of 11 cattle breeds maintained in Poland. These cattle breeds represent three basic utility types: milk, meat and dual purpose. Analysis of runs of homozygosity allowed the evaluation of the level of autozygosity within each breed in order to calculate the genomic inbreeding coefficient (FROH), as well as to identify regions of the genome with a high frequency of ROH occurrence, which may reflect traces of directional selectin left in their genomes. Visible differences in the length and distribution of runs of homozygosity in the genomes of the analyzed cattle breeds have been observed. The highest mean number and mean sums of lengths of runs of homozygosity were characteristic for Hereford cattle and intermediate for the Holstein-Friesian Black-and-White variety, Holstein-Friesian Red-and-White variety, Simmental, Limousin, Montbeliarde and Charolais breeds. However, lower values were observed for cattle of conserved breeds. Moreover, the selected livestock differed in the level of inbreeding estimated using the FROH coefficient. In regions of the genome with a high frequency of ROH occurrence, which may reflect the impact of directional selection, a number of genes were observed that can be potentially related to the production traits which are under selection pressure for specific production types. The most important detected genes were GHR, MSTN, DGAT1, FABP4, and TRH, with a known influence on the milk and meat traits of the studied cattle breeds.
Project description:The aim of the study was to fit the genomic evaluation model to Polish Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle. A training data set for the estimation of additive effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) consisted of 1227 Polish Holstein-Friesian bulls. Genotypes were obtained by the use of Illumina BovineSNP50 Genotyping BeadChip. Altogether 29 traits were considered: milk-, fat- and protein- yields, somatic cell score, four female fertility traits, and 21 traits describing conformation. The prediction of direct genomic values was based on a mixed model containing deregressed national proofs as a dependent variable and random SNP effects as independent variables. The correlations between direct genomic values and conventional estimated breeding values estimated for the whole data set were overall very high and varied between 0.98 for production traits and 0.78 for non return rates for cows. For the validation data set of 232 bulls the corresponding correlations were 0.38 for milk-, 0.37 for protein-, and 0.32 for fat yields, while the correlations between genomic enhanced breeding values and conventional estimated breeding values for the four traits were: 0.43, 0.44, 0.31, and 0.35. This model was able to pass the interbull validation criteria for genomic selection, which indicates that it is realistic to implement genomic selection in Polish Holstein-Friesian cattle.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The histidine ammonia-lyse gene (HAL) encodes the histidine ammonia-lyase, which catalyzes the first reaction of histidine catabolism. In our previous genome-wide association study in Chinese Holstein cows to identify genetic variants affecting milk production traits, a SNP (rs41647754) located 357 bp upstream of HAL, was found to be significantly associated with milk yield and milk protein yield. In addition, the HAL gene resides within the reported QTLs for milk production traits. The aims of this study were to identify genetic variants in HAL and to test the association between these variants and milk production traits. RESULTS: Fifteen SNPs were identified within the regions under study of the HAL gene, including three coding mutations, seven intronic mutations, one promoter region mutation, and four 3'UTR mutations. Nine of these identified SNPs were chosen for subsequent genotyping and association analyses. Our results showed that five SNP markers (ss974768522, ss974768525, ss974768531, ss974768533 and ss974768534) were significantly associated with one or more milk production traits. Haplotype analysis showed that two haplotype blocks were significantly associated with milk yield and milk protein yield, providing additional support for the association between HAL variants and milk production traits in dairy cows (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our study shows evidence of significant associations between SNPs within the HAL gene and milk production traits in Chinese Holstein cows, indicating the potential role of HAL variants in these traits. These identified SNPs may serve as genetic markers used in genomic selection schemes to accelerate the genetic gains of milk production traits in dairy cattle.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Our aim was to identify genomic regions via genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to improve the predictability of genetic merit in Holsteins for 10 calving and 28 body conformation traits. Animals were genotyped using the Illumina Bovine 50 K BeadChip and imputed to the Illumina BovineHD BeadChip (HD). GWAS were performed on 601,717 real and imputed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes using a single-SNP mixed linear model on 4841 Holstein bulls with breeding value predictions and followed by gene identification and in silico functional analyses. The association results were further validated using five scenarios with different numbers of SNPs. RESULTS:Seven hundred and eighty-two SNPs were significantly associated with calving performance at a genome-wise false discovery rate (FDR) of 5%. Most of these significant SNPs were on chromosomes 18 (71.9%), 17 (7.4%), 5 (6.8%) and 7 (2.4%) and mapped to 675 genes, among which 142 included at least one significant SNP and 532 were nearby one (100 kbp). For body conformation traits, 607 SNPs were significant at a genome-wise FDR of 5% and most of them were located on chromosomes 5 (30%), 18 (27%), 20 (13%), 6 (6%), 7 (5%), 14 (5%) and 13 (3%). SNP enrichment functional analyses for calving traits at a FDR of 1% suggested potential biological processes including musculoskeletal movement, meiotic cell cycle, oocyte maturation and skeletal muscle contraction. Furthermore, pathway analyses suggested potential pathways associated with calving performance traits including tight junction, oxytocin signaling, and MAPK signaling (P < 0.10). The prediction ability of the 1206 significant SNPs was between 78 and 83% of the prediction ability of the BovineSNP50 SNPs for calving performance traits and between 35 and 79% for body conformation traits. CONCLUSIONS:Various SNPs that are significantly associated with calving performance are located within or nearby genes with potential roles in tight junction, oxytocin signaling, and MAPK signaling. Combining the significant SNPs or SNPs within or nearby gene(s) from the HD panel with the BovineSNP50 panel yielded a marginal increase in the accuracy of prediction of genomic estimated breeding values for all traits compared to the use of the BovineSNP50 panel alone.
Project description:Efficient production of high-quality semen is a crucial trait in the dairy cattle breeding due to the widespread use of artificial insemination. However, the genetic architecture (e.g., distributions of causal variants and their corresponding effects) underlying such semen quality traits remains unclear. In this study, we performed genome-wide association studies to identify genes associated with five semen quality traits in Chinese Holstein population, including ejaculate volume, progressive sperm motility, sperm concentration, number of sperm, and number of progressive motile sperm. Our dataset consisted of 2,218 Holstein bulls in China with full pedigree information, representing 12 artificial insemination centers, with 1,508 genotyped using the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip. We used a weighted single-step genome-wide association method with 10 adjacent Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as sliding windows, which can make use of individuals without genotypes. We considered the top 10 genomic regions in terms of their explained genomic variants as candidate window regions for each trait. In total, we detected 36 window regions related to one or multiple semen traits across 19 chromosomes. Promising candidate genes of PSMB5, PRMT5, ACTB, PDE3A, NPC1, FSCN1, NR5A2, IQCG, LHX8, and DMRT1 were identified in these window regions for these five semen traits. Our findings provided a solid basis for further research into genetic mechanisms underlying semen quality traits, which may contribute to their accurate genomic prediction in Chinese Holstein population.