On methylene-bridged cysteine and lysine residues in proteins.
ABSTRACT: Cysteine residues ubiquitously stabilize tertiary and quaternary protein structure by formation of disulfide bridges. Here we investigate another linking interaction that involves sulfhydryl groups of cysteines, namely intra- and intermolecular methylene-bridges between cysteine and lysine residues. A number of crystal structures possessing such a linkage were identified in the Protein Data Bank. Inspection of the electron density maps and re-refinement of the nominated structures unequivocally confirmed the presence of Lys-CH2 -Cys bonds in several cases.
Project description:Respiratory Complex I appears to have 4 sites for proton translocation, which are coupled to the oxidation of NADH and reduction of coenzyme Q. The proton pathways are thought to be made of offset half-channels that connect to the membrane surfaces, and are connected by a horizontal path through the center of the membrane. In this study of the enzyme from Escherichia coli, subunit N, containing one of the sites, was targeted. Pairs of cysteine residues were introduced into neighboring ?-helices along the proposed proton pathways. In an effort to constrain conformational changes that might occur during proton translocation, we attempted to form disulfide bonds or methanethiosulfonate bridges between two engineered cysteine residues. Cysteine modification was inferred by the inability of PEG-maleimide to shift the electrophoretic mobility of subunit N, which will occur upon reaction with free sulfhydryl groups. After the cross-linking treatment, NADH oxidase and NADH-driven proton translocation were measured. Ten different pairs of cysteine residues showed evidence of cross-linking. The most significant loss of enzyme activity was seen for residues near the essential Lys 395. This residue is positioned between the proposed proton half-channel to the periplasm and the horizontal connection through subunit N, and is also near the essential Glu 144 of subunit M. The results suggest important conformational changes in this region for the delivery of protons to the periplasm, or for coupling the actions of subunit N to subunit M.
Project description:The detection of free sulfhydryls in proteins can reveal incomplete disulfide bond formation, indicate cysteine residues available for conjugation, and offer insights into protein stability and structure. Traditional spectroscopic methods of free sulfhydryl detection, such as Ellman's reagent, generally require a relatively large amount of sample, preventing their use for the analysis of biotherapeutics early in the development cycle. These spectroscopic methods also cannot accurately determine the location of the free sulfhydryl, further limiting their utility. Mass spectrometry was used to detect free sulfhydryl residues in intact proteins after labeling with Maleimide-PEG2-Biotin. As little as 2% cysteine residues with free sulfhydryls (0.02 mol SH per mol protein) could be detected by this method. Following reduction, the free sulfhydryl abundance on antibody heavy and light chains could be measured. To determine free sulfhydryl location at peptide-level resolution, free sulfhydryls and cysteines involved in disulfide bonds were differentially labeled with N-ethylmaleimide and d5-N-ethylmaleimide, respectively. Following enzymatic digestion and nanoLC-MS, the abundance of free sulfhydryls at individual cysteine residues was quantified down to 2%. The method was optimized to avoid non-specific labeling, disulfide bond scrambling, and maleimide exchange and hydrolysis. This new workflow for free sulfhydryl analysis was used to measure the abundance and location of free sulfhydryls in 3 commercially available monoclonal antibody standards (NIST Monoclonal Antibody Reference Material (NIST), SILu™Lite SigmaMAb Universal Antibody Standard (Sigma-Aldrich) and Intact mAb Mass Check Standard (Waters)) and 1 small protein standard (β-Lactoglobulin A).
Project description:Numerous crystal structures are available for the dimeric amino acid cystine. In proteins it is formed by oxidation of the -SH thiol groups of two closely spaced cysteine residues, resulting in the formation of a familiar di-sulfide bridge. The title compound [systematic name: (R,R)-1,1'-dicarb-oxy-2,2'-(diselanedi-yl)diethanaminium dichloride], C6H14N2O4Se2 (2+)·2Cl(-), is the first example of a small mol-ecule structure of the biologically important analogue with a -CH2-Se-Se-CH2- bridging unit. Bond lengths and angles of seleno-l-cystine di-hydro-chloride and its isotypic sulfur analogue l-cystine di-hydro-chloride are compared.
Project description:Six new methylenephosphonate analogues of P1P4-bis-(5',5'''-adenosyl) tetraphosphate, Ap4A, having P2-P3 carbon bridges CF2, CCl2 and CH2CH2 or P1-P2 and P3-P4 carbon bridges CF2, CCl2 and CH2CH2 in the tetraphosphate chain, were examined as substrates or inhibitors for two specific Ap4A-degrading enzymes: (asymmetrical) Ap4A hydrolase (EC 22.214.171.124) from yellow-lupin seeds and (symmetrical) Ap4A hydrolase (EC 126.96.36.199) from Escherichia coli. All analogues in which the central oxygen atom was replaced by a stable carbon bridge were hydrolysed by the asymmetrical hydrolase (CF2 greater than CCl2 greater than O greater than CHBr greater than CH2 greater than CH2CH2). As expected, these analogues were not hydrolysed by the symmetrical hydrolase, which was also unable to act on analogues having P1-P2 and P3-P4 carbon bridges.
Project description:For the site-directed conjugation of chemicals and radioisotopes to the chicken-derived single-chain variable fragment (scFv), we investigated amino acid residues replaceable with cysteine. By replacing each amino acid of the 157 chicken variable region framework residues (FR, 82 residues on VH and 75 on VL) with cysteine, 157 artificial cysteine mutants were generated and characterized. At least 27 residues on VL and 37 on VH could be replaced with cysteine while retaining the binding activity of the original scFv. We prepared three VL (L5, L6 and L7) and two VH (H13 and H16) mutants as scFv-Ckappa fusion proteins and showed that PEG-conjugation to the sulfhydryl group of the artificial cysteine was achievable in all five mutants. Because the charge around the cysteine residue affects the in vivo stability of thiol-maleimide conjugation, we prepared 16 charge-variant artificial cysteine mutants by replacing the flanking residues of H13 with charged amino acids and determined that the binding activity was not affected in any of the mutants except one. We prepared four charge-variant H13 artificial cysteine mutants (RCK, DCE, ECD and ECE) as scFv-Ckappa fusion proteins and confirmed that the reactivity of the sulfhydryl group on cysteine is active and their binding activity is retained after the conjugation process.
Project description:Carboxymethylation using 14C- or 3H-labelled iodoacetic acid has been used to identify the cysteine residues in bovine rhodopsin involved in the formation of the two intramolecular disulphide bridges. Iodo[2-14C]acetic acid was used to modify 5.8-5.9 residues of cysteine under non-reducing conditions. After dialysis and reduction of disulphide bridges by 2-mercaptoethanol, iodo[2-3H]acetic acid was employed to covalently modify 3.3-3.6 residues of cysteine. Peptide purification and sequencing has unambiguously shown that cysteine residues 322 and 323 are only carboxymethylated after reduction of disulphide bridges. Indirect evidence presented, now coupled with the earlier finding [Findlay & Pappin (1986) Biochem. J. 238, 625-642] suggests that the other disulphide bridge is formed between cysteine residues 110 and 187. A comparison is made of all the sequences of mammalian rhodopsins and colour pigments and attention is drawn to the fact that whereas Cys-322 and Cys-323 are conserved only in three rhodopsins (bovine, ovine and human), the residues corresponding to Cys-110 and Cys-187 are found in all the visual proteins (from rods as well as human cones).
Project description:The zinc-binding Bbox1 domain in protein MID1, a member of the TRIM family of proteins, facilitates the ubiquitination of the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 2A and alpha4, a protein regulator of PP2A. The natural mutation of residue A130 to a valine or threonine disrupts substrate recognition and catalysis. While NMR data revealed the A130T mutant Bbox1 domain failed to coordinate both structurally essential zinc ions and resulted in an unfolded structure, the unfolding mechanism is unknown. Principle component analysis revealed that residue A130 served as a hinge point between the structured β-strand-turn-β-strand (β-turn-β) and the lasso-like loop sub-structures that constitute loop1 of the ββα-RING fold that the Bbox1 domain adopts. Backbone RMSD data indicate significant flexibility and departure from the native structure within the first 5 ns of the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation for the A130V mutant (>6 Å) and after 30 ns for A130T mutant (>6 Å). Overall RMSF values were higher for the mutant structures and showed increased flexibility around residues 125 and 155, regions with zinc-coordinating residues. Simulated pKa values of the sulfhydryl group of C142 located near A130 suggested an increased in value to ~9.0, paralleling the increase in the apparent dielectric constants for the small cavity near residue A130. Protonation of the sulfhydryl group would disrupt zinc-coordination, directly contributing to unfolding of the Bbox1. Together, the increased motion of residues of loop 1, which contains four of the six zinc-binding cysteine residues, and the increased pKa of C142 could destabilize the structure of the zinc-coordinating residues and contribute to the unfolding.
Project description:First-generation cysteine-based site-specific antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are limited to one drug per cysteine. However, certain applications require a high drug to antibody ratio (DAR), such as when low-potency payloads are used. Higher drug load can be achieved using classical cysteine conjugation methods, but these result in heterogeneity, suboptimal efficacy and pharmacokinetics. Here, we describe the design, synthesis and validation of heterobifunctional linkers that can be used for the preparation of ADCs with a DAR of two, three and four in a site-specific manner per single cysteine conjugation site, resulting in site-specific ADCs with a DAR of four, six and eight. The designed linkers carry a sulfhydryl-specific iodoacetyl reactive group, and multiple cyclic diene moieties which can efficiently react with maleimide-carrying payloads through the Diels-Alder reaction. As a proof of concept, we synthesized site-specific DAR four, six and eight ADCs carrying tubulysin (AZ13601508) using engineered antibodies with a cysteine inserted after position 239 in the antibody CH2 domain. We evaluated and compared the in vitro cytotoxicity of ADCs obtained via the site-specific platform described herein, with ADCs prepared using classical cysteine conjugation. Our data validated a novel cysteine-based conjugation platform for the preparation of site-specific ADCs with high drug load for therapeutic applications.
Project description:The F(1)F(o)-type ATP synthase is the smallest motor enzyme known. Previous studies had established that the central gamma and epsilon subunits of the F(1) part rotate relative to a stator of alpha(3)beta(3) and delta subunits during catalysis. We now show that the ring of c subunits in the F(o) part moves along with the gamma and epsilon subunits. This was demonstrated by linking the three rotor subunits with disulfide bridges between cysteine residues introduced genetically at the interfaces between the gamma, epsilon, and c subunits. Essentially complete cross-linking of the gamma, epsilon, and c subunits was achieved by using CuCl(2) to induce oxidation. This fixing of the three subunits together had no significant effect on ATP hydrolysis, proton translocation, or ATP synthesis, and each of these functions retained inhibitor sensitivity. These results unequivocally place the c subunit oligomer in the rotor part of this molecular machine.
Project description:Genomes of nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs) encode enzymes that catalyze the formation of disulfide bonds between cysteine amino acid residues in proteins, a function essential for the proper assembly and propagation of NCLDV virions. Recently, a catalyst of disulfide formation was identified in baculoviruses, a group of large double-stranded DNA viruses considered phylogenetically distinct from NCLDVs. The NCLDV and baculovirus disulfide catalysts are flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-binding sulfhydryl oxidases related to the cellular Erv enzyme family, but the baculovirus enzyme, the product of the Ac92 gene in Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV), is highly divergent at the amino acid sequence level. The crystal structure of the Ac92 protein presented here shows a configuration of the active-site cysteine residues and bound cofactor similar to that observed in other Erv sulfhydryl oxidases. However, Ac92 has a complex quaternary structural arrangement not previously seen in cellular or viral enzymes of this family. This novel assembly comprises a dimer of pseudodimers with a striking 40-degree kink in the interface helix between subunits. The diversification of the Erv sulfhydryl oxidase enzymes in large double-stranded DNA viruses exemplifies the extreme degree to which these viruses can push the boundaries of protein family folds.