Intestinal NCoR1, a regulator of epithelial cell maturation, controls neonatal hyperbilirubinemia.
ABSTRACT: Severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (SNH) and the onset of bilirubin encephalopathy and kernicterus result in part from delayed expression of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) and the inability to metabolize bilirubin. Although there is a good understanding of the early events after birth that lead to the rapid increase in serum bilirubin, the events that control delayed expression of UGT1A1 during development remain a mystery. Humanized UGT1 (hUGT1) mice develop SNH spontaneously, which is linked to repression of both liver and intestinal UGT1A1. In this study, we report that deletion of intestinal nuclear receptor corepressor 1 (NCoR1) completely diminishes hyperbilirubinemia in hUGT1 neonates because of intestinal UGT1A1 gene derepression. Transcriptomic studies and immunohistochemistry analysis demonstrate that NCoR1 plays a major role in repressing developmental maturation of the intestines. Derepression is marked by accelerated metabolic and oxidative phosphorylation, drug metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, and intestinal maturation, events that are controlled predominantly by H3K27 acetylation. The control of NCoR1 function and derepression is linked to IKK? function, as validated in hUGT1 mice with targeted deletion of intestinal IKK?. Physiological events during neonatal development that target activation of an IKK?/NCoR1 loop in intestinal epithelial cells lead to derepression of genes involved in intestinal maturation and bilirubin detoxification. These findings provide a mechanism of NCoR1 in intestinal homeostasis during development and provide a key link to those events that control developmental repression of UGT1A1 and hyperbilirubinemia.
Project description:Bilirubin is a natural and potent antioxidant that accumulates in the blood of newborn children and leads to physiological jaundice. Breastfed infants have higher serum levels of bilirubin than formula-fed infants and are at risk for bilirubin-induced neurological dysfunction (BIND). Clearance of bilirubin requires the expression of uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1; we investigated its role in the association between breast feeding with jaundice in mice.We studied mice in which the original Ugt1 locus was disrupted and replaced with the human UGT1 locus (hUGT1 mice); these mice spontaneously develop neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and BIND. We fed human breast milk or formula to neonatal hUGT1 mice and examined activation of the intestinal xenobiotic receptors pregnane X receptor and constitutive androstane receptor. We also examined inflammatory signaling pathways in mice with disruptions in I?B-kinase-? and I?B kinase-? in the intestinal epithelium.hUGT1 mice that were fed breast milk developed severe hyperbilirubinemia because of suppression of UGT1A1 in the gastrointestinal tract. Formula-fed hUGT1 mice had lower serum levels of bilirubin, which resulted from induction of UGT1A1 in the gastrointestinal tract. hUGT1/Pxr-null mice did not develop severe hyperbilirubinemia, whereas hUGT1/Car-null mice were susceptible to BIND when they were fed breast milk. Breast milk appeared to suppress intestinal I?B kinase ? and ?, resulting in inactivation of nuclear factor-?B and loss of expression of UGT1A1, leading to hyperbilirubinemia.Breast milk reduces expression of intestinal UGT1A1, which leads to hyperbilirubinemia and BIND; suppression of this gene appears to involve inactivation of nuclear factor-?B. Hyperbilirubinemia can be reduced by activation of pregnane X receptor, constitutive androstane receptor, or nuclear factor-?B.
Project description:Inadequate calorie intake or starvation has been suggested as a cause of neonatal jaundice, which can further cause permanent brain damage, kernicterus. This study experimentally investigated whether additional glucose treatments induce the bilirubin-metabolizing enzyme--UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1--to prevent the onset of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Neonatal humanized UGT1 (hUGT1) mice physiologically develop jaundice. In this study, UGT1A1 expression levels were determined in the liver and small intestine of neonatal hUGT1 mice that were orally treated with glucose. In the hUGT1 mice, glucose induced UGT1A1 in the small intestine, while it did not affect the expression of UGT1A1 in the liver. UGT1A1 was also induced in the human intestinal Caco-2 cells when the cells were cultured in the presence of glucose. Luciferase assays demonstrated that not only the proximal region (-1300/-7) of the UGT1A1 promoter, but also distal region (-6500/-4050) were responsible for the induction of UGT1A1 in the intestinal cells. Adequate calorie intake would lead to the sufficient expression of UGT1A1 in the small intestine to reduce serum bilirubin levels. Supplemental treatment of newborns with glucose solution can be a convenient and efficient method to treat neonatal jaundice while allowing continuous breastfeeding.
Project description:While breast milk has been known as a cause of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, the underlying mechanism of breast milk-induced jaundice has not been clarified. Here, the impact of fatty acids on human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1--the sole enzyme that can metabolize bilirubin--were examined. Oleic acid, linoleic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) strongly inhibited UGT1A1 activity. Forty-eight hours after a treatment with a lower concentration of DHA (10 mg/kg), total bilirubin significantly increased in neonatal hUGT1 mice, which are human neonatal jaundice models. In contrast, treatments with higher concentrations of fatty acids (0.1-10 g/kg) resulted in a decrease in serum bilirubin in hUGT1 mice. It was further demonstrated that the treatment with higher concentrations of fatty acids induced UGT1A1, possibly by activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. Our data indicates that activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors would increase UGT1A1 expression, resulting in reduction of serum bilirubin levels in human infants.
Project description:Isothiocyanates, such as phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), are formed following the consumption of cruciferous vegetables and generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) that lead to the induction of cytoprotective genes such as the UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs). The induction of ROS activates the Nrf2-Keap 1 pathway leading to the induction of genes through antioxidant response elements (AREs). UGT1A1, the sole enzyme responsible for the metabolism of bilirubin, can be induced following activation of Nrf2. When neonatal humanized UGT1 (hUGT1) mice, which exhibit severe levels of total serum bilirubin (TSB) because of a developmental delay in expression of the UGT1A1 gene, were treated with PEITC, TSB levels were reduced. Liver and intestinal UGT1A1 were induced, along with murine CYP2B10, a consensus CAR target gene. In both neonatal and adult hUGT1/Car-/- mice, PEITC was unable to induce CYP2B10. A similar result was observed following analysis of UGT1A1 expression in liver. However, TSB levels were still reduced in hUGT1/Car-/- neonatal mice because of ROS induction of intestinal UGT1A1. When oxidative stress was blocked by exposing mice to N-acetylcysteine, induction of liver UGT1A1 and CYP2B10 by PEITC was prevented. Thus, new findings in this report link an important role in CAR activation that is dependent upon oxidative stress.
Project description:In humanized UDP glucuronosyltransferase-1 (hUGT1) mice that express the entire UGT1 locus, the maternal hepatic UGT1A genes are dramatically induced 12-14 days after conception. Steroid induction of the UGT1A1 gene indicates that xenobiotic sensors, such as the pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), may underlie the induction process. In contrast, neonatal hUGT1 mice display severe hyperbilirubinemia, with limited expression of the UGT1A genes. This study identifies PXR as both a positive and negative regulator of the UGT1A1 gene. Pregnancy hormones, in particular the glucocorticoids, target PXR as a positive regulator of human glucuronidation. Employing reverse genetics, where PXR has been genetically deleted, hUGT1/Pxr(-/-) mice show limited induction of the liver UGT1A genes during pregnancy, whereas the exact opposite occurs in newborn mice. Neonatal hUGT1 mice show delayed expression of hepatic UGT1A1 and are severely hyperbilirubinemic. However, in hUGT1/Pxr(-/-) mice, hyperbilirubinemia is greatly reduced due to induction of hepatic UGT1A1. Thus, PXR serves to repress UGT1A1 gene expression during development. Transcriptional silencing of the UGT1A1 gene was relieved in neonatal hUGT1 hepatocytes through interruption of PXR by small interfering RNA.PXR is a key regulator of pregnancy induced glucuronidation capacity in addition to modulating the severity of neonatal jaundice.
Project description:Newborns commonly develop physiological hyperbilirubinemia (also known as jaundice). With increased bilirubin levels being observed in breast-fed infants, breast-feeding has been recognized as a contributing factor for the development of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Bilirubin undergoes selective metabolism by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1 and becomes a water soluble glucuronide. Although several factors such as gestational age, dehydration and weight loss, and increased enterohepatic circulation have been associated with breast milk-induced jaundice (BMJ), deficiency in UGT1A1 expression is a known cause of BMJ. It is currently believed that unconjugated bilirubin is metabolized mainly in the liver. However, recent findings support the concept that extrahepatic tissues, such as small intestine and skin, contribute to bilirubin glucuronidation during the neonatal period. We will review the recent advances made towards understanding biological and molecular events impacting BMJ, especially regarding the role of extrahepatic UGT1A1 expression.
Project description:To evaluate the role of bilirubin UDP-glucuronosyltransferase family 1, polypeptide A1 (UGT1A1) gene variations on prolonged unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia associated with breast milk feeding (breast milk jaundice [BMJ]).UGT1A1 gene allelic variation was analyzed in 170 Japanese infants with BMJ with polymerase chain reaction-direct sequencing, and their genotypes compared with serum bilirubin concentrations. In 62 of 170 infants, serum bilirubin concentration was followed after 4 months of life. Genotypes were examined in 55 infants without BMJ.Of 170 infants with BMJ, 88 (51.8%) were homozygous UGT1A1*6. Serum bilirubin concentrations (21.8 ± 3.65 mg/dL) were significantly greater than in infants with other genotypes (P < .0001). The Gilbert UGT1A1*28 allele was not detected in infants with BMJ, except in an infant who was compound heterozygous with UGT1A1*6. At 4 months of age, serum bilirubin concentration improved to >1 mg/dL, except in 2 infants who were homozygous UGT1A1*7. Homozygous UGT1A1*6 was not detected in the control group.One-half of the infants with BMJ were homozygous UGT1A1*6 and exhibited a serum bilirubin concentration significantly greater than other genotypes. This finding indicates that UGT1A1*6 is a major cause of BMJ in infants in East Asia. Previous finding have demonstrated that 5?-pregnane-3?,20?-diol present in breast milk inhibits p.G71R-UGT1A1 bilirubin glucuronidation activity. Thus, prolonged unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia may develop in infants with UGT1A1*6 who are fed breast milk.
Project description:Controlling bilirubin to a low level is necessary in physiology because of its severe neurotoxicity. Therefore, it is of great interest to understand the regulatory mechanisms for bilirubin homeostasis. In this study, we uncover a critical role for circadian clock in regulation of bilirubin detoxification and homeostasis. Methods: The mRNA and protein levels of Bmal1 (a core clock gene), metabolic enzymes and transporters were measured by qPCR and Western blotting, respectively. Luciferase reporter, mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation were used to investigate transcriptional gene regulation. Experimental hyperbilirubinemia was induced by injection of bilirubin or phenylhydrazine. Unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) and conjugated bilirubin were assessed by ELISA. Results: We first demonstrated diurnal variations in plasma UCB levels and in main bilirubin-detoxifying genes Ugt1a1 and Mrp2. Of note, the circadian UCB levels were antiphase to the circadian expressions of Ugt1a1 and Mrp2. Bmal1 ablation abrogated the circadian rhythms of UCB and bilirubin-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Bmal1 ablation also decreased mRNA and protein expressions of both Ugt1a1 and Mrp2 in mouse livers, and blunted their circadian rhythms. A combination of luciferase reporter, mobility shift, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that Bmal1 trans-activated Ugt1a1 and Mrp2 through specific binding to the E-boxes in the promoter region. Further, Bmal1 ablation caused a loss of circadian time-dependency in bilirubin clearance and sensitized mice to chemical induced-hyperbilirubinemia. Moreover, bilirubin stimulated Bmal1 expression through antagonism of Rev-erbα, constituting a feedback mechanism in bilirubin detoxification. Conclusion: These data supported a dual role for circadian clock in regulation of bilirubin detoxification, generating circadian variations in bilirubin level via direct transactivation of detoxifying genes Ugt1a1 and Mrp2, and defending the body against hyperbilirubinemia via Rev-erbα antagonism. Thereby, our study provided a potential mechanism for management of bilirubin related diseases.
Project description:Neurotoxic bilirubin is solely conjugated by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1. Due to an inadequate function of UGT1A1, human neonates develop mild to severe physiological hyperbilirubinemia. Accumulation of bilirubin in the brain leads to the onset of irreversible brain damage called kernicterus. Breastfeeding is one of the most significant factors that increase the risk of developing kernicterus in infants. Why does the most natural way of feeding increase the risk of brain damage or even death? This question leads to the hypothesis that breast milk-induced neonatal hyperbilirubinemia might bring certain benefits to the body. One of the barriers to answering the above question is the lack of animal models that display mild to severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. A mouse model that develops neonatal hyperbilirubinemia was previously developed by a knockout of the Ugt1 locus. Deletion of Ugt1a1 results in neonatal lethality from bilirubin neurotoxicity. Bilirubin is the end product of heme catabolism in which heme oxygenase-I is largely involved. When zinc protoporphyrin, an inhibitor of heme oxygenase I, was administered to newborn Ugt1-/- mice, serum bilirubin levels dropped dramatically, rescuing the mice from bilirubin-induced neonatal lethality. Zinc protoporphyrin-treated Ugt1-/- mice developed normally as adults capable of reproducing, but their newborns showed even more severe hyperbilirubinemia. Microarray analysis of the hyperbilirubinemic livers indicated that a number of genes associated with nucleotide, transport, and immune response were significantly down-regulated in a serum bilirubin level-dependent manner. Conclusion: Our study provides an opportunity to advance the development of effective therapeutics to effectively and rapidly prevent bilirubin-induced toxicity. Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia has various impacts on the body that could be driven by the antioxidant property of bilirubin.
Project description:High levels of unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) in newborn children is associated with a reduction in hepatic UDP glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1 activity that can lead to CNS toxicity, brain damage, and even death. Little is known regarding those events that lead to UCB accumulation in brain tissue, and therefore, we sought to duplicate this condition in mice. The human UGT1 locus, encoding all 9-UGT1A genes including UGT1A1, was expressed in Ugt1(-/-) mice. Because the most common clinical condition associated with jaundice in adults is Gilbert's syndrome, which is characterized by an allelic polymorphism in the UGT1A1 promoter, hyperbilirubinemia was monitored in humanized UGT1 mice that expressed either the Gilbert's UGT1A1*28 allele [Tg(UGT1(A1*28))Ugt1(-/-) mice] or the normal UGT1A1*1 allele [Tg(UGT1(A1*1))Ugt1(-/-) mice]. Adult Tg(UGT1(A1*28))Ugt1(-/-) mice expressed elevated levels of total bilirubin (TB) compared with Tg(UGT1(A1*1))Ugt1(-/-) mice, confirming that the promoter polymorphism associated with the UGT1A1*28 allele contributes to hyperbilirubinemia in mice. However, TB accumulated to near toxic levels during neonatal development, a finding that is independent of the Gilbert's UGT1A1*28 promoter polymorphism. Whereas serum TB levels eventually returned to adult levels, TB clearance in neonatal mice was not associated with hepatic UGT1A1 expression. In approximately 10% of the humanized UGT1 mice, peak TB levels culminated in seizures followed by death. UCB deposition in brain tissue and the ensuing seizures were associated with developmental milestones and can be prevented by enhancing regulation of the UGT1A1 gene in neonatal mice.