Effects of inorganic and organic amendment on soil chemical properties, enzyme activities, microbial community and soil quality in yellow clayey soil.
ABSTRACT: Understanding the effects of external organic and inorganic components on soil fertility and quality is essential for improving low-yielding soils. We conducted a field study over two consecutive rice growing seasons to investigate the effect of applying chemical fertilizer (NPK), NPK plus green manure (NPKG), NPK plus pig manure (NPKM), and NPK plus straw (NPKS) on the soil nutrient status, enzyme activities involved in C, N, P, and S cycling, microbial community and rice yields of yellow clayey soil. Results showed that the fertilized treatments significantly improved rice yields over the first three experimental seasons. Compared with the NPK treatment, organic amendments produced more favorable effects on soil productivity. Notably, the NPKM treatment exhibited the highest levels of nutrient availability, microbial biomass carbon (MBC), activities of most enzymes and the microbial community. This resulted in the highest soil quality index (SQI) and rice yield, indicating better soil fertility and quality. Significant differences in enzyme activities and the microbial community were observed among the treatments, and redundancy analysis showed that MBC and available N were the key determinants affecting the soil enzyme activities and microbial community. The SQI score of the non-fertilized control (0.72) was comparable to that of the NPK (0.77), NPKG (0.81) and NPKS (0.79) treatments but significantly lower compared with NPKM (0.85). The significant correlation between rice yield and SQI suggests that SQI can be a useful to quantify soil quality changes caused by different agricultural management practices. The results indicate that application of NPK plus pig manure is the preferred option to enhance SOC accumulation, improve soil fertility and quality, and increase rice yield in yellow clayey soil.
Project description:A long-term fertilization experiment was conducted to examine the effects of different fertilization practices on nematode community composition within aggregates in a wheat-maize rotation system. The study was a randomized complete block design with three replicates. The experiment involved the following four treatments: no fertilizer, inorganic N, P and K fertilizer (NPK), NPK plus manure (NPKM) and NPK plus maize straw (NPKS). Soil samples were taken at 0-20?cm depth during the wheat harvest stage. Based on our results, NPKS contributed to soil aggregation and moisture retention, with a positive effect on soil total nitrogen accumulation, particularly within small macroaggregates (0.25-1?mm) and microaggregates (<0.25?mm). The C/N ratio was correlated to the distribution of the soil nematode community. Both manure application and straw incorporation increased the nematode functional metabolic footprints within all aggregates. Additionally, the functional metabolic footprints decreased with a decline in aggregate size. The accumulation of total nitrogen within <1?mm aggregates under NPKS might play a key role in maintaining the survival of soil nematodes. In our study, both crop straw incorporation and inorganic fertilizer application effectively improved soil physicochemical properties and were also beneficial for nematode survival within small aggregate size fractions.
Project description:Decomposition of crop residues in soil is mediated by microorganisms whose activities vary with fertilization. The complexity of active microorganisms and their interactions utilizing residues is impossible to disentangle without isotope applications. Thus, 13C-labeled rice residues were employed, and DNA stable-isotope probing (DNA-SIP) combined with high-throughput sequencing was applied to identify microbes active in assimilating residue carbon (C). Manure addition strongly modified microbial community compositions involved in the C flow from rice residues. Relative abundances of the bacterial genus Lysobacter and fungal genus Syncephalis were increased, but abundances of the bacterial genus Streptomyces and fungal genus Trichoderma were decreased in soils receiving mineral fertilizers plus manure (NPKM) compared to levels in soils receiving only mineral fertilizers (NPK). Microbes involved in the flow of residue C formed a more complex network in NPKM than in NPK soils because of the necessity to decompose more diverse organic compounds. The fungal species (Jugulospora rotula and Emericellopsis terricola in NPK and NPKM soils, respectively) were identified as keystone species in the network and may significantly contribute to residue C decomposition. Most of the fungal genera in NPKM soils, especially Chaetomium, Staphylotrichum, Penicillium, and Aspergillus, responded faster to residue addition than those in NPK soils. This is connected with the changes in the composition of the rice residue during degradation and with fungal adaptation (abundance and activity) to continuous manure input. Our findings provide fundamental information about the roles of key microbial groups in residue decomposition and offer important cues on manipulating the soil microbiome for residue utilization and C sequestration in soil.IMPORTANCE Identifying and understanding the active microbial communities and interactions involved in plant residue utilization are key questions to elucidate the transformation of soil organic matter (SOM) in agricultural ecosystems. Microbial community composition responds strongly to management, but little is known about specific microbial groups involved in plant residue utilization and, consequently, microbial functions under different methods of fertilization. We combined DNA stable-isotope (13C) probing and high-throughput sequencing to identify active fungal and bacterial groups degrading residues in soils after 3 years of mineral fertilization with and without manure. Manuring changed the active microbial composition and complexified microbial interactions involved in residue C flow. Most fungal genera, especially Chaetomium, Staphylotrichum, Penicillium, and Aspergillus, responded to residue addition faster in soils that historically had received manure. We generated a valuable library of microorganisms involved in plant residue utilization for future targeted research to exploit specific functions of microbial groups in organic matter utilization and C sequestration.
Project description:Microorganisms are the most abundant and diverse organisms in soils and have important effects on soil fertility. In this study, effects of the long-term fertilization treatments no fertilizer (CK), chemical fertilizer (nitrogen–phosphorus–potassium (NPK)), and organic–inorganic fertilizer (NPK and organic fertilizer (NPKM)) on rice yield and soil bacterial and fungal community diversity, structure, composition, and interaction networks were evaluated. Of the three treatments, the highest rice yield was in NPKM. Bacterial richness was significantly higher in NPKM than in NPK. Fertilization treatment significantly altered β diversity of communities, species composition of bacterial and fungal communities, and structure of soil microbial networks. The most complex bacterial and fungal interaction co-occurrence network with the highest average degree and numbers of edges and nodes was in NPKM. Relative abundance of the plant growth-promoting fungus Trichoderma increased significantly in NPKM compared with CK and NPK. The results of the study indicate that bacterial richness and microbial community member interactions (network complexity) might be suitable indicators of soil biological fertility. This research provides new insights on the effects of different fertilization regimes on responses of soil bacterial and fungal communities and their contributions to crop yield. New indicators such as bacterial richness and complexity of microbial interaction networks are also identified that can be used to evaluate soil biological fertility.
Project description:Archaeal (AOA) and bacterial (AOB) ammonia-oxidizer responses to long-term field fertilization in a Mollisol soil were assessed through pyrosequencing of amoA genes. Long-term fertilization treatments including chemical fertilizer (NPK), NPK plus manure (NPKM), and no fertilization over 23 years altered soil properties resulting in significant shifts in AOA and AOB community composition and abundance. NPK exhibited a strong influence on AOA and AOB composition while the addition of manure neutralized the community change induced by NPK. NPK also led to significant soil acidification and enrichment of Nitrosotalea. Nitrosospira cluster 9 and 3c were the most abundant AOB populations with opposing responses to fertilization treatments. NPKM had the largest abundance of ammonia-oxidizers and highest potential nitrification activity (PNA), suggesting high N loss potential due to a doubling of nutrient input compared to NPK. PNA was strongly correlated to AOA and AOB community composition indicating that both were important in ammonium oxidization in this Mollisol soil. Total N and organic C were the most important factors driving shifts in AOA and AOB community composition. The AOA community was strongly correlated to the activities of all sugar hydrolysis associated soil enzymes and was more responsive to C and N input than AOB.
Project description:In order to study the linkages between straw decomposition rate and the change in soil biological properties after straw addition to different fertilized soils, we collected soils from three long-term fertilization treatments (no-fertilizer, CK; nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium fertilizers, NPK; NPK plus straw (S), NPKS), and incubated maize straw with these soils at 25°C for 75 days. The average straw carbon dioxide (CO2) emission rate in the CK+straw (S), NPK+S, and NPKS+S treatments was 0.58±0.51, 0.66±0.53, and 0.74±0.58 μg C g-1soil h-1, respectively. The average increase in the contents of fungi, bacteria, and Actinomycetes under straw addition treatments than the control soils (CK, NPK, and NPKS, respectively) changed in the order of CK+S≤NPK+S <NPKS+S, while bacteria and Actinomycetes peaked later in the CK+SthanNPK+S and NPKS+S treatments. Bacterial abundance unchanged, Actinomycetes abundance decreased, but fungal abundance significantly increased in soils after straw addition. The average increase in the activities of β-glucosidase (BG), β-D-cellobiosidase (CB), and β-xylosidase (XYL) differed as: CK+S<NPK+S ≤ NPKS+S, and the highest activities and increments of them occurred later in the CK+S than NPK+S and NPKS+S treatments. Straw CO2 emission rate was poorly correlated with changes in the contents of microbial fractions across all straw addition treatments, but it was significant positively correlated with the increased activities of BG, CB, and XYL under the NPK+S and NPKS+S treatments. Our results indicated that chemical fertilization and straw return soils differently increased straw decomposition because of the different increases in microbial fractions and soil enzyme activities when compared to the no-fertilizer soil, and the decomposition process was more closely correlated with C-obtaining enzymes than microbial fractions.
Project description:The Olsen phosphorus (Olsen-P) concentration of soil is generally a good indicator for estimating the bioavailability of P and environmental risk in soils. To maintain soil Olsen-P at adequate levels for crop growth and environmental sustainability, the relationship between soil Olsen-P and the P budget (the P input minus the output) as well as the variations of soil Olsen-P and P budget were investigated from three long-term (22 years) experiments in China. Five treatments were selected: (1) unfertilized control (CK); (2) nitrogen and potassium (NK); (3) nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium (NPK); (4) nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium and straw; (5) nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium and manure. The results showed that without P fertilizers (CK, NK), there was a soil P deficit of 75-640 kg ha-1, and the lowest P deficit (mean of CK and NK) was in Eutric Cambisol. Soil Olsen-P decreased by 0.11-0.39 mg kg-1 year-1 in the order of Luvic Phaeozems > Eutric Cambisol > Calcaric Cambisol. Soil Olsen-P and the P deficit had a significantly (P<0.01) positive linear relationship. For every 100 kg of P ha-1 of deficit, soil Olsen-P decreased by 0.44-9.19 mg kg-1 in the order of Eutric Cambisol > Luvic Phaeozems > Calcaric Cambisol. Under the P fertilizer treatments (NPK, NPKS, and NPKM), soil Olsen-P showed an obvious surplus (except the NPK and NPKS in Luvic Phaeozems) of 122-2190 kg ha-1, and the largest P surplus was found under the NPKM treatment at each site. The relation between soil Olsen-P and the experimental years could be simulated using quadratic equation of one unknown in Calcaric Cambisol for the lower P input after 14 years of fertilization. And soil Olsen-P increased by 1.30-7.69 mg kg-1 year-1 in the order of Luvic Phaeozems > Eutric Cambisol. The relation between soil Olsen-P and the P surplus could be simulated by a simple linear equation except under NPK and NPKS in Luvic Phaeozems. With 100 kg ha-1 P surplus, soil Olsen-P increased by 3.24-7.27 mg kg-1 in the order of Calcaric Cambisol (6.42 mg kg-1) > Eutric Cambisol (3.24 mg kg-1). In addition, the change in soil Olsen-P with a 100 kg P ha-1 surplus (soil Olsen-P efficiency) was affected by the soil organic matter (SOM), pH, and CaCO3 content, etc. In the practice of fertilization, it's not necessary to increase the amount of P fertilizers, farmers should take measure to solve the local problem, for adjust the soil pH of Eutric Cambisol and Calcaric Cambisol, and apply more nitrogen in Luvic Phaeozems. In the area of serious soil P surplus, it is encouraged to stop applying P fertilizers for a few years to take advantage of soil accumulated P and make the high Olsen-P content decrease to a reasonable level.
Project description:The data presented in this article are related to the research paper entitled "Changes in N supply pathways under different long-term fertilization regimes in Northeast China" . Seasonal dynamics of soil NH4 +-N, NO3 --N, soil microbial biomass nitrogen (N) and fixed NH4 + were provided on the basis of a 26-year long-term experiment, including six treatments: no fertilizer (CK), recycled manure (M), N and P fertilizers (NP), P and K fertilizers (PK), N, P and K fertilizers (NPK), and NPK fertilizers with recycled manure (NPKM). The presentation of potential N retention and supply through soil microbial biomass N and fixed NH4 + pools at different growth stages is helpful for comparing the effects of different N pools on soil N transformation and assessing synchronies between crop N demand and soil N supply through different N pools.
Project description:Elucidating the succession of soil microbial communities and microbial functions at key plant growth stages is a major goal of microbial ecology research. In this study, we investigated the succession of soil bacteria during four fertilizer treatments (control, NPK, NPK + pig manure, and NPK + straw) and at three crucial rice growth stages (tillering, heading, and ripening) in paddy soil from a rice-wheat cropping system over a 10-year period. The results showed that the bacterial community and function composition of the control treatment was significantly different from that of the other treatments with NPK fertilizers, and S1 from others stages (ANOSIM, p < 0.05). The application of pig manure could reduce the effects of applying NPK fertilizers on bacterial communities in heading and ripening stages, but the effects of straw returning is not obvious. Variance partitioning analyses (VPA) suggested that pH, OM, and AK appeared to be key factors responsible for the microbial community changes observed in all the treatments or stages. The correlation results showed the bacterial families different between S1 and other stages such as Micromonosporaceae, Nocardioidaceae, Gaiellaceae, and Anaerolineaceae etc., were correlated with bacterial KEGG metabolic pathways. In addition, the topological of the soil bacterial community network with more nodes, links and higher Maximal degree at the heading stage and maintained relatively similar topological structures at the heading and ripening stages. However, the topological of the functional networks at the ripening stage were a small yet complicated co-occurring network with 209 nodes, 789 links, higher Average connectivity (avgK), and Maximal degree. These results suggest an obvious succession of soil bacteria and bacterial function at the key rice growth stages, but the topological of functional network structure of bacteria changes a little in the early and middle stages of rice, while its changes significantly in the ripening stage of rice growth.
Project description:Soil physicochemical properties, soil microbial biomass and bacterial community structures in a rice-wheat cropping system subjected to different fertilizer regimes were investigated in two seasons (June and October). All fertilizer regimes increased the soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen. Both fertilizer regime and time had a significant effect on soil physicochemical properties and bacterial community structure. The combined application of inorganic fertilizer and manure organic-inorganic fertilizer significantly enhanced the bacterial diversity in both seasons. The bacterial communities across all samples were dominated by Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria and Chloroflexi at the phylum level. Permutational multivariate analysis confirmed that both fertilizer treatment and season were significant factors in the variation of the composition of the bacterial community. Hierarchical cluster analysis based on Bray-Curtis distances further revealed that bacterial communities were separated primarily by season. The effect of fertilizer treatment is significant (P = 0.005) and accounts for 7.43% of the total variation in bacterial community. Soil nutrients (e.g., available K, total N, total P and organic matter) rather than pH showed significant correlation with the majority of abundant taxa. In conclusion, both fertilizer treatment and seasonal changes affect soil properties, microbial biomass and bacterial community structure. The application of NPK plus manure organic-inorganic fertilizer may be a sound fertilizer practice for sustainable food production.
Project description:Low phosphorus use efficiency (PUE) is one of the main problems of acidic soil that limit the crop growth. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the response of crop yield and PUE to the long-term application of fertilizers and quicklime (CaO) in the acidic soil under wheat-maize rotation system. Treatments included, CK (no fertilization), NP (inorganic nitrogen and P fertilization), NPK (inorganic N, P and potassium fertilization), NPKS (NPK?+?straw return), NPCa (NP?+?lime), NPKCa (NPK?+?lime) and NPKSCa (NPKS?+?lime). Results showed that, fertilizer without lime treatments, significantly (p???0.05) decreased soil pH and crop yield, compared to the fertilizer with lime treatments during the period of 2012-2018. Average among years, compared to the CK treatment, wheat grain yield increased by 138%, 213%, 198%, 547%, 688% and 626%, respectively and maize yield increased by 687%, 1887%, 1651%, 2605%, 5047% and 5077%, respectively, under the NP, NPK, NPKS, NPCa, NPKCa and NPKSCa treatments. Lime application significantly increased soil exchangeable base cations (Ca<sup>2+</sup> and Mg<sup>2+</sup>) and decreased Al<sup>3+</sup> cation. Compared to the NP treatment, phosphorus use efficiency (PUE) increased by 220%, 212%, 409%, 807% and 795%, respectively, under the NPK, NPKS, NPCa, NPKCa and NPKSCa treatments. Soil pH showed significant negative relationship with exchangeable Al<sup>3+</sup> and soil total N. While, soil pH showed significant (p???0.05) positive relationship with exchangeable Ca<sup>2+</sup>, PUE and annual crop yield. PUE was highly negatively correlated with soil exchangeable Al<sup>3+</sup>. In addition, soil exchangeable Ca<sup>2+</sup>, pH, exchangeable Al<sup>3+</sup> and available N were the most influencing factors of crop yield. Therefore, we concluded that lime application is an effective strategy to mitigate soil acidification and to increase PUE through increasing exchangeable base cations and reducing the acidic cations for high crop yield in acidic soil.