CCN1 promotes IL-1? production in keratinocytes by activating p38 MAPK signaling in psoriasis.
ABSTRACT: CCN1, an extracellular protein also known as cysteine-rich protein 61 (Cyr61), is a novel pro-inflammatory factor involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. As an inflammatory disease, psoriasis is characterized by keratinocyte activation-induced epidermal hyperplasia and cytokine-mediated inflammation. We demonstrated in our previous study that CCN1 promoted keratinocyte activation in psoriasis. However, the role of CCN1 in regulating inflammation in psoriasis is still unknown. Here, we showed that CCN1 increased inflammatory cytokine IL-1? production in keratinocytes. Furthermore, endogenous ATP and caspase-1 were required for mature IL-1? production stimulated by CCN1 in keratinocytes. After binding to the receptor of integrin ?6?1, CCN1 activated the downstream p38 MAPK signaling pathway, thus inducing the expression of IL-1?. In addition, we inhibited CCN1 function in mouse models of psoriasis, and decreased IL-1? production was observed in vivo. Overall, we showed that CCN1 increased IL-1? production via p38 MAPK signaling, indicating a role for CCN1 protein in regulating inflammation in psoriasis.
Project description:Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by inflammatory cell infiltration, as well as hyperproliferation of keratinocytes in skin lesions, and is considered a metabolic syndrome. We found that the expression of galectin-7 is reduced in skin lesions of patients with psoriasis. IL-17A and TNF-α, 2 cytokines intimately involved in the development of psoriatic lesions, suppressed galectin-7 expression in human primary keratinocytes (HEKn cells) and the immortalized human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT. A galectin-7 knockdown in these cells elevated the production of IL-6 and IL-8 and enhanced ERK signaling when the cells were stimulated with IL-17A. Galectin-7 attenuated IL-17A-induced production of inflammatory mediators by keratinocytes via the microRNA-146a/ERK pathway. Moreover, galectin-7-deficient mice showed enhanced epidermal hyperplasia and skin inflammation in response to intradermal IL-23 injection. We identified fluvastatin as an inducer of galectin-7 expression by connectivity map analysis, confirmed this effect in keratinocytes, and demonstrated that fluvastatin attenuated IL-6 and IL-8 production induced by IL-17A. Thus, we validate a role of galectin-7 in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, in both epidermal hyperplasia and keratinocyte-mediated inflammatory responses, and formulate a rationale for the use of statins in the treatment of psoriasis.
Project description:Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with a clear genetic contribution, characterized by keratinocyte proliferation and immune cell infiltration. Various closely interacting cell types, including innate immune cells, T cells, and keratinocytes, are known to contribute to inflammation. Innate immune cells most likely initiate the inflammatory process by secretion of IL-23. IL-23 mediates expansion of T helper 17 (Th17) cells, whose effector functions, including IL-17A, activate keratinocytes. Keratinocyte activation in turn results in cell proliferation and chemokine expression, the latter of which fuels the inflammatory process through further immune cell recruitment. One question that remains largely unanswered is how genetic susceptibility contributes to this process and, specifically, which cell type causes disease due to psoriasis-specific genetic alterations. Here we describe a mouse model based on the human psoriasis susceptibility locus TNIP1, also referred to as ABIN1, whose gene product is a negative regulator of various inflammatory signaling pathways, including the Toll-like receptor pathway in innate immune cells. We find that Tnip1-deficient mice recapitulate major features of psoriasis on pathological, genomic, and therapeutic levels. Different genetic approaches, including tissue-specific gene deletion and the use of various inflammatory triggers, reveal that Tnip1 controls not only immune cells, but also keratinocyte biology. Loss of Tnip1 in keratinocytes leads to deregulation of IL-17-induced gene expression and exaggerated chemokine production in vitro and overt psoriasis-like inflammation in vivo. Together, the data establish Tnip1 as a critical regulator of IL-17 biology and reveal a causal role of keratinocytes in the pathogenesis of psoriasis.
Project description:Sensory neurons innervating the skin can release neuropeptides that are believed to modulate cellular proliferation, wound healing, pigmentation, and keratinocyte innate immune responses. While the ability of neuropeptides to stimulate keratinocyte production of inflammatory mediators has been demonstrated, there is no information concerning the mechanisms by which neuropeptide activation of keratinocyte cell surface receptors ultimately leads to the up-regulation of mediator production. In this study we used a keratinocyte cell line to identify the presence of substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptors on keratinocytes and examined the effects of SP and CGRP stimulation on keratinocyte neuropeptide signaling, cell proliferation, and interleukin-1? (IL-1?), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?), and nerve growth factor (NGF) expression. Neuropeptide stimulation caused an up-regulation of neuropeptide receptor expression in keratinocytes and a dramatic increase in keratinocyte secretion of SP and CGRP, suggesting possible autocrine or paracrine stimulatory effects and amplification of neuropeptide signaling. Both SP and CGRP concentration-dependently stimulated cellular proliferation and the expression and secretion of inflammatory cytokines and NGF in keratinocytes. SP also activated all 3 families of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor ?B (NF?B) in keratinocytes, while CGRP only activated p38 and extracellular signal related kinase1/2 (ERK1/2) MAPKs. Neuropeptide stimulated inflammatory mediatory production in keratinocytes was reversed by ERK1/2 and JNK inhibitors. The current study is the first to observe; 1) that CGRP stimulates keratinocyte expression of CGRP and its receptor complex, 2) that SP and CGRP stimulate IL-6 and TNF-? secretion in keratinocytes, 3) that SP activated all three MAPK families and the NF?B transcriptional signaling pathway in keratinocytes, and 4) that SP and CGRP stimulated inflammatory mediator production in keratinocytes is dependent on ERK1/2 and JNK activation. These studies provide evidence suggesting that disruption of ERK1/2 and JNK signaling may potentially be an effective therapy for inflammatory skin diseases and pain syndromes mediated by exaggerated sensory neuron-keratinocyte signaling.
Project description:Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by epidermal hyperplasia and dermal inflammation. Keratinocyte activation is known to play a critical role in psoriasis, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Interferon-inducible protein 16 (IFI16), an innate immune system sensor, is reported to affect keratinocyte function. We therefore hypothesized that IFI16 promotes psoriasis by modulating keratinocyte activation. In the present study, we cinfirmed that IFI16 was overexpressed in epidermal keratinocytes of psoriasis patients. In addition, psoriasis-related cytokines, including IFN-?, TNF-?, IL-17 and IL-22, induced IFI16 up-regulation in keratinocytes via activation of STAT3 signaling. We also observed that IFI16 activated the TBK1-NF-?B signaling, leading to the production of CXCL10 and CCL20. Importantly, knocking down p204, which is reported as the mouse orthologous of human IFI16, inhibited epidermal hyperplasia in mice with imiquimod-induced psoriasiform dermatitis. These findings indicate that IFI16 plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis and may be a potential therapeutic target.
Project description:Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder in humans, and the inflammatory reaction plays an important role in development and onset of psoriasis. 4'-O-?-D-glucosyl-5-O-methylvisamminol (4GMV) is one of the major active chromones isolated from Saposhnikoviae divaricata (Turcz.) Schischk, which has been reported to exhibit excellent anti-inflammatory activities. However, the possible therapeutic effect on psoriasis and underlying mechanism has not been reported. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of 4GMV on the imiquimod (IMQ)-induced psoriasis-like lesions in BALB/c mice and the anti-inflammatory effect on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in RAW264.7 macrophages. The results demonstrated that 4GMV decreased IMQ-induced keratinocyte proliferation and inflammatory cell infiltration. Moreover, 4GMV treatment significantly inhibited the production of NO, PEG 2, and cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, interferon (IFN)-?, and IL-22 in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. 4GMV also suppressed the LPS-upregulated protein expressions of iNOS and COX-2 in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, qRT-PCR analysis showed that 4GMV down-regulated the mRNA level of IL-1? and IL-6 expression. Further studies by western blot indicated that 4GMV inhibited the activation of upstream mediator NF-?B by suppressing the expression of TLR4 and the phosphorylation of I?B? and p65. The phosphorylation of JNK, p38, and ERK were also markedly reversed by 4GMV in LPS-treated RAW264.7 macrophages. Taken together, these results demonstrated that 4GMV showed a protective effect in IMQ-induced psoriasis-like mice and inhibited inflammation through the NF-?B and MAPK signaling pathways, indicating that 4GMV might be a potential therapeutic drug for psoriasis.
Project description:The transcriptional activator I?B? is a key regulator of psoriasis, but which cells mediate its pathogenic effect remains unknown. Here we found that I?B? expression in keratinocytes triggers not only skin lesions but also systemic inflammation in mouse psoriasis models. Specific depletion of I?B? in keratinocytes was sufficient to suppress the induction of imiquimod- or IL-36-mediated psoriasis. Moreover, I?B? ablation in keratinocytes prevented the onset of psoriatic lesions and systemic inflammation in keratinocyte-specific IL-17A-transgenic mice. Mechanistically, this psoriasis protection was mediated by I?B? deficiency in keratinocytes abrogating the induction of specific proinflammatory target genes, including Cxcl5, Cxcl2, Csf2, and Csf3, in response to IL-17A or IL-36. These I?B?-dependent genes trigger the generation and recruitment of neutrophils and monocytes that are needed for skin inflammation. Consequently, our data uncover a surprisingly pivotal role of keratinocytes and keratinocyte-derived I?B? as key mediators of psoriasis and psoriasis-related systemic inflammation.
Project description:Genetic variation in the NF-?B inhibitors, ABIN1 and A20, increase risk for psoriasis. While critical for hematopoietic immune cell function, these genes are believed to additionally inhibit psoriasis by dampening inflammatory signaling in keratinocytes. We dissected ABIN1 and A20's regulatory role in human keratinocyte inflammation using an RNA sequencing-based comparative genomic approach. Here we show subsets of the IL-17 and tumor necrosis factor-? signaling pathways are robustly restricted by A20 overexpression. In contrast, ABIN1 overexpression inhibits these genes more modestly for IL-17, and weakly for tumor necrosis factor-?. Our genome-scale analysis also indicates that inflammatory program suppression appears to be the major transcriptional influence of A20/ABIN1 overexpression, without obvious influence on keratinocyte viability genes. Our findings thus enable dissection of the differing anti-inflammatory mechanisms of two distinct psoriasis modifiers, which may be directly exploited for therapeutic purposes. Importantly, we report that IL-17-induced targets of A20 show similar aberrant epidermal layer-specific transcriptional upregulation in keratinocytes from diseases as diverse as psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and erythrokeratodermia variabilis, suggesting a contributory role for epidermal inflammation in a broad spectrum of rashes.
Project description:IL-1 is a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine that activates intracellular signaling cascades some of which may involve IL-1 receptor associated kinase-1 (IRAK1). Psoriasis is a T cell dependent chronic inflammatory condition of the skin of unknown cause. IL-1 has been implicated in psoriasis pathology, but the mechanism has not been elucidated. Interestingly, expression of IRAK1 is elevated in psoriatic skin. To identify a potential link between IL-1, keratinocytes and T cells in skin inflammation we employed pathway-focused microarrays to evaluate IL-1 dependent gene expression in keratinocytes. Several candidate mRNAs encoding known T cell chemoattractants were identified in primary keratinocytes and the stable keratinocyte cell line HaCaT. CCL5 and CCL20 mRNA and protein levels were confirmed up-regulated by IL-1 in concentration and time-dependent manners. Furthermore IL-1 synergized with IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha. Expression of CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11 mRNAs was also increased in response to IL-1, but protein could only be detected in medium from cells treated with IFN-gamma alone or in combination with IL-1. Over-expression of IRAK1 led to increased constitutive and cytokine induced production of CCL5 and CCL20. Inhibition of IRAK1 activity through RNAi or expression of a dominant negative mutant blocked production of CCL5 and CCL20 but had no effect upon the IL-1 enhancement of IFN-gamma induced CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11 production. In conclusion IL-1 regulates T cell targeting chemokine production in keratinocytes through IRAK1 dependent and independent pathways. These pathways may contribute to acute and chronic skin inflammation.
Project description:Members of NADPH oxidase (Nox) enzyme family are important sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and are known to be involved in several physiological functions in response to various stimuli including UV irradiation. UVB-induced ROS have been associated with inflammation, cytotoxicity, cell death, or DNA damage in human keratinocytes. However, the source and the role of UVB-induced ROS remain undefined. Here, we show that Nox1 is involved in UVB-induced p38/MAPK activation and cytotoxicity via ROS generation in keratinocytes. Nox1 knockdown or inhibitor decreased UVB-induced ROS production in human keratinocytes. Nox1 knockdown impaired UVB-induced p38 activation, accompanied by reduced IL-6 levels and attenuated cell toxicity. Treatment of cells with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), a potent ROS scavenger, suppressed p38 activation as well as consequent IL-6 production and cytotoxicity in response to UVB exposure. p38 inhibitor also suppressed UVB-induced IL-6 production and cytotoxicity. Furthermore, the blockade of IL-6 production by IL-6 neutralizing antibody reduced UVB-induced cell toxicity. In vivo assay using wild-type mice, the intradermal injection of lysates from UVB-irradiated control cells, but not from UVB-irradiated Nox1 knockdown cells, induced inflammatory swelling and IL-6 production in the skin of ears. Moreover, administration of Nox1 inhibitor suppressed UVB-induced increase in IL-6 mRNA expression in mice skin. Collectively, these data suggest that Nox1-mediated ROS production is required for UVB-induced cytotoxicity and inflammation through p38 activation and inflammatory cytokine production, such as IL-6. Thus, our findings suggest Nox1 as a therapeutic target for cytotoxicity and inflammation in response to UVB exposure.
Project description:Tristetraprolin (TTP, encoded by the Zfp36 gene) regulates the mRNA stability of several important cytokines. Due to the critical role of this RNA-binding protein in the control of inflammation, TTP deficiency leads to the spontaneous development of a complex inflammatory syndrome. So far, this phenotype has been largely attributed to dysregulated production of TNF and IL?23 by myeloid cells, such as macrophages or DCs. Here, we generated mice with conditional deletion of TTP in keratinocytes (Zfp36fl/flK14-Cre mice, referred to herein as Zfp36?EP mice). Unlike DC-restricted (CD11c-Cre) or myeloid cell-restricted (LysM-Cre) TTP ablation, these mice developed exacerbated inflammation in the imiquimod-induced psoriasis model. Furthermore, Zfp36?EP mice progressively developed a spontaneous pathology with systemic inflammation, psoriatic-like skin lesions, and dactylitis. Finally, we provide evidence that keratinocyte-derived TNF production drives these different pathological features. In summary, these findings expand current views on the initiation of psoriasis and related arthritis by revealing the keratinocyte-intrinsic role of TTP.