Myofibrillar Z-discs Are a Protein Phosphorylation Hot Spot with Protein Kinase C (PKC?) Modulating Protein Dynamics.
ABSTRACT: The Z-disc is a protein-rich structure critically important for the development and integrity of myofibrils, which are the contractile organelles of cross-striated muscle cells. We here used mouse C2C12 myoblast, which were differentiated into myotubes, followed by electrical pulse stimulation (EPS) to generate contracting myotubes comprising mature Z-discs. Using a quantitative proteomics approach, we found significant changes in the relative abundance of 387 proteins in myoblasts versus differentiated myotubes, reflecting the drastic phenotypic conversion of these cells during myogenesis. Interestingly, EPS of differentiated myotubes to induce Z-disc assembly and maturation resulted in increased levels of proteins involved in ATP synthesis, presumably to fulfill the higher energy demand of contracting myotubes. Because an important role of the Z-disc for signal integration and transduction was recently suggested, its precise phosphorylation landscape further warranted in-depth analysis. We therefore established, by global phosphoproteomics of EPS-treated contracting myotubes, a comprehensive site-resolved protein phosphorylation map of the Z-disc and found that it is a phosphorylation hotspot in skeletal myocytes, underscoring its functions in signaling and disease-related processes. In an illustrative fashion, we analyzed the actin-binding multiadaptor protein filamin C (FLNc), which is essential for Z-disc assembly and maintenance, and found that PKC? phosphorylation at distinct serine residues in its hinge 2 region prevents its cleavage at an adjacent tyrosine residue by calpain 1. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments indicated that this phosphorylation modulates FLNc dynamics. Moreover, FLNc lacking the cleaved Ig-like domain 24 exhibited remarkably fast kinetics and exceedingly high mobility. Our data set provides research community resource for further identification of kinase-mediated changes in myofibrillar protein interactions, kinetics, and mobility that will greatly advance our understanding of Z-disc dynamics and signaling.
Project description:Filamin C (FLNC) is one of three filamin proteins (Filamin A (FLNA), Filamin B (FLNB), and FLNC) that cross-link actin filaments and interact with numerous binding partners. FLNC consists of a N-terminal actin-binding domain followed by 24 immunoglobulin-like repeats with two intervening calpain-sensitive hinges separating R15 and R16 (hinge 1) and R23 and R24 (hinge-2). The FLNC subunit is dimerized through R24 and calpain cleaves off the dimerization domain to regulate mobility of the FLNC subunit. FLNC is localized in the Z-disc due to the unique insertion of 82 amino acid residues in repeat 20 and necessary for normal Z-disc formation that connect sarcomeres. Since phosphorylation of FLNC by PKC diminishes the calpain sensitivity, assembly, and disassembly of the Z-disc may be regulated by phosphorylation of FLNC. Mutations of FLNC result in cardiomyopathy and muscle weakness. Although this review will focus on the current understanding of FLNC structure and functions in muscle, we will also discuss other filamins because they share high sequence similarity and are better characterized. We will also discuss a possible role of FLNC as a mechanosensor during muscle contraction.
Project description:Skeletal muscle adaptation is mediated by cooperative regulation of metabolism, signal transduction, and gene expression. However, the global regulatory mechanism remains unclear. To address this issue, we performed electrical pulse stimulation (EPS) in differentiated C2C12 myotubes at low and high frequency, carried out metabolome and transcriptome analyses, and investigated phosphorylation status of signaling molecules. EPS triggered extensive and specific changes in metabolites, signaling phosphorylation, and gene expression during and after EPS in a frequency-dependent manner. We constructed trans-omic network by integrating these data and found selective activation of the pentose phosphate pathway including metabolites, upstream signaling molecules, and gene expression of metabolic enzymes after high-frequency EPS. We experimentally validated that activation of these molecules after high-frequency EPS was dependent on reactive oxygen species (ROS). Thus, the trans-omic analysis revealed ROS-dependent activation in signal transduction, metabolome, and transcriptome after high-frequency EPS in C2C12 myotubes, shedding light on possible mechanisms of muscle adaptation.
Project description:The PI3K/Akt pathway promotes skeletal muscle growth and myogenic differentiation. Although its importance in skeletal muscle biology is well documented, many of its substrates remain to be identified. We here studied PI3K/Akt signaling in contracting skeletal muscle cells by quantitative phosphoproteomics. We identified the extended basophilic phosphosite motif RxRxxp[S/T]xxp[S/T] in various proteins including filamin-C (FLNc). Importantly, this extended motif, located in a unique insert in Ig-like domain 20 of FLNc, is doubly phosphorylated. The protein kinases responsible for this dual-site phosphorylation are Akt and PKC?. Proximity proteomics and interaction analysis identified filamin A-interacting protein 1 (FILIP1) as direct FLNc binding partner. FILIP1 binding induces filamin degradation, thereby negatively regulating its function. Here, dual-site phosphorylation of FLNc not only reduces FILIP1 binding, providing a mechanism to shield FLNc from FILIP1-mediated degradation, but also enables fast dynamics of FLNc necessary for its function as signaling adaptor in cross-striated muscle cells.
Project description:We are interested in understanding mechanisms that govern the protective role of exercise against lipid-induced insulin resistance, a key driver of type 2 diabetes. In this context, cell culture models provide a level of abstraction that aid in our understanding of cellular physiology. Here we describe the development of an in vitro myotube contraction system that provides this protective effect, and which we have harnessed to investigate lipid-induced insulin resistance. C2C12 myocytes were differentiated into contractile myotubes. A custom manufactured platinum electrode system and pulse stimulator, with polarity switching, provided an electrical pulse stimulus (EPS) (1 Hz, 6-ms pulse width, 1.5 V/mm, 16 h). Contractility was assessed by optical flow flied spot noise mapping and inhibited by application of ammonium acetate. Following EPS, myotubes were challenged with 0.5 mM palmitate for 4 h. Cells were then treated with or without insulin for glucose uptake (30 min), secondary insulin signaling activation (10 min), and phosphoinositide 3-kinase-? (PI3K?) activity (5 min). Prolonged EPS increased non-insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (83%, P = 0.002), Akt (Thr308) phosphorylation (P = 0.005), and insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1)-associated PI3K? activity (P = 0.048). Palmitate reduced insulin-specific action on glucose uptake (-49%, P < 0.001) and inhibited insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation (P = 0.049) and whole cell PI3K? activity (P = 0.009). The inhibitory effects of palmitate were completely absent with EPS pretreatment at the levels of glucose uptake, insulin responsiveness, Akt phosphorylation, and whole cell PI3K? activity. This model suggests that muscle contraction alone is a sufficient stimulus to protect against lipid-induced insulin resistance as evidenced by changes in the proximal canonical insulin-signaling pathway.
Project description:The Z-disc is a protein-rich structure critically important for myofibril development and integrity. Since a role of the Z-disc for signal integration and transduction was recently suggested, its precise phosphorylation landscape warranted in-depth analysis. We therefore established a site-resolved protein phosphorylation map of the Z-disc in skeletal myocytes and found that it is a phosphorylation hotspot in living cells, underscoring its functions in signalling and disease-related processes. In an exemplary fashion, we analysed the actin-binding multi-adaptor protein filamin C (FLNc), which is essential for Z-disc assembly and maintenance, and found that PKC phosphorylation at distinct serine residues in its hinge 2 region prevents its cleavage at an adjacent tyrosine residue by calpain 1. With this quantitative in vivo kinase assay, we show that the phosphorylation site S2625 in mouse FLNc is significantly down-regulated upon treatment of C2C12 myotubes with the PKCα inhibitor Gö6976.
Project description:Regular exercise has emerged as one of the best therapeutic strategies to prevent and treat type-2-diabetes. Exercise-induced changes in the muscle secretome, consisting of myokines and metabolites, may underlie the inter-organ communication between muscle and other organs. To investigate this crosstalk, we developed an in vitro system in which mouse C2C12 myotubes underwent electric pulse stimulation (EPS) to induce contraction. Subsequently the effects of EPS-conditioned media (EPS-CM) on hepatocytes were investigated. Here, we demonstrate that EPS-CM induces Metallothionein 1/2 and Slc30a2 gene expression and reduces Cyp2a3 gene expression in rat hepatocytes. When testing EPS-CM that was generated in the absence of C2C12 myotubes (non-cell EPS-CM) no decrease in Cyp2a3 expression was detected. However, similar inductions in hepatic Mt1/2 and Slc30a2 expression were observed. Non-cell EPS-CM were also applied to C2C12 myotubes and compared to C2C12 myotubes that underwent EPS: here changes in AMPK phosphorylation and myokine secretion largely depended on EPS-induced contraction. Taken together, these findings indicate that EPS can alter C2C12 myotube function and thereby affect gene expression in cells subjected to EPS-CM (Cyp2a3). However, EPS can also generate non-cell-mediated changes in cell culture media, which can affect gene expression in cells subjected to EPS-CM too. While EPS clearly represents a valuable tool in exercise research, care should be taken in experimental design to control for non-cell-mediated effects.
Project description:Eccentric exercise leads to focal disruptions in the myofibrils, referred to as "lesions". These structures are thought to contribute to the post-exercise muscle weakness, and to represent areas of mechanical damage and/or remodelling. Lesions have been investigated in human biopsies and animal samples after exercise. However, this approach does not examine the mechanisms behind lesion formation, or their behaviour during contraction. To circumvent this, we used electrical pulse stimulation (EPS) to simulate exercise in C2C12 myotubes, combined with live microscopy. EPS application led to the formation of sarcomeric lesions in the myotubes, resembling those seen in exercised mice, increasing in number with the time of application or stimulation intensity. Furthermore, transfection with an EGFP-tagged version of the lesion and Z-disc marker filamin-C allowed us to observe the formation of lesions using live cell imaging. Finally, using the same technique we studied the behaviour of these structures during contraction, and observed them to be passively stretching. This passive behaviour supports the hypothesis that lesions contribute to the post-exercise muscle weakness, protecting against further damage. We conclude that EPS can be reliably used as a model for the induction and study of sarcomeric lesions in myotubes in vitro.
Project description:Exercise increases the expression of the prototypical myokine IL-6, but the precise mechanism by which this occurs has yet to be identified. To mimic exercise conditions, C2C12 myotubes were mechanically stimulated via electrical pulse stimulation (EPS). We compared the responses of EPS with the pharmacological Ca(2+) carrier calcimycin (A23187) because contraction induces marked increases in cytosolic Ca(2+) levels or the classical I?B kinase/NF?B inflammatory response elicited by H(2)O(2). We demonstrate that, unlike H(2)O(2)-stimulated increases in IL-6 mRNA, neither calcimycin- nor EPS-induced IL-6 mRNA expression is under the transcriptional control of NF?B. Rather, we show that EPS increased the phosphorylation of JNK and the reporter activity of the downstream transcription factor AP-1. Furthermore, JNK inhibition abolished the EPS-induced increase in IL-6 mRNA and protein expression. Finally, we observed an exercise-induced increase in both JNK phosphorylation and IL-6 mRNA expression in the skeletal muscles of mice after 30 min of treadmill running. Importantly, exercise did not increase IL-6 mRNA expression in skeletal muscle-specific JNK-deficient mice. These data identify a novel contraction-mediated transcriptional regulatory pathway for IL-6 in skeletal muscle.
Project description:Skeletal (voluntary) muscle is the most abundant tissue in the body, thus making it an important biomedical research subject. Studies of neuromuscular transmission, including disorders of ion channels or receptors in autoimmune or genetic neuromuscular disorders, require high-spatial-resolution measurement techniques and an ability to acquire repeated recordings over time in order to track pharmacological interventions. Preclinical techniques for studying diseases of neuromuscular transmission can be enhanced by physiologic ex vivo models of tissue-tissue and cell-cell interactions. Here, we present a method, which allows tracking the development of primary skeletal muscle cells from myoblasts into mature contracting myotubes over more than 2 months. In contrast to most previous studies, the myotubes did not detach from the surface but instead formed functional networks between the myotubes, whose electrical signals were observed over the entire culturing period. Primary cultures of mouse myoblasts differentiated into contracting myotubes on a chip that contained an array of 26,400 platinum electrodes at a density of 3,265 electrodes per mm2. Our ability to track extracellular action potentials at subcellular resolution enabled study of skeletal muscle development and kinetics, modes of spiking and spatio-temporal relationships between muscles. The developed system in turn enables creation of a novel electrophysiological platform for establishing ex vivo disease models.
Project description:Maintenance of muscle structure and function depends on the precise organization of contractile proteins into sarcomeres and coupling of the contractile apparatus to the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), which serves as the reservoir for calcium required for contraction. Several members of the Kelch superfamily of proteins, which modulate protein stability as substrate-specific adaptors for ubiquitination, have been implicated in sarcomere formation. The Kelch protein Klhl31 is expressed in a muscle-specific manner under control of the transcription factor MEF2. To explore its functions in vivo, we created a mouse model of Klhl31 loss of function using the CRISPR-Cas9 system. Mice lacking Klhl31 exhibited stunted postnatal skeletal muscle growth, centronuclear myopathy, central cores, Z-disc streaming, and SR dilation. We used proteomics to identify several candidate Klhl31 substrates, including Filamin-C (FlnC). In the Klhl31-knockout mice, FlnC protein levels were highly upregulated with no change in transcription, and we further demonstrated that Klhl31 targets FlnC for ubiquitination and degradation. These findings highlight a role for Klhl31 in the maintenance of skeletal muscle structure and provide insight into the mechanisms underlying congenital myopathies.