Effect of FCGR polymorphism on the occurrence of late-onset neutropenia and flare-free survival in rheumatic patients treated with rituximab.
ABSTRACT: The causes and mechanisms of late-onset neutropenia (LON) following rituximab treatment in patients with rheumatic diseases are not known. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of established Fcγ receptor gene (FCGR) polymorphisms and B-cell-activating factor (BAFF) gene promoter polymorphisms for the development of LON and for the efficacy of rituximab in patients with rheumatic diseases.A single-center case-control retrospective study was nested in a cohort of 214 consecutive patients with rheumatic diseases treated with rituximab. Eleven patients presented with LON. Fifty non-LON control subjects were matched by diagnosis, age, sex, and treatments. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms of FCGR (FCGR2A 131H/R, FCGR2B 232I/T, FCGR3A 158V/F) and BAFF promoter polymorphism -871C/T were analyzed with polymerase chain reaction-based techniques, and serum immunoglobulin M (IgM) and BAFF levels were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Flare-free survival was related to LON occurrence and polymorphisms.The FCGR3A V allele, but not other FCGR polymorphisms, correlated with the occurrence of LON; each V allele conferred a fourfold increased OR for LON (p = 0.017). FCGR3A 158V/V and presentation with LON were associated with a longer flare-free survival (p = 0.023 and p = 0.031, respectively). FCGR3A 158V/V was related to lower IgM levels (p = 0.016). Serum BAFF levels showed no relationship with LON and BAFF -871C/T promoter polymorphism. There was a tendency toward longer flare-free survival in patients with the BAFF -871T/T allotype compared with the C/T or C/C allotypes (p = 0.096).The results of the present study suggest that presentation with LON may be a result of the intrinsic efficacy of rituximab in patients with rheumatic diseases. LON could indicate a longer biological and therapeutic activity of rituximab modulated by a certain genotypic polymorphism: the high-affinity FCGR3A V allele. This genotype and the occurrence of LON are both related to longer flare-free survival, suggestive of common mechanisms for LON and duration of response to rituximab. The role of the BAFF -871C/T promoter polymorphism in LON occurrence is unclear.
Project description:The influence of Fc gamma receptor IIIA (FCGR3A) 158V/F polymorphisms on the response to rituximab (R) plus CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone; R-CHOP) therapy in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is uncertain. Thus, a retrospective study and a meta-analysis were performed to examine the possible correlation between FCGR3A 158V/F polymorphism and the response rate of R-CHOP regimen in patients with newly diagnosed DLBCL. The genotypes of FCGR3A 158V/F in 164 newly diagnosed DLBCL patients treated with R-CHOP were determined in this retrospective study. Additionally, a meta-analysis of current and previously published studies was conducted. Overall response rate (complete and partial response, ORR) and complete response rate (CR) were evaluated. The results of our retrospective study showed lack of correlation between FCGR3A 158V/F polymorphism and ORR (p=0.78) or CR (p=0.76) with R-CHOP therapy. A meta-analysis of 731 cases also showed lack of significant association of ORR and CR in all genetic models with FCGR3A 158V/F polymorphism. In survival analysis, the homozygous F genotype correlated with a shorter progression-free survival than that of non-F/F genotype (p=0.05), this was significant for the non-GC subset of DLBCL (p=0.04), but no association was found between overall survival and FCGR3A 158V/F polymorphism. Further analysis with nonsuperiority test (p<0.0001) suggested that FCGR3A 158V/F polymorphism was not associated with better ORR or CR in newly diagnosed DLBCL patient treated with R-CHOP. No clear relationship was found between FCGR3A 158V/F polymorphism and response to frontline R-CHOP therapy in patients with DLBCL.
Project description:The affinity of IgG Fc receptor (FcγR) for rituximab, an anti-CD20 IgG1, differs based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FcγRs. This study aimed to explore the effect of such SNPs on clinical response to rituximab and outcomes in patients of ABO-incompatible (ABOi) living donor liver transplantation (LDLT).SNPs of FCGR2A[131H/R] and FCGR3A[158F/V], alleles encoding FcγR, were identified in 20 patients desensitized with rituximab before ABOi LDLT. The effect of these SNPs on B cell elimination and outcomes was analyzed in the patients.The isoform encoded by FCGR2A[131H/H] had a higher affinity for IgG1, and accordingly, the effects of rituximab on B cells were more profound in individuals with FCGR2A[131H/H] than in individuals with FCGR2A[131H/R or R/R]. Specifically, the time to B-cell reappearance in the peripheral blood was significantly delayed, and total serum IgM levels were significantly lower early after LDLT in individuals with FCGR2A[131H/H], even though these SNPs did not significantly affect the reduction of antiblood group A/B antibodies. The incidence of blood stream infection was also significantly higher in individuals with FCGR2A[131H/H], and this SNP was associated with poor prognosis. Despite no significant effect of FCGR3A[158F/V] on survival after ABOi liver grafts, the incidence of infection was significantly higher in individuals with FCGR3A[158F/V or F/F] than in individuals with FCGR3A[158V/V].Our findings indicate FCGR SNPs influence the effect of rituximab on B-cell depletion and are possibly predisposing factors for infectious complications after ABOi LDLT. This study will be a good foundation for further studies on larger cohorts.
Project description:Cryptococcus neoformans is one of the most common causes of fungal disease in HIV-infected persons, but not all of those who are infected develop cryptococcal disease (CD). Although CD4(+) T cell deficiency is a risk factor for HIV-associated CD, polymorphisms of phagocytic Fc gamma receptors (FCGRs) have been linked to CD risk in HIV-uninfected persons. To investigate associations between FCGR2A 131 H/R and FCGR3A 158 F/V polymorphisms and CD risk in HIV-infected persons, we performed PCR-based genotyping on banked samples from 164 men enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS): 55 who were HIV infected and developed CD and a matched control group of 54 who were HIV infected and 55 who were HIV uninfected. Using additive and allelic statistical models for analysis, the high-affinity FCGR3A 158V allele was significantly associated with CD status after adjusting for race/ethnicity (odds ratio [OR], 2.1; P = 0.005), as was the FCGR3A 158 VV homozygous genotype after adjusting for race/ethnicity, rate of CD4(+) T cell decline, and nadir CD4(+) T cell count (OR, 21; P = 0.005). No associations between CD and FCGR2A 131 H/R polymorphism were identified. In binding studies, human IgG (hIgG)-C. neoformans complexes exhibited more binding to CHO-K1 cells expressing FCGR3A 158V than to those expressing FCGR3A 158F, and in cytotoxicity assays, natural killer (NK) cells expressing FCGR3A 158V induced more C. neoformans-infected monocyte cytotoxicity than those expressing FCGR3A 158F. Together, these results show an association between the FCGR3A 158V allele and risk for HIV-associated CD and suggest that this polymorphism could promote C. neoformans pathogenesis via increased binding of C. neoformans immune complexes, resulting in increased phagocyte cargo and/or immune activation.HIV-associated CD4(+) T cell deficiency is a sine qua non for HIV-associated cryptococcal disease (CD), but not all patients with CD4(+) T cell deficiency develop CD despite serological evidence of previous infection. At present, there are no biomarkers that predict HIV-associated CD risk. The goal of our study was to understand whether Fc gamma receptor (FCGR) polymorphisms that have been shown to portend CD risk in HIV-uninfected people are associated with CD risk in HIV-infected people. Such biomarkers could identify those who would benefit most from targeted prophylaxis and/or earlier treatment, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, where there are nearly a million cases of HIV-associated CD annually. A biomarker of risk could also identify potential candidates for immunization, should there be a vaccine for Cryptococcus neoformans.
Project description:Fc gamma receptors (Fc?Rs) play a major role in the regulation of humoral immune responses. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of FCGR2A and FCGR3A can impact the expression level, IgG affinity and function of the CD32 and CD16 Fc?Rs in response to their engagement by the Fc fragment of IgG. The CD16 isoform encoded by FCGR3A [158V/V] controls the intensity of antibody-dependent cytotoxic alloimmune responses of natural killer cells (NK) and has been identified as a susceptibility marker predisposing patients to cardiac allograft vasculopathy after heart transplant. This study aimed to investigate whether FCGR2A and FCGR3A polymorphisms can also be associated with the clinical outcome of lung transplant recipients (LTRs). The SNPs of FCGR2A ([131R/H], rs1801274) and FCGR3A ([158V/F], rs396991) were identified in 158 LTRs and 184 Controls (CTL). The corresponding distribution of genotypic and allelic combinations was analyzed for potential links with the development of circulating donor-specific anti-HLA alloantibodies (DSA) detected at months 1 and 3 after lung transplant (LTx), the occurrence of acute rejection (AR) and chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD), and the overall survival of LTRs. The FCGR3A [158V/V] genotype was identified as an independent susceptibility factor associated with higher rates of AR during the first trimester after LTx (HR 4.8, p < 0.0001, 95% CI 2.37-9.61), but it could not be associated with the level of CD16- mediated NK cell activation in response to the LTR's DSA, whatever the MFI intensity and C1q binding profiles of the DSA evaluated. The FCGR2A [131R/R] genotype was associated with lower CLAD-free survival of LTRs, independently of the presence of DSA at 3 months (HR 1.8, p = 0.024, 95% CI 1.08-3.03). Our data indicate that FCGR SNPs differentially affect the clinical outcome of LTRs and may be of use to stratify patients at higher risk of experiencing graft rejection. Furthermore, these data suggest that in the LTx setting, specific mechanisms of humoral alloreactivity, which cannot be solely explained by the complement and CD16-mediated pathogenic effects of DSA, may be involved in the development of acute and chronic lung allograft rejection.
Project description:Preclinical studies suggest that SNPs in the Fc gamma receptor (FCGR) genes influence response to rituximab, but the clinical relevance of this is uncertain.We prospectively obtained specimens for genotyping in the rituximab extended schedule or re-treatment trial (RESORT) study, in which 408 previously untreated, low tumor burden follicular lymphoma (FL) patients were treated with single agent rituximab. Patients received rituximab in 4 weekly doses and responders were randomized to rituximab re-treatment (RR) upon progression versus maintenance rituximab (MR). SNP genotyping was performed in 321 consenting patients.Response rates to initial therapy and response duration were correlated with the FCGR3A SNP at position 158 (rs396991) and the FCGR2A SNP at position 131 (rs1801274). The response rate to initial rituximab was 71%. No FCGR genotypes or grouping of genotypes were predictive of initial response. A total of 289 patients were randomized to RR (n = 143) or to MR (n = 146). With a median follow-up of 5.5 years, the 3-year response duration in the RR arm and the MR arm was 50% and 78%, respectively. Genotyping was available in 235 of 289 randomized patients. In patients receiving RR (n = 115) or MR (n = 120), response duration was not associated with any FCGR genotypes or genotype combinations.Based on this analysis of treatment-naïve, low tumor burden FL, we conclude that the FCGR3A and FCGR2A SNPs do not confer differential responsiveness to rituximab.
Project description:The Fcgamma receptors play important roles in the initiation and regulation of many immunological and inflammatory processes, and genetic variants (FCGR) have been associated with numerous autoimmune and infectious diseases. The data in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are conflicting and we previously demonstrated an association between FCGR3A and RA. In view of the close molecular proximity with FCGR2A, FCGR2B and FCGR3B, additional polymorphisms within these genes and FCGR haplotypes were examined to refine the extent of association with RA. Biallelic polymorphisms in FCGR2A, FCGR2B and FCGR3B were examined for association with RA in two well characterized UK Caucasian and North Indian/Pakistani cohorts, in which FCGR3A genotyping had previously been undertaken. Haplotype frequencies and linkage disequilibrium were estimated across the FCGR locus and a model-free analysis was performed to determine association with RA. This was followed by regression analysis, allowing for phase uncertainty, to identify the particular haplotype(s) that influences disease risk. Our results reveal that FCGR2A, FCGR2B and FCGR3B were not associated with RA. The haplotype with the strongest association with RA susceptibility was the FCGR3A-FCGR3B 158V-NA2 haplotype (odds ratio 3.18, 95% confidence interval 1.13-8.92 [P = 0.03] for homozygotes compared with all genotypes). The association was stronger in the presence of nodules (odds ratio 5.03, 95% confidence interval 1.44-17.56; P = 0.01). This haplotype was also more common in North Indian/Pakistani RA patients than in control individuals, but not significantly so. Logistic regression analyses suggested that FCGR3A remained the most significant gene at this locus. The increased association with an FCGR3A-FCGR3B haplotype suggests that other polymorphic variants within FCGR3A or FCGR3B, or in linkage disequilibrium with this haplotype, may additionally contribute to disease pathogenesis.
Project description:We have previously revealed that, in contrast to polymorphism of FCGR2B and FCGR3B, polymorphism of FCGR2A, FCGR2C and FCGR3A genes, encoding receptors for Fc fragment of immunoglobulin G (Fc? receptors), play a role in increased level of circulating immune complexes with occurrence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis heat shock proteins in patients with sarcoidosis. However, this immunocomplexemia might also be caused by decreased clearance by immune cells due to a changed copy number of FCGR genes. Thus, the next step of our study was to evaluate copy number variation of FCGR2A, FCGR2B, FCGR2C, FCGR3A and FCGR3B in this disease. The analysis was carried out by real-time quantitative PCR on 104 patients and 110 healthy volunteers. Despite previously detected variation in allele/genotype frequencies of FCGR in sarcoidosis and its particular stages, there was no copy number variation of the tested genes between sarcoidosis or its stages and healthy control, as well as between stages themselves. A relevant increase in copy number of FCGR2C and FCGR3B in Stage IV of sarcoidosis vs. other stages and controls was detected, but this observation was based on a limited number of Stage IV patients. Hence, polymorphism of FCGR genes seems to be more important than their copy number variation in etiopathogenesis of sarcoidosis in patients from the Polish population.
Project description:Segmental duplications (SDs) comprise about 5% of the human genome and are enriched for immune genes. SD loci often show copy numbers variations (CNV), which are difficult to tag with genotyping methods. CNV in the Fc? receptor region (FCGR) has been suggested to be associated with rheumatic diseases. The objective of this study was to delineate association of FCGR-CNV with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), coeliac disease and Inflammatory bowel disease incidence. We developed a method to accurately quantify CNV in SD loci based on the intensity values from the Immunochip platform and applied it to the FCGR locus. We determined the method's validity using three independent assays: segregation analysis in families, arrayCGH, and whole genome sequencing. Our data showed the presence of two separate CNVs in the FCGR locus. The first region encodes FCGR2A, FCGR3A and part of FCGR2C gene, the second encodes another part of FCGR2C, FCGR3B and FCGR2B. Analysis of CNV status in 4578 individuals with RA and 5457 controls indicated association of duplications in the FCGR3B gene in antibody-negative RA (P=0.002, OR=1.43). Deletion in FCGR3B was associated with increased risk of antibody-positive RA, consistently with previous reports (P=0.023, OR=1.23). A clear genotype-phenotype relationship was observed: CNV polymorphisms of the FCGR3A gene correlated to CD16A expression (encoded by FCGR3A) on CD8 T-cells. In conclusion, our method allows determining the CNV status of the FCGR locus, we identified association of CNV in FCGR3B to RA and showed a functional relationship between CNV in the FCGR3A gene and CD16A expression.
Project description:PURPOSE:The primary aim of NSABP FB-7 was to determine the pathologic complete response (pCR) rate in locally advanced HER2-positive (HER2+) breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant trastuzumab or neratinib or the combination and weekly paclitaxel followed by standard doxorubicin plus cyclophosphamide. The secondary aims include biomarker analyses. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:pCR was tested for association with treatment, gene expression, and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the Fc fragment of the IgG receptor IIIa-158V/F (FCGR3A). Pre-treatment biopsies and residual tumors were also compared to identify molecular changes. RESULTS:The numerical pCR rate in the trastuzumab plus neratinib arm (50% [95%CI 34-66%]) was greater than that for single-targeted therapies with trastuzumab (38% [95%CI 24-54]) or neratinib (33% [95%CI 20-50]) in the overall cohort but was not statistically significant. Hormone receptor-negative (HR-) tumors had a higher pCR rate than HR+ tumors in all three treatment arms, with the highest pCR rate in the combination arm. Diarrhea was the most frequent adverse event and occurred in virtually all patients who received neratinib-based therapy. Grade 3 diarrhea was reported in 31% of patients; there were no grade 4 events. Our 8-gene signature, previously validated for trastuzumab benefit in two different clinical trials in the adjuvant setting, was correlated with pCR across all arms of NSABP FB-7. Specifically, patients predicted to receive no trastuzumab benefit had a significantly lower pCR rate than did patients predicted to receive the most benefit (P?=?0.03). FCGR genotyping showed that patients who were homozygous for the Fc low-binding phenylalanine (F) allele for FCGR3A-158V/F were less likely to achieve pCR. CONCLUSIONS:Combining trastuzumab plus neratinib with paclitaxel increased the absolute pCR rate in the overall cohort and in HR- patients. The 8-gene signature, which is validated for predicting trastuzumab benefit in the adjuvant setting, was associated with pCR in the neoadjuvant setting, but remains to be validated as a predictive marker in a larger neoadjuvant clinical trial. HR status, and the FCGR3A-158V/F genotype, also warrant further investigation to identify HER2+ patients who may benefit from additional anti-HER2 therapies beyond trastuzumab. All of these markers will require further validation in the neoadjuvant setting. TRIALS REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01008150. Retrospectively registered on October 5, 2010.
Project description:Previously we showed that alveolar macrophages (AMs) from patients with chronic beryllium disease (CBD) and beryllium sensitization (BeS) demonstrated significantly greater cell surface CD16 (encoded by the FCGR3A gene) than controls. We hypothesized that these differences were related to polymorphisms in the FCGR3A gene. This study was to determine the association between FCGR3A polymorphisms in CBD, BeS versus controls as well as clinical data, providing potential information about disease pathogenesis, risk, and activity. A total of 189 CBD/154 BeS/150 controls (92 Be-exposed non-diseased and 58 healthy controls) were included in this study. Sequence-specific primers polymerase chain reaction (PCR-SSP) was used to determine FCGR3A 158V/F polymorphisms. We found significantly higher frequencies of the 158V allele (OR: 1.60 (CI: 1.17-2.19), p?=?0.004) and 158VV homozygotes (OR: 2.97 (CI: 1.48-5.97) p?=?0.007) in CBD versus controls. No differences were found in the frequencies of FCGR3A alleles or genotypes between BeS versus controls and CBD versus BeS. Average changes in exercise testing maximum workload (Wlm), maximum oxygen consumption (VO2m), and diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide (DLCO) demonstrated greater decline over time in those CBD cases with the 158VV gene, modeled between 10 and 40 years from first beryllium exposure. The FCGR3A V158F polymorphism is associated with CBD compared to BeS and controls and may impact lung function in CBD.