The dominant-negative interplay between p53, p63 and p73: A family affair.
ABSTRACT: The tumor suppression activity of p53 is frequently impaired in cancers even when a wild-type copy of the gene is still present, suggesting that a dominant-negative effect is exerted by some of p53 mutants and isoforms. p63 and p73, which are related to p53, have also been reported to be subjected to a similar loss of function, suggesting that a dominant-negative interplay might happen between p53, p63 and p73. However, to which extent p53 hotspot mutants and isoforms of p53, p63 and p73 are able to interfere with the tumor suppressive activity of their siblings as well as the underlying mechanisms remain undeciphered. Using yeast, we showed that a dominant-negative effect is widely spread within the p53/p63/p73 family as all p53 loss-of-function hotspot mutants and several of the isoforms of p53 and p73 tested exhibit a dominant-negative potential. In addition, we found that this dominant-negative effect over p53 wild-type is based on tetramer poisoning through the formation of inactive hetero-tetramers and does not rely on a prion-like mechanism contrary to what has been previously suggested. We also showed that mutant p53-R175H gains the ability to inhibit p63 and p73 activity by a mechanism that is only partially based on tetramerization.
Project description:The members of the p53 family comprise p53, p63, and p73, and full-length isoforms of the p53 family have a tumor suppressor function. However, p53, but not p63 or p73, has a high mutation rate in cancers causing it to lose its tumor suppressor function. The top and second-most prevalent p53 mutations are missense and nonsense mutations, respectively. In this review, we discuss possible drug therapies for nonsense mutation and a missense mutation in p53. p63 and p73 activators may be able to replace mutant p53 and act as anti-cancer drugs. Herein, these p63 and p73 activators are summarized and how to improve these activator responses, particularly focusing on p53 gain-of-function mutants, is discussed.
Project description:TP53 is commonly altered in human cancer, and Tp53 reactivation suppresses tumours in vivo in mice (TP53 and Tp53 are also known as p53). This strategy has proven difficult to implement therapeutically, and here we examine an alternative strategy by manipulating the p53 family members, Tp63 and Tp73 (also known as p63 and p73, respectively). The acidic transactivation-domain-bearing (TA) isoforms of p63 and p73 structurally and functionally resemble p53, whereas the ?N isoforms (lacking the acidic transactivation domain) of p63 and p73 are frequently overexpressed in cancer and act primarily in a dominant-negative fashion against p53, TAp63 and TAp73 to inhibit their tumour-suppressive functions. The p53 family interacts extensively in cellular processes that promote tumour suppression, such as apoptosis and autophagy, thus a clear understanding of this interplay in cancer is needed to treat tumours with alterations in the p53 pathway. Here we show that deletion of the ?N isoforms of p63 or p73 leads to metabolic reprogramming and regression of p53-deficient tumours through upregulation of IAPP, the gene that encodes amylin, a 37-amino-acid peptide co-secreted with insulin by the ? cells of the pancreas. We found that IAPP is causally involved in this tumour regression and that amylin functions through the calcitonin receptor (CalcR) and receptor activity modifying protein 3 (RAMP3) to inhibit glycolysis and induce reactive oxygen species and apoptosis. Pramlintide, a synthetic analogue of amylin that is currently used to treat type 1 and type 2 diabetes, caused rapid tumour regression in p53-deficient thymic lymphomas, representing a novel strategy to target p53-deficient cancers.
Project description:Hepatocellular carcinoma is a highly deadly malignancy, accounting for approximately 800,000 deaths worldwide every year. Mutation of the p53 tumor suppressor gene is a common genetic change in HCC, present in 30% of cases. p53R175H (corresponding to p53R172H in mice) is a hotspot for mutation that demonstrates "prometastatic" gain-of-function in other cancer models. Since the frequency of p53 mutation increases with tumor grade in HCC, we hypothesized that p53R172H is a gain-of-function mutation in HCC that contributes to a decrease in tumor-free survival and an increase in metastasis. In an HCC mouse model, we found that p53R172H/flox mice do not have decreased survival, increased tumor incidence, or increased metastasis, relative to p53flox/flox littermates. Analysis of cell lines derived from both genotypes indicated that there are no differences in anchorage-independent growth and cell migration. However, shRNA-mediated knockdown of mutant p53 in p53R172H-expressing HCC cell lines resulted in decreased cell migration and anchorage-independent growth. Thus, although p53 mutant-expressing cells and tumors do not have enhanced properties relative to their p53 null counterparts, p53R172H-expressing HCC cells depend on this mutant for their transformation. p53 mutants have been previously shown to bind and inhibit the p53 family proteins p63 and p73. Interestingly, we find that the levels of p63 and p73 target genes are similar in p53 mutant and p53 null HCC cells. These data suggest that pathways regulated by these p53 family members are similarly impacted by p53R172H in mutant expressing cells, and by alternate mechanisms in p53 null cells, resulting in equivalent phenotypes. Consistent with this, we find that p53 null HCC cell lines display lower levels of the TA isoforms of p63 and p73 and higher levels of ?Np63. Taken together these data point to the importance of p63 and p73 in constraining HCC progression.
Project description:The high percentage of p53 missense mutations found in cancer has been attributed to mutant acquired oncogenic gain of functions. Different aspects of these tumour-promoting functions are caused by repression of the transcriptional activity of p53 family members p63 and p73. A subset of frequently occurring p53 mutations results in thermodynamic destabilisation of the DNA-binding domain (DBD) rendering this domain highly unstable. These conformational mutants (such as p53R175H) have been suggested to directly bind to p63 and p73 via a co-aggregation mechanism mediated by their DBDs. Although the DBDs of p63 and p73 are in fact not sufficient for the interaction as shown previously, we demonstrate here that the transactivation inhibitory (TI) domains within the ?-isoform-specific C termini of p63 and p73 are essential for binding to p53R175H. Hence, the closed dimeric conformation of inactive TAp63? that renders the TI domain inaccessible prevents efficient interaction. We further show that binding to p53R175H correlates with an intrinsic aggregation propensity of the tetrameric ?-isoforms conferred by an openly accessible TI domain again supporting interaction via a co-aggregation mechanism.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Mutation of a tumor suppressor allele leaves the second as backup. Not necessarily so with p53. This homo-tetrameric transcription factor can become contaminated with mutant p53 through hetero-tetramerization. In addition, it can be out-competed by the binding to p53 DNA recognition motifs of transactivation-incompetent isoforms (DeltaN and DeltaTA-isoforms) of the p53/p63/p73 family of proteins. Countermeasures against such dominant-negative or dominant-inhibitory action might include the evolutionary gain of novel, transactivation-independent tumor suppressor functions by the wild-type monomer.<h4>Results</h4>Here we have studied, mostly in human HCT116 colon adenocarcinoma cells with an intact p53 pathway, the effects of dominant-inhibitory p53 mutants and of Deltaex2/3p73, a tumor-associated DeltaTA-competitor of wild-type p53, on the nuclear transactivation-dependent and extra-nuclear transactivation-independent functions of wild-type p53. We report that mutant p53 and Deltaex2/3p73, expressed from a single gene copy per cell, interfere with the stress-induced expression of p53-responsive genes but leave the extra-nuclear apoptosis by mitochondrial p53 largely unaffected, although both wild-type and mutant p53 associate with the mitochondria. In accord with these observations, we present evidence that in contrast to nuclear p53 the vast majority of mitochondrial p53, be it wild-type or mutant, is consisting of monomeric protein.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The extra-nuclear p53-dependent apoptosis may constitute a fail-safe mechanism against dominant inhibition.
Project description:Prion diseases are disorders that share several characteristics that are typical of many neurodegenerative diseases. Recently, several studies have extended the prion concept to pathological aggregation in malignant tumors involving misfolded p53, a tumor-suppressor protein. The aggregation of p53 and its coaggregation with p53 family members, p63 and p73, have been shown. Certain p53 mutants exert a dominant-negative regulatory effect on wild-type (WT) p53. The basis for this dominant-negative effect is that amyloid-like mutant p53 converts WT p53 into an aggregated species, leading to a gain-of-function (GoF) phenotype and the loss of its tumor-suppressor function. Recently, it was shown that p53 aggregates can be internalized by cells and can coaggregate with endogenous p53, corroborating the prion-like properties of p53 aggregates. The prion-like behavior of oncogenic p53 mutants provides an explanation for its dominant-negative and GoF properties, including the high metastatic potential of cancer cells carrying p53 mutations. The inhibition of p53 aggregation appears to represent a promising target for therapeutic intervention in patients with malignant tumors.
Project description:In response to stress, p53 binds and transactivates the internal TP53 promoter, thus regulating the expression of its own isoform, ?133p53?. Here, we report that, in addition to p53, at least four p63/p73 isoforms regulate ?133p53 expression at transcriptional level: p63?, ?Np63?, ?Np63? and ?Np73?. This regulation occurs through direct DNA-binding to the internal TP53 promoter as demonstrated by chromatin immunoprecipitation and the use of DNA-binding mutant p63. The promoter regions involved in the p63/p73-mediated transactivation were identified using deleted, mutant and polymorphic luciferase reporter constructs. In addition, we observed that transient expression of p53 family members modulates endogenous ?133p53? expression at both mRNA and protein levels. We also report concomitant variation of p63 and ?133p53 expression during keratinocyte differentiation of HaCat cells and induced pluripotent stem cells derived from mutated p63 ectodermal dysplasia patients. Finally, proliferation assays indicated that ?133p53? isoform regulates the anti-proliferative activities of p63?, ?Np63?, ?Np63? and ?Np73?. Overall, this study shows a strong interplay between p53, p63 and p73 isoforms to orchestrate cell fate outcome.
Project description:Many cancers express mutant p53 proteins that have lost wild-type tumor suppressor activity and, in many cases, have acquired oncogenic functions that can contribute to tumor progression. These activities of mutant p53 reflect interactions with several other proteins, including the p53 family members p63 and p73. Mutations in p53 that affect protein conformation (such as R175H) show strong binding to p63 and p73, whereas p53 mutants that only mildly affect the conformation (such as R273H) bind less well. A previously described aggregation domain of mutant p53 is not required for p63 or p73 binding; indeed, mutations within this region lead to the acquisition of a mutant p53 phenotype-including a conformational shift, p63/p73 binding and the ability to promote invasion. The activity of wild-type p53 is regulated by an interaction with MDM2 and we have investigated the potential role of MDM2 in the mutant p53/p63/p73 interactions. Both mutant p53 and p73 bind MDM2 well, whereas p63 binds much more weakly. We found that MDM2 can inhibit p63 binding to p53R175H but enhances the weaker p53R273H/p73 interaction. These effects on the interactions are reflected in an ability of MDM2 to relieve the inhibition of p63 by p53R175H, but enhance the inhibition of p73 activity by p53R175H and R273H. We propose a model in which MDM2 competes with p63 for binding to p53R175H to restore p63 activity, but forms a trimeric complex with p73 and p53R273H to more strongly inhibit p73 function.
Project description:The p53 family of transcription factors--comprising p53, p63 and p73--plays an important role in tumor prevention and development. Essential to their function is the formation of tetramers, allowing cooperative binding to their DNA response elements. We solved crystal structures of the human p63 tetramerization domain, showing that p63 forms a dimer of dimers with D? symmetry composed of highly intertwined monomers. The primary dimers are formed via an intramolecular ?-sheet and hydrophobic helix packing (H1), a hallmark of all p53 family members. Like p73, but unlike p53, p63 requires a second helix (H2) to stabilize the architecture of the tetramer. In order to investigate the impact of structural differences on tetramer stability, we measured the subunit exchange reaction of p53 family homotetramers by nanoflow electrospray mass spectrometry. There were differences in both the kinetics and the pattern of the exchange reaction, with the p53 and p63 tetramers exhibiting much faster exchange kinetics than p73. The structural similarity between p63 and p73 rationalizes previous observations that p63 and p73 form mixed tetramers, and the kinetic data reveal the dissociation of the p73 homotetramers as the rate-limiting step for heterotetramer formation. Differential stability of the tetramers may play an important role in the cross talk between different isoforms and regulation of p53, p63 and p73 function in the cell cycle.
Project description:Members of the p53 tumor-suppressor family are expressed as multiple isoforms. Isoforms with an N-terminal transactivation domain are transcriptionally active, while those ones lacking this domain often inhibit the transcriptional activity of other family members. In squamous cell carcinomas, the high expression level of ?Np63? inhibits the tumor-suppressor function of TAp73?. This can in principle be due to blocking of the promoter or by direct interaction between both proteins. p63 and p73 can hetero-oligomerize through their tetramerization domains and a hetero-tetramer consisting of two p63 and two p73 molecules is thermodynamically more stable than both homo-tetramers. Here we show that cells expressing both p63 and p73 exist in mouse epidermis and hair follicle and that hetero-tetramer complexes can be detected by immunoprecipitation in differentiating keratinocytes. Through structure determination of the hetero-tetramer, we reveal why this hetero-tetramer is the thermodynamically preferred species. We have created mutants that exclusively form either hetero-tetramers or homo-tetramers, allowing to investigate the function of these p63/p73 hetero-tetramers. Using these tools, we show that inhibition of TAp73? in squamous cell carcinomas is due to promoter squelching and not direct interaction.