The pathophysiological significance of PPM1D and therapeutic targeting of PPM1D-mediated signaling by GSK2830371 in mantle cell lymphoma.
ABSTRACT: PPM1D is a serine/threonine phosphatase that negatively regulates key DNA damage response proteins, such as p53, p38 MAPK, histone H2A.X, and ATM. We investigated the pathophysiological significance of PPM1D and its therapeutic targeting by the novel PPM1D inhibitor GSK2830371 in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). Oncomine-based analyses indicated increased PPM1D mRNA levels in MCL cells compared with their normal counterpart cells. Higher PPM1D expression was associated with higher expression of the proliferation gene signature and poorer prognosis in patients. Eight MCL (three p53 wild-type and five mutant) cell lines were exposed to GSK2830371. GSK2830371 inhibited the cell growth, being prominent in p53 wild-type cells. GSK2830371 induced apoptosis in sensitive cells, as evidenced by induction of phosphatidylserine externalization and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. p53 knockdown de-sensitized cell sensitivity. GSK2830371 increased the levels of total and Ser15-phosphorylated p53, and p53 targets p21 and PUMA. GSK2830371 and the MDM2 inhibitor Nutlin-3a acted synergistically in p53 wild-type cells. Interestingly, GSK2830371 sensitized MCL cells to bortezomib and doxorubicin in p53 wild-type and mutant cells; p38 signaling appeared to be involved in the GSK2830371/bortezomib lethality. PPM1D inhibition may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for MCL, which can be exploited in combination therapeutic strategies for MCL.
Project description:Sensitivity to MDM2 inhibitors is widely different among responsive TP53 wild-type cell lines and tumors. Understanding the determinants of MDM2 inhibitor sensitivity is pertinent for their optimal clinical application. Wild-type p53-inducible phosphatase-1 (WIP1) encoded by PPM1D, is activated, gained/amplified in a range of TP53 wild-type malignancies, and is involved in p53 stress response homeostasis. We investigated cellular growth/proliferation of TP53 wild-type and matched mutant/null cell line pairs, differing in PPM1D genetic status, in response to Nutlin-3/RG7388 ± a highly selective WIP1 inhibitor, GSK2830371. We also assessed the effects of GSK2830371 on MDM2 inhibitor-induced p53(Ser15) phosphorylation, p53-mediated global transcriptional activity, and apoptosis. The investigated cell line pairs were relatively insensitive to single-agent GSK2830371. However, a non-growth-inhibitory dose of GSK2830371 markedly potentiated the response to MDM2 inhibitors in TP53 wild-type cell lines, most notably in those harboring PPM1D-activating mutations or copy number gain (up to 5.8-fold decrease in GI50). Potentiation also correlated with significant increase in MDM2 inhibitor-induced cell death endpoints that were preceded by a marked increase in a WIP1 negatively regulated substrate, phosphorylated p53(Ser15), known to increase p53 transcriptional activity. Microarray-based gene expression analysis showed that the combination treatment increases the subset of early RG7388-induced p53 transcriptional target genes. These findings demonstrate that potent and selective WIP1 inhibition potentiates the response to MDM2 inhibitors in TP53 wild-type cells, particularly those with PPM1D activation or gain, while highlighting the mechanistic importance of p53(Ser15) and its potential use as a biomarker for response to this combination regimen.
Project description:The wild-type p53-induced phosphatase 1 (WIP1) is a serine/threonine phosphatase that negatively regulates multiple proteins involved in DNA damage response including p53, CHK2, Histone H2AX, and ATM, and it has been shown to be overexpressed or amplified in human cancers including breast and ovarian cancers. We examined WIP1 mRNA levels across multiple tumor types and found the highest levels in breast cancer, leukemia, medulloblastoma and neuroblastoma. Neuroblastoma is an exclusively TP53 wild type tumor at diagnosis and inhibition of p53 is required for tumorigenesis. Neuroblastomas in particular have previously been shown to have 17q amplification, harboring the WIP1 (PPM1D) gene and associated with poor clinical outcome. We therefore sought to determine whether inhibiting WIP1 with a selective antagonist, GSK2830371, can attenuate neuroblastoma cell growth through reactivation of p53 mediated tumor suppression. Neuroblastoma cell lines with wild-type TP53 alleles were highly sensitive to GSK2830371 treatment, while cell lines with mutant TP53 were resistant to GSK2830371. The majority of tested neuroblastoma cell lines with copy number gains of the PPM1D locus were also TP53 wild-type and sensitive to GSK2830371A; in contrast cell lines with no copy gain of PPM1D were mixed in their sensitivity to WIP1 inhibition, with the primary determinant being TP53 mutational status. Since WIP1 is involved in the cellular response to DNA damage and drugs used in neuroblastoma treatment induce apoptosis through DNA damage, we sought to determine whether GSK2830371 could act synergistically with standard of care chemotherapeutics. Treatment of wild-type TP53 neuroblastoma cell lines with both GSK2830371 and either doxorubicin or carboplatin resulted in enhanced cell death, mediated through caspase 3/7 induction, as compared to either agent alone. Our data suggests that WIP1 inhibition represents a novel therapeutic approach to neuroblastoma that could be integrated with current chemotherapeutic approaches.
Project description:Ewing sarcoma is a pediatric cancer driven by EWS-ETS transcription factor fusion oncoproteins in an otherwise stable genomic background. The majority of tumors express wild-type TP53, and thus, therapies targeting the p53 pathway would benefit most patients. To discover targets specific for TP53 wild-type Ewing sarcoma, we used a genome-scale CRISPR-Cas9 screening approach and identified and validated MDM2, MDM4, USP7, and PPM1D as druggable dependencies. The stapled peptide inhibitor of MDM2 and MDM4, ATSP-7041, showed anti-tumor efficacy in vitro and in multiple mouse models. The USP7 inhibitor, P5091, and the Wip1/PPM1D inhibitor, GSK2830371, decreased the viability of Ewing sarcoma cells. The combination of ATSP-7041 with P5091, GSK2830371, and chemotherapeutic agents showed synergistic action on the p53 pathway. The effects of the inhibitors, including the specific USP7 inhibitor XL-188, were rescued by concurrent TP53 knockout, highlighting the essentiality of intact p53 for the observed cytotoxic activities.
Project description:PPM1D (PP2C? or Wip1) was identified as a wild-type p53-induced Ser/Thr phosphatase that accumulates after DNA damage and classified into the PP2C family. It dephosphorylates and inactivates several proteins critical for cellular stress responses, including p38 MAPK, p53, and ATM. Furthermore, PPM1D is amplified and/or overexpressed in a number of human cancers. Thus, inhibition of its activity could constitute an important new strategy for therapeutic intervention to halt the progression of several different cancers. Previously, we reported the development of a cyclic thioether peptide with low micromolar inhibitory activity toward PPM1D. Here, we describe important improvements in the inhibitory activity of this class of cyclic peptides and also present a binding model based upon the results. We found that specific interaction of an aromatic ring at the X1 position and negative charge at the X5 and X6 positions significantly increased the inhibitory activity of the cyclic peptide, with the optimized molecule having a K(i) of 110 nM. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the highest inhibitory activity reported for an inhibitor of PPM1D. We further developed an inhibitor selective for PPM1D over PPM1A with a K(i) of 2.9 ?M. Optimization of the cyclic peptide and mutagenesis experiments suggest that a highly basic loop unique to PPM1D is related to substrate specificity. We propose a new model for the catalytic site of PPM1D and inhibition by the cyclic peptides that will be useful both for the subsequent design of PPM1D inhibitors and for identification of new substrates.
Project description:PPM1D (Wip1), a type PP2C phosphatase, is expressed at low levels in most normal tissues but is overexpressed in several types of cancers. In cells containing wild-type p53, the levels of PPM1D mRNA and protein increase following exposure to genotoxic stress, but the mechanism of regulation by p53 was unknown. PPM1D also has been identified as a CREB-regulated gene due to the presence of a cyclic AMP response element (CRE) in the promoter. Transient transfection and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments in HCT116 cells were used to characterize a conserved p53 response element located in the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of the PPM1D gene that is required for the p53-dependent induction of transcription from the human PPM1D promoter. CREB binding to the CRE contributes to the regulation of basal expression of PPM1D and directs transcription initiation at upstream sites. Following exposure to ultraviolet (UV) or ionizing radiation, the abundance of transcripts with short 5' UTRs increased in cells containing wild-type p53, indicating increased utilization of downstream transcription initiation sites. In cells containing wild-type p53, exposure to UV resulted in increased PPM1D protein levels even when PPM1D mRNA levels remained constant, indicating post-transcriptional regulation of PPM1D protein levels.
Project description:PPM1D (WIP1) negatively regulates by dephosphorylation many proteins including p53 tumour suppressor. The truncating mutations (nonsense and frameshift) in exon 6 of PPM1D were found recently in blood cells of patients with breast, ovarian or colorectal cancer. These mutants code for gain-of-function PPM1D with retained phosphatase activity. Their significance in carcinogenesis is unknown.The exon 6 of PPM1D was sequenced in blood DNA of 543 non-small-cell lung cancer patients (NSCLC). The functional significance of selected PPM1D alterations (Arg458X, Lys469Glu) was compared with the wild-type gene and examined by recombinant DNA techniques, immunoblotting and luciferase reporter assays.The frameshift mutations were found in five NSCLC patients (5/543; 0.92%), all of them had squamous cell carcinomas (5/328; 1.5%). All patients with the mutations were exposed, before the blood collection, to the DNA damaging agents as a part of chemotherapeutic regimen. Functional tests demonstrated that truncating mutation Arg458X causes enhancement of dephosphorylation activity of PPM1D toward serine 15 of p53, whereas Lys469Glu version is equivalent to the wild-type. Neither version of PPM1D (wild-type, Arg458X, Lys469Glu) significantly modulated the ability of p53 to transactivate promoters of the examined p53-target genes (BAX and MDM2).The truncating mutations of PPM1D are present in blood DNA of NSCLC patients at frequency similar to percentage determined for ovarian cancer patients. Our findings raise a question if the detected lesions are a result of chemotherapy.
Project description:Intellectual disability (ID) is a highly heterogeneous disorder involving at least 600 genes, yet a genetic diagnosis remains elusive in ?35%-40% of individuals with moderate to severe ID. Recent meta-analyses statistically analyzing de novo mutations in >7,000 individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders highlighted mutations in PPM1D as a possible cause of ID. PPM1D is a type 2C phosphatase that functions as a negative regulator of cellular stress-response pathways by mediating a feedback loop of p38-p53 signaling, thereby contributing to growth inhibition and suppression of stress-induced apoptosis. We identified 14 individuals with mild to severe ID and/or developmental delay and de novo truncating PPM1D mutations. Additionally, deep phenotyping revealed overlapping behavioral problems (ASD, ADHD, and anxiety disorders), hypotonia, broad-based gait, facial dysmorphisms, and periods of fever and vomiting. PPM1D is expressed during fetal brain development and in the adult brain. All mutations were located in the last or penultimate exon, suggesting escape from nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. Both PPM1D expression analysis and cDNA sequencing in EBV LCLs of individuals support the presence of a stable truncated transcript, consistent with this hypothesis. Exposure of cells derived from individuals with PPM1D truncating mutations to ionizing radiation resulted in normal p53 activation, suggesting that p53 signaling is unaffected. However, a cell-growth disadvantage was observed, suggesting a possible effect on the stress-response pathway. Thus, we show that de novo truncating PPM1D mutations in the last and penultimate exons cause syndromic ID, which provides additional insight into the role of cell-cycle checkpoint genes in neurodevelopmental disorders.
Project description:The DNA damage response (DDR) pathway and its core component tumor suppressor p53 block cell cycle progression after genotoxic stress and represent an intrinsic barrier preventing cancer development. The serine/threonine phosphatase PPM1D/Wip1 inactivates p53 and promotes termination of the DDR pathway. Wip1 has been suggested to act as an oncogene in a subset of tumors that retain wild-type p53. In this paper, we have identified novel gain-of-function mutations in exon 6 of PPM1D that result in expression of C-terminally truncated Wip1. Remarkably, mutations in PPM1D are present not only in the tumors but also in other tissues of breast and colorectal cancer patients, indicating that they arise early in development or affect the germline. We show that mutations in PPM1D affect the DDR pathway and propose that they could predispose to cancer.
Project description:Gliomas arising in the brainstem and thalamus are devastating tumors that are difficult to surgically resect. To determine the genetic and epigenetic landscape of these tumors, we performed exomic sequencing of 14 brainstem gliomas (BSGs) and 12 thalamic gliomas. We also performed targeted mutational analysis of an additional 24 such tumors and genome-wide methylation profiling of 45 gliomas. This study led to the discovery of tumor-specific mutations in PPM1D, encoding wild-type p53-induced protein phosphatase 1D (WIP1), in 37.5% of the BSGs that harbored hallmark H3F3A mutations encoding p.Lys27Met substitutions. PPM1D mutations were mutually exclusive with TP53 mutations in BSG and attenuated p53 activation in vitro. PPM1D mutations were truncating alterations in exon 6 that enhanced the ability of PPM1D to suppress the activation of the DNA damage response checkpoint protein CHK2. These results define PPM1D as a frequent target of somatic mutation and as a potential therapeutic target in brainstem gliomas.
Project description:Protein phosphatase magnesium-dependent 1? (PPM1D) is a p53-induced serine/threonine phosphatase, which is overexpressed in various human cancers. A recent study reported that a mutation in the PPM1D gene is associated with poor prognosis in brainstem gliomas. In this study, we evaluated the utility of PPM1D as a prognostic biomarker of adult supratentorial diffuse astrocytic and oligodendroglial tumors.To investigate PPM1D protein expression, mRNA expression, and copy number changes, immunohistochemistry, RNAscope in situ hybridization, and fluorescence in situ hybridization were performed in 84 adult supratentorial diffuse gliomas. We further analyzed clinical characteristics and overall survival (OS) according to PPM1D protein expression, and examined its correlation with other glioma biomarkers such as isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation, and p53 expression.Forty-six cases (54.8%) were PPM1D-positive. PPM1D expression levels were significantly correlated with PPM1D transcript levels (p= .035), but marginally with PPM1D gene amplification (p=.079). Patients with high-grade gliomas showed a higher frequency of PPM1D expression than those with low-grade gliomas (p <.001). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that PPM1D expression (hazard ratio [HR], 2.58; p=.032), age over 60 years (HR, 2.55; p=.018), and IDH1 mutation (HR, 0.18; p=.002) were significantly independent prognostic factors; p53 expression had no prognostic significance (p=.986). The patients with tumor expressing PPM1D showed a shorter OS (p=.003). Moreover, patients with tumor harboring wild-type IDH1 and PPM1D expression had the worst OS (p<.001).Our data suggest that a subset of gliomas express PPM1D; PPM1D expression is a significant marker of poor prognosis in adult supratentorial diffuse astrocytic and oligodendroglial tumors.