Zinc enhances temozolomide cytotoxicity in glioblastoma multiforme model systems.
ABSTRACT: Temozolomide (TMZ) is an alkylating agent that has become the mainstay treatment of the most malignant brain cancer, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Unfortunately only a limited number of patients positively respond to it. It has been shown that zinc metal reestablishes chemosensitivity but this effect has not been tested with TMZ. Using both in vitro and in vivo experimental approaches, we investigated whether addition of zinc to TMZ enhances its cytotoxicity against GBM. In vitro cell viability analysis showed that the cytotoxic activity of TMZ was substantially increased with addition of zinc and this response was accompanied by an elevation of p21, PUMA, BAX and Caspase-3 expression and a decrease in growth fraction as manifested by low ki67 and lower colony formation. Analysis of GBM as intracranial xenografts in athymic mice and administration of concurrent TMZ and zinc yielded results consistent with those of the in vitro analyses. The co-treatment resulted in significant reduction in tumor volume in TMZ/zinc treated mice relative to treatment with TMZ alone. Our results suggest that zinc may serve as a potentiator of TMZ therapy in GBM patients.
Project description:In this study, we investigated the precursor and active forms of a p53 small-molecule inhibitor for their effects on temozolomide (TMZ) antitumor activity against glioblastoma (GBM), using both in vitro and in vivo experimental approaches. Results from in vitro cell viability analysis showed that the cytotoxic activity of TMZ was substantially increased when p53 wild-type (p53(wt)) GBMs were cotreated with the active form of p53 inhibitor, and this heightened cytotoxic response was accompanied by increased poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage as well as elevated cellular phospho-H2AX. Analysis of the same series of GBMs, as intracranial xenografts in athymic mice, and administering corresponding p53 inhibitor precursor, which is converted to the active compound in vivo, yielded results consistent with the in vitro analyses: TMZ + p53 inhibitor precursor cotreatment of three distinct p53(wt) GBM xenografts resulted in significant enhancement of TMZ antitumor effect relative to treatment with TMZ alone, as indicated by serial bioluminescence monitoring as well as survival analysis (P < 0.001 for cotreatment survival benefit in each case). Mice receiving intracranial injection with p53(null) GBM showed similar survival benefit from TMZ treatment regardless of the presence or absence of p53 inhibitor precursor. In total, our results indicate that the p53 active and precursor inhibitor pair enhances TMZ cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo, respectively, and do so in a p53-dependent manner.
Project description:Effective sensitizing strategies potentially can extend the benefit of temozolomide (TMZ) therapy in patients with glioblastoma (GBM). We previously demonstrated that robust TMZ-sensitizing effects of the [poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase] (PARP) inhibitor veliparib (ABT-888) are restricted to TMZ-sensitive GBM xenografts. The focus of this study is to provide an understanding for the differential sensitization in paired TMZ-sensitive and -resistant GBM models.The impact of veliparib on TMZ-induced cytotoxicity and DNA damage was evaluated in vitro and in vivo in models of acquired TMZ resistance (GBM12TMZ-mgmt(High), GBM12TMZ-mgmt(Low), and U251TMZ), inherent TMZ resistance (T98G), and TMZ-sensitive (U251 and GBM12). In vivo drug efficacy, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics were analyzed using clinically relevant dosing regimens.Veliparib enhanced TMZ cytotoxicity and DNA-damage signaling in all GBM models in vitro with more pronounced effects in TMZ-resistant lines at 3 to 10 ?mol/L veliparib. In vivo, combined TMZ/veliparib, compared with TMZ alone, significantly delayed tumor growth and enhanced DNA-damage signaling and ?H2AX levels in the sensitive GBM12 xenograft line but not in the resistant GBM12TMZ lines. The pharmacokinetic profile of veliparib was similar for GBM12 and GBM12TMZ tumors with Cmax (?1.5 ?mol/L) in tissue significantly lower than concentrations associated with optimal in vitro sensitizing effects for resistant tumors. In contrast, robust suppression of PARP-1 expression by shRNA significantly increased TMZ sensitivity of U251TMZ in vitro and in vivo.In vitro cytotoxicity assays do not adequately model the therapeutic index of PARP inhibitors, as concentrations of veliparib and TMZ required to sensitize TMZ-resistant cancer cells in vivo cannot be achieved using a tolerable dosing regimen.
Project description:Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive primary brain tumor with poor survival. Cytoreduction in association with radiotherapy and temozolomide (TMZ) is the standard therapy, but response is heterogeneous and life expectancy is limited. The combined use of chemotherapeutic agents with drugs targeting cell metabolism is becoming an interesting therapeutic option for cancer treatment. Here, we found that metformin (MET) enhances TMZ effect on TMZ-sensitive cell line (U251) and overcomes TMZ-resistance in T98G GBM cell line. In particular, combined-treatment modulated apoptosis by increasing Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and reduced Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) production. We also observed that MET associated with TMZ was able to reduce the expression of glioma stem cells (GSC) marker CD90 particularly in T98G cells but not that of CD133. In vivo experiments showed that combined treatment with TMZ and MET significantly slowed down growth of TMZ-resistant tumors but did not affect overall survival of TMZ-sensitive tumor bearing mice. In conclusion, our results showed that metformin is able to enhance TMZ effect in TMZ-resistant cell line suggesting its potential use in TMZ refractory GBM patients. However, the lack of effect on a GBM malignancy marker like CD133 requires further evaluation since it might influence response duration.
Project description:Development of temozolomide (TMZ) resistance contributes to the poor prognosis for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients. It was previously demonstrated that delivery of exogenous wild-type tumor suppressor gene p53 via a tumor-targeted nanocomplex (SGT-53) which crosses the blood-brain barrier could sensitize highly TMZ-resistant GBM tumors to TMZ. Here we assessed whether SGT-53 could inhibit development of TMZ resistance. SGT-53 significantly chemosensitized TMZ-sensitive human GBM cell lines (U87 and U251), in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, in an intracranial GBM tumor model, two cycles of concurrent treatment with systemically administered SGT-53 and TMZ inhibited tumor growth, increased apoptosis and most importantly, significantly prolonged median survival. In contrast TMZ alone had no significant effect on median survival compared to a single cycle of TMZ. These results suggest that combining SGT-53 with TMZ appears to limit development of TMZ resistance, prolonging its anti-tumor effect and could be a more effective therapy for GBM.Using human glioblastoma multiforma cell lines, this research team demonstrated that the delivery of exogenous wild-type tumor suppressor gene p53 via a tumor-targeted nanocomplex limited the development of temozolomide resistance and prolonged its anti-tumor effect, which may enable future human application of this or similar techniques.
Project description:An important question in the sequencing of anti-cancer therapies in patients with glioblastoma (GBM) is whether concurrent anti-angiogenesis therapies improve or impair brain concentrations of concomitantly administered cytotoxic therapies. The purpose of this study is to assess the intratumoral disposition of temozolomide (TMZ) via microdialysis before and after bevacizumab in an intracranial GBM xenograft model.Microdialysis probes were placed within tumor and contralateral brain in athymic rats bearing U87 intracerebral gliomas. TMZ (50 mg/kg oral) was administered 10 days thereafter. Extracellular fluid (ECF) was collected for 6 h. BEV was administered (10 mg/kg IV), and TMZ was re-dosed (50 mg/kg oral) 36 h thereafter with additional ECF collection. All ECF samples were assessed for TMZ concentration with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.Tumor TMZ mean area under the concentration-time curve (AUC(0-?)) was 3.35 ?g h/mL pre-BEV. Post-BEV, tumor mean TMZ AUC(0-?) was 3.98 ?g h/mL. In non-tumor brain, mean TMZ AUC(0-?) pre-BEV was 3.22 ?g h/mL and post-BEV was 3.34 ?g h/mL.There were no statistically significant changes in TMZ pharmacokinetics before or after BEV in the athymic rat U87 intracranial glioma model. BEV and TMZ are being investigated as a combination therapy in several ongoing studies for patients with glioma. These data reassuringly suggest that BEV does not significantly change the ECF tumor concentrations of TMZ in either tumor-bearing or normal brain when dosed 36 h prior to TMZ.
Project description:Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive brain tumor and has a poor prognosis and is poorly sensitive to radiotherapy or temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy. Therefore, identifying new biomarkers to predict therapeutic responses of GBM is urgently needed. By using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database, we found that the upregulation of histone 2A family member J (H2AFJ), but not other H2AFs, is extensively detected in the therapeutic-insensitive mesenchymal, IDH wildtype, MGMT unmethylated, or non-G-CIMP GBM and is associated with poor TMZ responsiveness independent of radiation. Similar views were also found in GBM cell lines. Whereas H2AFJ knockdown diminished TMZ resistance, H2AFJ overexpression promoted TMZ resistance in a panel of GBM cell lines. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) revealed that H2AFJ upregulation accompanied by the activation of TNF-?/NF-?B and IL-6/STAT3-related pathways is highly predicted. Luciferase-based promoter activity assay further validated that the activities of NF-?B and STAT3 are causally affected by H2AFJ expression in GBM cells. Moreover, we found that therapeutic targeting HADC3 by tacedinaline or NF-?B by ML029 is likely able to overcome the TMZ resistance in GBM cells with H2AFJ upregulation. Significantly, the GBM cohorts harboring a high-level H2AFJ transcript combined with high-level expression of TNF-?/NF-?B geneset, IL-6/STAT3 geneset or HADC3 were associated with a shorter time to tumor repopulation after initial treatment with TMZ. These findings not only provide H2AFJ as a biomarker to predict TMZ therapeutic effectiveness but also suggest a new strategy to combat TMZ-insensitive GBM by targeting the interaction network constructed by TNF-?/NF-?B, IL-6/STAT3, HDAC3, and H2AFJ.
Project description:Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) represents the most common and deadly primary brain malignancy, particularly due to temozolomide (TMZ) and radiation (RT) resistance. To better understand resistance mechanisms, we examined global kinase activity (kinomic profiling) in both treatment sensitive and resistant human GBM patient-derived xenografts (PDX or "xenolines").Thirteen orthotopically-implanted xenolines were examined including 8 with known RT sensitivity/resistance, while 5 TMZ resistant xenolines were generated through serial TMZ treatment in vivo. Tumors were harvested, prepared as total protein lysates, and kinomically analyzed on a PamStation®12 high-throughput microarray platform with subsequent upstream kinase prediction and network modeling.Kinomic profiles indicated elevated tyrosine kinase activity associated with the radiation resistance phenotype, including FAK and FGFR1. Furthermore, network modeling showed VEGFR1/2 and c-Raf hubs could be involved. Analysis of acquired TMZ resistance revealed more kinomic variability among TMZ resistant tumors. Two of the five tumors displayed significantly altered kinase activity in the TMZ resistant xenolines and network modeling indicated PKC, JAK1, PI3K, CDK2, and VEGFR as potential mediators of this resistance.GBM xenolines provide a phenotypic model for GBM drug response and resistance that when paired with kinomic profiling identified targetable pathways to inherent (radiation) or acquired (TMZ) resistance.
Project description:Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and lethal of all gliomas. The current standard of care includes surgery followed by concomitant radiation and chemotherapy with the DNA alkylating agent temozolomide (TMZ). O?-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) repairs the most cytotoxic of lesions generated by TMZ, O?-methylguanine. Methylation of the MGMT promoter in GBM correlates with increased therapeutic sensitivity to alkylating agent therapy. However, several aspects of TMZ sensitivity are not explained by MGMT promoter methylation. Here, we investigated our hypothesis that the base excision repair enzyme alkylpurine-DNA-N-glycosylase (APNG), which repairs the cytotoxic lesions N³-methyladenine and N?-methylguanine, may contribute to TMZ resistance. Silencing of APNG in established and primary TMZ-resistant GBM cell lines endogenously expressing MGMT and APNG attenuated repair of TMZ-induced DNA damage and enhanced apoptosis. Reintroducing expression of APNG in TMZ-sensitive GBM lines conferred resistance to TMZ in vitro and in orthotopic xenograft mouse models. In addition, resistance was enhanced with coexpression of MGMT. Evaluation of APNG protein levels in several clinical datasets demonstrated that in patients, high nuclear APNG expression correlated with poorer overall survival compared with patients lacking APNG expression. Loss of APNG expression in a subset of patients was also associated with increased APNG promoter methylation. Collectively, our data demonstrate that APNG contributes to TMZ resistance in GBM and may be useful in the diagnosis and treatment of the disease.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Acquired drug resistance is a constraining factor in clinical treatment of glioblastoma (GBM). However, the mechanisms of chemoresponsive tumors acquire therapeutic resistance remain poorly understood. Here, we aim to investigate whether temozolomide (TMZ) resistance of chemoresponsive GBM was enhanced by long non-coding RNA SBF2 antisense RNA 1 (lncRNA SBF2-AS1) enriched exosomes. METHOD:LncSBF2-AS1 level in TMZ-resistance or TMZ-sensitive GBM tissues and cells were analyzed by qRT-PCR and FISH assays. A series of in vitro assay and xenograft tumor models were performed to observe the effect of lncSBF2-AS1 on TMZ-resistance in GBM. CHIP assay were used to investigate the correlation of SBF2-AS1 and transcription factor zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1). Dual-luciferase reporter, RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP), immunofluorescence and western blotting were performed to verify the relation between lncSBF2-AS1, miR-151a-3p and XRCC4. Comet assay and immunoblotting were performed to expound the effect of lncSBF2-AS1 on DNA double-stand break (DSB) repair. A series of in vitro assay and intracranial xenografts tumor model were used to determined the function of exosomal lncSBF2-AS1. RESULT:It was found that SBF2-AS1 was upregulated in TMZ-resistant GBM cells and tissues, and overexpression of SBF2-AS1 led to the promotion of TMZ resistance, whereas its inhibition sensitized resistant GBM cells to TMZ. Transcription factor ZEB1 was found to directly bind to the SBF2-AS1 promoter region to regulate SBF2-AS1 level and affected TMZ resistance in GBM cells. SBF2-AS1 functions as a ceRNA for miR-151a-3p, leading to the disinhibition of its endogenous target, X-ray repair cross complementing 4 (XRCC4), which enhances DSB repair in GBM cells. Exosomes selected from temozolomide-resistant GBM cells had high levels of SBF2-AS1 and spread TMZ resistance to chemoresponsive GBM cells. Clinically, high levels of lncSBF2-AS1 in serum exosomes were associated with poor response to TMZ treatment in GBM patients. CONCLUSION:We can conclude that GBM cells remodel the tumor microenvironment to promote tumor chemotherapy-resistance by secreting the oncogenic lncSBF2-AS1-enriched exosomes. Thus, exosomal lncSBF2-AS1 in human serum may serve as a possible diagnostic marker for therapy-refractory GBM.
Project description:The effect of temozolomide (TMZ) and radiotherapy (RT) in the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) has been well documented in randomized controlled trials. Here we present our findings on the effect of TMZ added to RT at a population level. The Cancer Registry of Norway was searched for patients with a GBM diagnosis from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2007. Subsequently, the prescriptions registered to these patients were obtained from the Norwegian Prescription Database. The data were analyzed according to era (pre-TMZ introduction or post-TMZ introduction) and according to treatment received. Furthermore, a matching procedure was utilized to reduce the bias between the RT + TMZ and RT alone treatments so that the effect of TMZ could be better scrutinized. We identified 1157 GBM patients. The median overall survival (OS), in months, was 8.3 (95% confidence interval: 7.6-9.0) and 10.1 (95% confidence interval: 9.1-11.0) in the pre-TMZ and TMZ eras, respectively (P < .001). By treatment, we found median OS for the control, RT alone, and RT + TMZ groups to be 2.5, 9.0, and 16.2 months, respectively (P < .001). Two-year survival was 0%, 4%, and 25%, respectively. The effect of age on TMZ effect was insignificant. In the matched group analysis, TMZ provided a 7.6-month OS benefit. Our population data reproduce the beneficial effect of TMZ from randomized controlled trials with a median OS of 16.2 months and 25% 2-year survival.