A potential regulatory network underlying distinct fate commitment of myogenic and adipogenic cells in skeletal muscle.
ABSTRACT: Mechanism controlling myo-adipogenic balance in skeletal muscle is of great significance for human skeletal muscle dysfunction and myopathies as well as livestock meat quality. In the present study, two cell subpopulations with particular potency of adipogenic or myogenic differentiation were isolated from neonatal porcine longissimus dorsi using the preplate method to detect mechanisms underlying distinct fate commitment of myogenic and adipogenic cells in skeletal muscle. Both cells share a common surface expression profile of CD29+CD31-CD34-CD90+CD105+, verifying their mesenchymal origin. A total of 448 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (FDR?
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Skeletal muscle is a complex and heterogeneous tissue accounting for approximately 40% of body weight. Excessive ectopic lipid accumulation in the muscle fascicle would undermine the integrity of skeletal muscle in humans but endow muscle with marbling-related characteristics in farm animals. Therefore, the balance of myogenesis and adipogenesis is of great significance for skeletal muscle homeostasis. Significant DNA methylation occurs during myogenesis and adipogenesis; however, DNA methylation pattern of myogenic and adipogenic precursors derived from skeletal muscle remains unknown yet.<h4>Methods</h4>In this study, reduced representation bisulfite sequencing was performed to analyze genome-wide DNA methylation of adipogenic and myogenic precursors derived from the skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs. Integrated analysis of DNA methylation and transcription profiles was further conducted. Based on the results of pathway enrichment analysis, myogenic precursors were transfected with CACNA2D2-overexpression plasmids to explore the function of CACNA2D2 in myogenic differentiation.<h4>Results</h4>As a result, 11,361 differentially methylated regions mainly located in intergenic region and introns were identified. Furthermore, 153 genes with different DNA methylation and gene expression level between adipogenic and myogenic precursors were characterized. Subsequently, pathway enrichment analysis revealed that DNA methylation programing was involved in the regulation of adipogenic and myogenic differentiation potential through mediating the crosstalk among pathways including focal adhesion, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, MAPK signaling pathway, and calcium signaling pathway. In particular, we characterized a new role of CACNA2D2 in inhibiting myogenic differentiation by suppressing JNK/MAPK signaling pathway.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This study depicted a comprehensive landmark of DNA methylome of skeletal muscle-derived myogenic and adipogenic precursors, highlighted the critical role of CACNA2D2 in regulating myogenic differentiation, and illustrated the possible regulatory ways of DNA methylation on cell fate commitment and skeletal muscle homeostasis.
Project description:The MEF2 factors regulate transcription during cardiac and skeletal myogenesis. MEF2 factors establish skeletal muscle commitment by amplifying and synergizing with MyoD. While phosphorylation is known to regulate MEF2 function, lineage-specific regulation is unknown. Here, we show that phosphorylation of MEF2C on T(80) by skeletal myosin light chain kinase (skMLCK) enhances skeletal and not cardiac myogenesis. A phosphorylation-deficient MEF2C mutant (MEFT80A) enhanced cardiac, but not skeletal myogenesis in P19 stem cells. Further, MEFT80A was deficient in recruitment of p300 to skeletal but not cardiac muscle promoters. In gain-of-function studies, skMLCK upregulated myogenic regulatory factor (MRF) expression, leading to enhanced skeletal myogenesis in P19 cells and more efficient myogenic conversion. In loss-of-function studies, MLCK was essential for efficient MRF expression and subsequent myogenesis in embryonic stem (ES) and P19 cells as well as for proper activation of quiescent satellite cells. Thus, skMLCK regulates MRF expression by controlling the MEF2C-dependent recruitment of histone acetyltransferases to skeletal muscle promoters. This work identifies the first kinase that regulates MyoD and Myf5 expression in ES or satellite cells.
Project description:The balance of myogenic and adipogenic differentiation is crucial for skeletal muscle homeostasis. Given the vital role of membrane proteins (MBPs) in cell signal perception, membrane proteomics was conducted to delineate mechanisms regulating differentiation of adipogenic and myogenic precursors in skeletal muscle. Adipogenic and myogenic precursors with divergent differentiation potential were isolated from the longissimus dorsi muscle of neonatal pigs by the preplate method. A total of 85 differentially expressed MBPs ( P < 0.05 and fold change ?1.2 or ?0.83) between 2 precursors were detected via isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) assay, including 67 up-regulated and 18 down-regulated in myogenic precursors. Functional enrichment analysis uncovered that myogenic and adipogenic precursors showed significant differences in cytoskeleton organization, syncytium formation, environmental information processing, and organismal systems. Furthermore, key MBPs in regulating cell differentiation were also characterized, including ITGB3, ITGAV, ITPR3, and EPHA2. Noteworthily, EPHA2 was required for myogenic differentiation, and it may promote myogenic differentiation through ERK signaling. Collectively, our study provided an insight into the distinct MBP profile between myogenic and adipogenic precursors in skeletal muscle and served as a solid basis for supporting the role of MBPs in regulating differentiation.-Zhang, X., Wang, L., Qiu, K., Xu, D., Yin, J. Dynamic membrane proteome of adipogenic and myogenic precursors in skeletal muscle highlights EPHA2 may promote myogenic differentiation through ERK signaling.
Project description:A substrate-specific calmodulin-dependent myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK) was purified 45,000-fold to near homogeneity from bovine brain in 12% yield. Bovine brain MLCK phosphorylates a serine residue in the isolated turkey gizzard myosin light chain (MLC), with a specific activity of 1.8 mumol/min per mg of enzyme. The regulatory MLC present in intact gizzard myosin is also phosphorylated by the enzyme. The Mr-19,000 rabbit skeletal-muscle MLC is a substrate; however, the rate of its phosphorylation is at best 30% of that obtained with turkey gizzard MLC. Phosphorylation of all other protein substrates tested is less than 1% of that observed with gizzard MLC as substrate. SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of purified MLCK reveals the presence of a major protein band with an apparent Mr of 152000, which is capable of binding 125I-calmodulin in a Ca2+-dependent manner. Phosphorylation of MLCK by the catalytic subunit of cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase results in the incorporation of phosphate into the Mr-152,000 protein band and a marked decrease in the affinity of MLCK for calmodulin. The presence of Ca2+ and calmodulin inhibits the phosphorylation of the enzyme. Bovine brain MLCK appears similar to MLCKs isolated from platelets and various forms of muscle.
Project description:Research on age-related regenerative failure of skeletal muscle has extensively focused on the phenotypes of muscle stem cells (MuSCs). In contrast, the impact of aging on regulatory cells in the MuSC niche remains largely unexplored. Here, we demonstrate that aging impairs the function of mouse fibro-adipogenic progenitors (FAPs) and thereby indirectly affects the myogenic potential of MuSCs. Using transcriptomic profiling, we identify WNT1 Inducible Signaling Pathway Protein 1 (WISP1) as a FAP-derived matricellular signal that is lost during aging. WISP1 is required for efficient muscle regeneration and controls the expansion and asymmetric commitment of MuSCs through Akt signaling. Transplantation of young FAPs or systemic treatment with WISP1 restores the myogenic capacity of MuSCs in aged mice and rescues skeletal muscle regeneration. Our work establishes that loss of WISP1 from FAPs contributes to MuSC dysfunction in aged skeletal muscles and demonstrates that this mechanism can be targeted to rejuvenate myogenesis.
Project description:Myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation determines vascular contractile status. In addition to the classic Ca²?-dependent MLC kinase (MLCK), another unidentified kinase(s) also contributes to MLC phosphorylation in living cells. Inhibitor ?B kinase 2 (IKK2)-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts demonstrate abnormal morphology and migration, suggesting that IKK2 may be involved in MLC phosphorylation.Therefore, we tested whether IKK2 is an MLCK in living cells and the role of IKK2 in mediating vasoconstriction and blood pressure regulation.In the present study, we showed that recombinant IKK2-phosphorylated MLC and intact myosin in vitro, and the kinetic parameters were comparable with those of the classic MLCK. Overexpression of IKK2 increased cellular MLC phosphorylation level, and pharmacological inhibition of IKK2 markedly decreased vascular smooth muscle cell MLC phosphorylation, suggesting that IKK2 is an MLCK in living cells. IKK2 inhibitors dose- and time-dependently attenuated vasoconstriction elicited by diverse agonists, suggesting the physiological importance of IKK2 as an MLCK. Vascular smooth muscle cell-specific IKK2-deficient mice had decreased aortic contractile responses, and reduced hypertensive responses to several vasoconstrictors, compared with wild-type mice, confirming the physiological importance of IKK2 as an MLCK.Our data provide a novel mechanism whereby IKK2 regulates MLC phosphorylation as an MLCK and, thus, vascular function and blood pressure.
Project description:Two myosin light chain (MLC) kinase (MLCK) proteins, smooth muscle (encoded by mylk1 gene) and skeletal (encoded by mylk2 gene) MLCK, have been shown to be expressed in mammals. Even though phosphorylation of its putative substrate, MLC2, is recognized as a key regulator of cardiac contraction, a MLCK that is preferentially expressed in cardiac muscle has not yet been identified. In this study, we characterized a new kinase encoded by a gene homologous to mylk1 and -2, named cardiac MLCK, which is specifically expressed in the heart in both atrium and ventricle. In fact, expression of cardiac MLCK is highly regulated by the cardiac homeobox protein Nkx2-5 in neonatal cardiomyocytes. The overall structure of cardiac MLCK protein is conserved with skeletal and smooth muscle MLCK; however, the amino terminus is quite unique, without significant homology to other known proteins, and its catalytic activity does not appear to be regulated by Ca(2+)/calmodulin in vitro. Cardiac MLCK is phosphorylated and the level of phosphorylation is increased by phenylephrine stimulation accompanied by increased level of MLC2v phosphorylation. Both overexpression and knockdown of cardiac MLCK in cultured cardiomyocytes revealed that cardiac MLCK is likely a new regulator of MLC2 phosphorylation, sarcomere organization, and cardiomyocyte contraction.
Project description:Fatty and fibrous connective tissue formation is a hallmark of diseased skeletal muscle and deteriorates muscle function. We previously identified non-myogenic mesenchymal progenitors that contribute to adipogenesis and fibrogenesis in mouse skeletal muscle. In this study, we report the identification and characterization of a human counterpart to these progenitors. By using PDGFR? as a specific marker, mesenchymal progenitors can be identified in the interstitium and isolated from human skeletal muscle. PDGFR?(+) cells represent a cell population distinct from CD56(+) myogenic cells, and adipogenic and fibrogenic potentials were highly enriched in the PDGFR?(+) population. Activation of PDGFR? stimulates proliferation of PDGFR?(+) cells through PI3K-Akt and MEK2-MAPK signaling pathways, and aberrant accumulation of PDGFR?(+) cells was conspicuous in muscles of patients with both genetic and non-genetic muscle diseases. Our results revealed the pathological relevance of PDGFR?(+) mesenchymal progenitors to human muscle diseases and provide a basis for developing therapeutic strategy to treat muscle diseases.
Project description:Fibro-adipogenic progenitors (FAPs) are important components of the skeletal muscle regenerative environment. Whether FAPs support muscle regeneration or promote fibro-adipogenic degeneration is emerging as a key determinant in the pathogenesis of muscular diseases, including Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). However, the molecular mechanism that controls FAP lineage commitment and activity is currently unknown. We show here that an HDAC-myomiR-BAF60 variant network regulates the fate of FAPs in dystrophic muscles of mdx mice. Combinatorial analysis of gene expression microarray, genome-wide chromatin remodeling by nuclease accessibility (NA) combined with next-generation sequencing (NA-seq), small RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), and microRNA (miR) high-throughput screening (HTS) against SWI/SNF BAF60 variants revealed that HDAC inhibitors (HDACis) derepress a "latent" myogenic program in FAPs from dystrophic muscles at early stages of disease. Specifically, HDAC inhibition induces two core components of the myogenic transcriptional machinery, MYOD and BAF60C, and up-regulates the myogenic miRs (myomiRs) (miR-1.2, miR-133, and miR-206), which target the alternative BAF60 variants BAF60A and BAF60B, ultimately directing promyogenic differentiation while suppressing the fibro-adipogenic phenotype. In contrast, FAPs from late stage dystrophic muscles are resistant to HDACi-induced chromatin remodeling at myogenic loci and fail to activate the promyogenic phenotype. These results reveal a previously unappreciated disease stage-specific bipotency of mesenchimal cells within the regenerative environment of dystrophic muscles. Resolution of such bipotency by epigenetic intervention with HDACis provides a molecular rationale for the in situ reprogramming of target cells to promote therapeutic regeneration of dystrophic muscles.
Project description:The ability of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to differentiate into skeletal muscle cells is an important criterion in using them as a cell source to ameliorate skeletal muscle impairments. However, differentiation of hESCs into skeletal muscle cells still remains a challenge, often requiring introduction of transgenes. Here, we describe the use of WNT3A protein to promote in vitro myogenic commitment of hESC-derived cells and their subsequent in vivo function. Our findings show that the presence of WNT3A in culture medium significantly promotes myogenic commitment of hESC-derived progenitors expressing a mesodermal marker, platelet-derived growth factor receptor-? (PDGFRA), as evident from the expression of myogenic markers, including DES, MYOG, MYH1, and MF20. In vivo transplantation of these committed cells into cardiotoxin-injured skeletal muscles of NOD/SCID mice reveals survival and engraftment of the donor cells. The cells contributed to the regeneration of damaged muscle fibers and the satellite cell compartment. In lieu of the limited cell source for treating skeletal muscle defects, the hESC-derived PDGFRA(+) cells exhibit significant in vitro expansion while maintaining their myogenic potential. The results described in this study provide a proof-of-principle that myogenic progenitor cells with in vivo engraftment potential can be derived from hESCs without genetic manipulation.