Integrated CO2 capture-fixation chemistry via interfacial ionic liquid catalyst in laminar gas/liquid flow.
ABSTRACT: Simultaneous capture of carbon dioxide (CO2) and its utilization with subsequent work-up would significantly enhance the competitiveness of CO2-based sustainable chemistry over petroleum-based chemistry. Here we report an interfacial catalytic reaction platform for an integrated autonomous process of simultaneously capturing/fixing CO2 in gas-liquid laminar flow with subsequently providing a work-up step. The continuous-flow microreactor has built-in silicon nanowires (SiNWs) with immobilized ionic liquid catalysts on tips of cone-shaped nanowire bundles. Because of the superamphiphobic SiNWs, a stable gas-liquid interface maintains between liquid flow of organoamines in upper part and gas flow of CO2 in bottom part of channel. The intimate and direct contact of the binary reagents leads to enhanced mass transfer and facilitating reactions. The autonomous integrated platform produces and isolates 2-oxazolidinones and quinazolines-2,4(1H,3H)-diones with 81-97% yields under mild conditions. The platform would enable direct CO2 utilization to produce high-valued specialty chemicals from flue gases without pre-separation and work-up steps.
Project description:In a gas membrane, gas is transferred between a liquid and a gas through a microporous membrane. The main challenge is to achieve a high gas transfer while preventing wetting and clogging. With respect to the oxygenation of blood, haemocompatibility is also required. Here we coat macroporous meshes with a superamphiphobic-or liquid repellent-layer to meet this challenge. The superamphiphobic layer consists of a fractal-like network of fluorinated silicon oxide nanospheres; gas trapped between the nanospheres keeps the liquid from contacting the wall of the membrane. We demonstrate the capabilities of the membrane by capturing carbon dioxide gas into a basic aqueous solution and in addition use it to oxygenate blood. Usually, blood tends to clog membranes because of the abundance of blood cells, platelets, proteins and lipids. We show that human blood stored in a superamphiphobic well for 24?h can be poured off without leaving cells or adsorbed protein behind.
Project description:Because of its unique properties, plasma technology has gained much prominence in the microelectronics industry. Recently, environmental and energy applications of plasmas have gained a lot of attention. In this area, the focus is on converting CO2 and reforming hydrocarbons, with the goal of developing an efficient single-step 'gas-to-liquid' (GTL) process. Here we show that applying tri-reforming principles to plasma-further called 'plasma-based multi-reforming'-allows us to better control the plasma chemistry and thus the formed products. To demonstrate this, we used chemical kinetics calculations supported by experiments and reveal that better control of the plasma chemistry can be achieved by adding O2 or H2O to a mixture containing CH4 and CO2 (diluted in N2). Moreover, by adding O2 and H2O simultaneously, we can tune the plasma chemistry even further, improving the conversions, thermal efficiency and methanol yield. Unlike thermocatalytic reforming, plasma-based reforming is capable of producing methanol in a single step; and compared with traditional plasma-based dry reforming, plasma-based multi-reforming increases the methanol yield by more than seven times and the thermal efficiency by 49%, as revealed by our model calculations. Thus, we believe that by using plasma-based multi-reforming, 'gas-to-liquid' conversion may be made efficient and scalable.
Project description:4-Fluoropyrazole systems may be prepared by a single, sequential telescoped two-step continuous gas/liquid-liquid/liquid flow process from diketone, fluorine gas and hydrazine starting materials.
Project description:In this study, we first suggest a simple approach to characterize configuration of gas-aqueous liquid two-phase flow based on discrete solid-liquid contact electrification, which is a newly defined concept as a sequential process of solid-liquid contact and successive detachment of the contact liquid from the solid surface. This approach exhibits several advantages such as simple operation, precise measurement, and cost-effectiveness. By using electric potential that is spontaneously generated by discrete solid-liquid contact electrification, the configurations of the gas-aqueous liquid two-phase flow such as size of a gas slug and flow rate are precisely characterized. According to the experimental and numerical analyses on parameters that affect electric potential, gas slugs have been verified to behave similarly to point electric charges when the measuring point of the electric potential is far enough from the gas slug. In addition, the configuration of the gas-aqueous liquid two-phase microfluidic system with multiple gas slugs is also characterized by using the presented approach. For a proof-of-concept demonstration of using the proposed approach in a self-triggered sensor, a gas slug detector with a counter system is developed to show its practicality and applicability.
Project description:A practical homogeneous and gas-liquid palladium-catalyzed Catellani-type reaction using a continuous-flow platform is described. The implementation of continuous-flow technology allowed the acceleration of the transformation and, for the first time, expansion of the chemical space to gaseous olefins (i.e., ethylene, propylene and 3,3,3-trifluoropropene), thus providing a safe and practical approach to sterically hindered ortho-disubstituted styrenes and vinyl arenes. The complete control over the stoichiometry of gaseous reagents through flow technology proved essential for directing the selectivity of the Catellani reaction to the desired products.
Project description:Use of gas-liquid equilibrators to measure trace gases such as CO2, methane, and radon in water bodies is widespread. Such measurements are critical for understanding a variety of water quality issues such as acidification due to elevated CO2 or other processes related ecosystem metabolism and function. However, because gas-liquid equilibrators rely on generating sufficient surface area for gas exchange between liquid and gas phases, most traditional equilibrators pass water through small orifices or interstitial spaces that rapidly clog in highly productive or turbid waters, conditions that are common in estuaries, coastal bays, and riverine systems. Likewise, in cold temperatures, such equilibrators are subject to freezing. Both situations lead to failure and limit utility, especially for long term, continuous environmental monitoring. Here we describe and test a gas-liquid equilibrator that relies on a continuous falling film of water over a spherical surface to drive gas exchange. Our results demonstrate that this design is accurate in its ability to equilibrate fully to aqueous CO2 concentrations, is functional across a wide range of gas concentrations, and has a response time that is comparable with other equilibrator designs. Because this equilibrator uses free flowing, falling water to produce a surface for gas exchange, our field trials have shown it to be very resistant to clogging and freezing, and therefore well suited to long term deployment in highly productive waters like estuaries where CO2 concentrations fluctuate hourly, daily, and seasonally. When generated across a spherical surface, the falling film is not adversely affected by tilting off vertical, conditions that are common on a ship, small vessel, or buoy.
Project description:Chemosensory protein based olfactory biosensors are expected to play a significant role in next-generation volatile organic compound (VOC) detection systems due to their ultra-high sensitivity and selectivity. As these biosensors can perform most efficiently in aqueous environments, the detection systems need to incorporate a gas sampling interface for gas-to-liquid extraction. This interface should extract the VOCs from the gas phase with high efficiency and transfer them into the liquid containing biosensors to enable subsequent detection. To design such a transfer interface, an understanding of the key parameters influencing the gas-to-liquid extraction efficiency of target VOCs is crucial. This paper reports a gas sampling interface system based on a microfluidic open-channel device for gas-to-liquid extraction. By using this device as a model platform, the key parameters dictating the VOC extraction efficiency were identified. When loaded with 30 μL of capture liquid, the microfluidic device generates a gas-liquid interface area of 3 cm2 without using an interfacial membrane. The pumpless operation based on capillary flow was demonstrated for capture liquid loading and collection. Gas samples spiked with lipophilic model volatiles (hexanal and allyl methyl sulfide) were used for characterization of the VOC extraction efficiency. Decreasing the sampling temperature to 15 °C had a significant impact on increasing capture efficiency, while variation in the gas sampling flow rate had no significant impact in the range between 40-120 mL min-1. This study found more than a 10-fold increase in capture efficiency by chemical modification of the capture liquid with alpha-cyclodextrin. The highest capture efficiency of 30% was demonstrated with gas samples spiked with hexanal to a concentration of 16 ppm (molar proportion). The approach in this study should be useful for further optimisation of miniaturised gas-to-liquid extraction systems and contribute to the design of chemosensory protein-based VOC detection systems.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Carbon storage in deep saline reservoirs has the potential to lower the amount of CO2 emitted to the atmosphere and to mitigate global warming. Leakage back to the atmosphere through abandoned wells and along faults would reduce the efficiency of carbon storage, possibly leading to health and ecological hazards at the ground surface, and possibly impacting water quality of near-surface dilute aquifers. We use static equilibrium and reactive transport simulations to test the hypothesis that perturbations in water chemistry associated with a CO2 gas leak into dilute groundwater are important measures for the potential release of CO2 to the atmosphere. Simulation parameters are constrained by groundwater chemistry, flow, and lithology from the High Plains aquifer. The High Plains aquifer is used to represent a typical sedimentary aquifer overlying a deep CO2 storage reservoir. Specifically, we address the relationships between CO2 flux, groundwater flow, detection time and distance. The CO2 flux ranges from 10(3) to 2 x 10(6) t/yr (0.63 to 1250 t/m2/yr) to assess chemical perturbations resulting from relatively small leaks that may compromise long-term storage, water quality, and surface ecology, and larger leaks characteristic of short-term well failure. RESULTS: For the scenarios we studied, our simulations show pH and carbonate chemistry are good indicators for leakage of stored CO2 into an overlying aquifer because elevated CO2 yields a more acid pH than the ambient groundwater. CO2 leakage into a dilute groundwater creates a slightly acid plume that can be detected at some distance from the leak source due to groundwater flow and CO2 buoyancy. pH breakthrough curves demonstrate that CO2 leaks can be easily detected for CO2 flux >or= 10(4) t/yr within a 15-month time period at a monitoring well screened within a permeable layer 500 m downstream from the vertical gas trace. At lower flux rates, the CO2 dissolves in the aqueous phase in the lower most permeable unit and does not reach the monitoring well. Sustained pumping in a developed aquifer mixes the CO2-affected water with the ambient water and enhances pH signal for small leaks (10(3) t/yr) and reduces pH signal for larger leaks (>or= 10(4) t/yr). CONCLUSION: The ability to detect CO2 leakage from a storage reservoir to overlying dilute groundwater is dependent on CO2 solubility, leak flux, CO2 buoyancy, and groundwater flow. Our simulations show that the most likely places to detect CO2 are at the base of the confining layer near the water table where CO2 gas accumulates and is transported laterally in all directions, and downstream of the vertical gas trace where groundwater flow is great enough to transport dissolved CO2 laterally. Our simulations show that CO2 may not rise high enough in the aquifer to be detected because aqueous solubility and lateral groundwater transport within the lower aquifer unit exceeds gas pressure build-up and buoyancy needed to drive the CO2 gas upwards.
Project description:Microscale flows of fluids are mainly guided either by solid matrices or by liquid-liquid interfaces. However, the solid matrices are plagued with persistent fouling problems, while liquid-liquid interfaces are limited to low-pressure applications. Here we report a dynamic liquid/solid/gas material containing both air and liquid pockets, which are formed by partially infiltrating a porous matrix with a functional liquid. Using detailed theoretical and experimental data, we show that the distribution of the air- and liquid-filled pores is responsive to pressure and enables the formation and instantaneous recovery of stable liquid-liquid interfaces that sustain a wide range of pressures and prevent channel contamination. This adaptive design is demonstrated for polymeric materials and extended to metal-based systems that can achieve unmatched mechanical and thermal stability. Our platform with its unique adaptive pressure and antifouling capabilities may offer potential solutions to flow control in microfluidics, medical devices, microscale synthesis, and biological assays.
Project description:We show that rotating particles at the liquid-gas interface can be efficiently manipulated using the surface-wave analogue of optical lattices. Two orthogonal standing waves generate surface flows of counter-rotating half-wavelength unit cells, the liquid interface metamaterial, whose geometry is controlled by the wave phase shift. Here we demonstrate that by placing active magnetic spinners inside such metamaterials, one makes a powerful tool which allows manipulation and self-assembly of spinners, turning them into vehicles capable of transporting matter and information between autonomous metamaterial unit cells. We discuss forces acting on a spinner carried by a nonuniform flow and show how the forces confine spinners to orbit inside the same-sign vortex cells of the wave-driven flow. Reversing the spin, we move the spinner into an adjacent cell. By changing the spinning frequency or the wave amplitude, one can precisely control the spinner orbit. Multiple spinners within a unit cell self-organize into stable patterns, e.g., triangles or squares, orbiting around the center of the cell. Spinners having different frequencies can also be confined, such that the higher-frequency spinner occupies the inner orbit and the lower-frequency one circles on the outer orbit, while the orbital motions of both spinners are synchronized.