MicroRNA-101 reverses temozolomide resistance by inhibition of GSK3? in glioblastoma.
ABSTRACT: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a chemotherapy-resistant brain tumor with limited treatment options. Temozolomide (TMZ), an alkylating agent, is a front-line chemotherapeutic drug currently employed in GBM. Although it is currently the most promising chemotherapy for GBM, resistance to TMZ is also common and accounts for many treatment failures. Therefore, understanding the underlying mechanisms that generate resistance is essential to develop more effective chemotherapies. Here, we show that microRNA-101 (miR-101) was significantly downregulated in TMZ-resistant GBM cells and human specimens. Instead, over-expression of miR-101 could sensitize resistant GBM cells to TMZ through downregulation of glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?). Moreover, we found that GSK3? inhibition could enhance TMZ effect through repression of MGMT via promoter methylation. Importantly, decreased expression of miR-101 is related to poor prognosis in patients with GBM, suggesting its potential role as a new prognostic marker in GBM. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that miR-101 can reverse TMZ resistance by inhibition of GSK3? in GBM, thus offer a novel and powerful strategy for GBM therapy.
Project description:Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and lethal tumor of the central nervous system with highly infiltrative and resistant to chemotherapy. Temozolomide (TMZ) is widely used as the first-line treatment for the therapy of GBM. However, a considerable percentage inherent or acquired resistance in GBM accounts for many treatment failures of the TMZ chemotherapy. Therefore, a deeper understanding of the molecular characteristics underlying TMZ resistance and the identification of novel therapeutic target is urgent. Here, we show that MALAT1 was significantly upregulated in TMZ-resistant GBM cells. On the other hand, MALAT1 knockdown reduces TMZ resistance of GBM cells both in vitro and in vivo by inhibiting cell proliferation and promoting apoptosis. We also show that miR-101 overexpression reduced TMZ resistance of GBM cells and played an antagonistic role compared with MALAT1. Importantly, we demonstrate that MALAT1 promoted the chemoresistance through suppressing miR-101 signaling pathway via directly binding it in GBM cells. In conclusion, our study indicates that knockdown of MALAT1 reverses chemoresistance to TMZ via promoting miR-101 regulatory network in GBM and thus offers a novel prognostic marker and potential target for GBM TMZ-based chemotherapy.
Project description:Resistance to temozolomide (TMZ), the standard chemotherapy agent for glioblastoma (GBM), poses a major clinical challenge to GBM prognosis. Understanding the mechanisms of TMZ resistance can help to identify novel drug targets and more effective therapies. Recent studies suggest that bioenergetic alterations of cancer cells play important roles in drug resistance. In our study, the altered metabolism of cancer cells was observed using a metabolic PCR array. We found that stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1 (SCD1), a key rate-limiting enzyme for synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids, was significantly upregulated in TMZ-resistant GBM cells compared to their parental counterparts. Overexpression of SCD1 promoted resistance to TMZ in parental GBM cells, whereas SCD1 downregulation by siRNA could re-sensitize TMZ-resistant cells in vitro. Combinational treatment of TMZ and an SCD1-specific inhibitor showed a combined inhibitory effect on TMZ-resistant glioma cells. We also observed that overexpression of SCD1 promoted Akt/GSK3?/?-catenin signaling, while silencing of SCD1 inhibited the signaling. The combination of an Akt activator with exogenous SCD1 or the combined inhibition of Akt and enforced expression of SCD1 resulted in the most significant changes of Akt signaling. Functionally, significantly lower viability and mobility rates were observed in TMZ-resistant cells when treated with Akt inhibitors and an SCD1 inhibitor simultaneously compared to when treated individually. In conclusion, our study identified SCD1 along with its functional pathway as a novel target in the development of TMZ resistance. SCD1 inhibition used alone or in combination with Akt inhibition could effectively overcome TMZ resistance in gliomas.
Project description:Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as new regulatory molecules implicated in diverse biological processes, including therapeutic resistance. However, the mechanisms underlying lncRNA-mediated temozolomide (TMZ) resistance in glioblastoma (GBM) remain largely unknown. To illustrate the role of lncRNA in TMZ resistance, we induce TMZ-resistant GBM cells, perform a lncRNA microarray of the parental and TMZ-resistant cells, and find an unreported lncRNA in GBM, lnc-TALC (temozolomide-associated lncRNA in glioblastoma recurrence), correlated with TMZ resistance via competitively binding miR-20b-3p to facilitate c-Met expression. A phosphorylated AKT/FOXO3 axis regulated lnc-TALC expression in TMZ-resistant GBM cells. Furthermore, lnc-TALC increased MGMT expression by mediating the acetylation of H3K9, H3K27 and H3K36 in MGMT promoter regions through the c-Met/Stat3/p300 axis. In clinical patients, lnc-TALC is required for TMZ resistance and GBM recurrence. Our results reveal that lnc-TALC in GBM could serve as a therapeutic target to overcome TMZ resistance, enhancing the clinical benefits of TMZ chemotherapy.
Project description:Resistance to temolozomide (TMZ), the standard chemotherapy agent for treating glioblastomas (GBM), is a major clinical problem for patients with GBM. Recently, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been implicated in chemotherapy resistance in various cancers. In this study, we found that the level of the lncRNA RP11-838N2.4 was lower in TMZ-resistant GBM cells (U87TR, U251TR) compared to the parental, non-resistant GBM cells (U87, U251). In GBM patients, the decreased level of lncRNA RP11-838N2.4 correlated with higher risk of GBM relapse, as well as shorter postoperative survival times. We further found that lncRNA RP11-838N2.4 could enhances the cytotoxic effects of temozolomide to GBM cells both in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, lncRNA RP11-838N2.4 acts as an endogenous sponge, suppressing the function of miR-10a through conserved sequences and increasing the expression of EphA8 that enhanced the rate of cell apoptosis, thereby intensified sensitivity of GBM cells to TMZ. Additionally, lncRNA RP11-838N2.4 inhibited the activity of transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) independent of miR-10a. Finally, Characterization of lncRNA RP11-838N2.4 could contribute to strategies for enhancing the efficacy of TMZ.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Although temozolomide (TMZ) resistance is a significant clinical problem in glioblastoma (GBM), its underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, we identified the role of exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) from TMZ-resistant cells as important mediators of chemoresistance in GBM cells. METHODS:Exosomes were isolated from TMZ-resistant GBM cells and characterized via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Expression levels of miR-1238 in GBM cell lines and their exosomes, clinical tissues, and sera were evaluated by RT-qPCR. In vitro and in vivo experiments were performed to elucidate the function of exosomal miR-1238 in TMZ resistance in GBM cells. Co-immunoprecipitation assays and western blot analysis were used to investigate the potential mechanisms of miR-1238/CAV1 that contribute to TMZ resistance. FINDINGS:MiR-1238 levels were higher in TMZ-resistant GBM cells and their exosomes than in sensitive cells. Higher levels of miR-1238 were found in the sera of GBM patients than in healthy people. The loss of miR-1238 may sensitize resistant GBM cells by directly targeting the CAV1/EGFR pathway. Furthermore, bioactive miR-1238 may be incorporated into the exosomes shed by TMZ-resistant cells and taken up by TMZ-sensitive cells, thus disseminating TMZ resistance. INTERPRETATION:Our findings establish that miR-1238 plays an important role in mediating the acquired chemoresistance of GBM and that exosomal miR-1238 may confer chemoresistance in the tumour microenvironment. These results suggest that circulating miR-1238 serves as a clinical biomarker and a promising therapeutic target for TMZ resistance in GBM. FUND: This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No·81402056, 81472362, and 81772951) and the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (863) (No·2012AA02A508).
Project description:Chemotherapy with Temozolomide (TMZ), radiation and surgery are the primary methods to treat Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM), the most common adult intracranial tumor with dismal outcome. GBM resistance to therapy is the main reason of poor patient outcomes. Thus, methods to overcome the resistance are an area of extensive research. This highlight focuses on three recently published articles on the mechanism of resistance and possible therapeutic intervention, including RNA treatment with stem cells. We showed a crucial role of the developmental Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) pathway in the acquisition and maintenance of TMZ resistance. SHH signaling caused TMZ resistance in GBM cells through an increase in the multiple drug resistance gene (MDR1). The SHH receptor, Patched-1 (PTCH1), negatively regulate SHH signaling. In GBM, miR-9 suppressed PTCH1 levels, resulting in the activation of SHH pathway. Thus, SHH signaling is independent of the ligand in resistant GBM cells. MiR-9 was also increased in chemoresistance CD133+ GBM cells. A potential method to reverse resistance was tested by delivering the anti-miR in bone marrow-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs). The anti-miR-9 was transferred into the resistant GBM cells through exosomes and gap junctional intercellular communication. We also review on-going clinical trials with inhibitor of SHH signaling, and also discuss drug delivery by cell therapy for GBM. While GBM treatment has proven to be a challenge, there are a number of novel approaches we are currently developing to manage this malignancy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Acquired drug resistance is a constraining factor in clinical treatment of glioblastoma (GBM). However, the mechanisms of chemoresponsive tumors acquire therapeutic resistance remain poorly understood. Here, we aim to investigate whether temozolomide (TMZ) resistance of chemoresponsive GBM was enhanced by long non-coding RNA SBF2 antisense RNA 1 (lncRNA SBF2-AS1) enriched exosomes. METHOD:LncSBF2-AS1 level in TMZ-resistance or TMZ-sensitive GBM tissues and cells were analyzed by qRT-PCR and FISH assays. A series of in vitro assay and xenograft tumor models were performed to observe the effect of lncSBF2-AS1 on TMZ-resistance in GBM. CHIP assay were used to investigate the correlation of SBF2-AS1 and transcription factor zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1). Dual-luciferase reporter, RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP), immunofluorescence and western blotting were performed to verify the relation between lncSBF2-AS1, miR-151a-3p and XRCC4. Comet assay and immunoblotting were performed to expound the effect of lncSBF2-AS1 on DNA double-stand break (DSB) repair. A series of in vitro assay and intracranial xenografts tumor model were used to determined the function of exosomal lncSBF2-AS1. RESULT:It was found that SBF2-AS1 was upregulated in TMZ-resistant GBM cells and tissues, and overexpression of SBF2-AS1 led to the promotion of TMZ resistance, whereas its inhibition sensitized resistant GBM cells to TMZ. Transcription factor ZEB1 was found to directly bind to the SBF2-AS1 promoter region to regulate SBF2-AS1 level and affected TMZ resistance in GBM cells. SBF2-AS1 functions as a ceRNA for miR-151a-3p, leading to the disinhibition of its endogenous target, X-ray repair cross complementing 4 (XRCC4), which enhances DSB repair in GBM cells. Exosomes selected from temozolomide-resistant GBM cells had high levels of SBF2-AS1 and spread TMZ resistance to chemoresponsive GBM cells. Clinically, high levels of lncSBF2-AS1 in serum exosomes were associated with poor response to TMZ treatment in GBM patients. CONCLUSION:We can conclude that GBM cells remodel the tumor microenvironment to promote tumor chemotherapy-resistance by secreting the oncogenic lncSBF2-AS1-enriched exosomes. Thus, exosomal lncSBF2-AS1 in human serum may serve as a possible diagnostic marker for therapy-refractory GBM.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Accumulating evidence shows that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are important regulator molecules involved in diverse biological processes. Acquired drug resistance is a major challenge in the clinical treatment of glioblastoma (GBM), and lncRNAs have been shown to play a role in chemotherapy resistance. However, the underlying mechanisms by which lncRNA mediates TMZ resistance in GBM remain poorly characterized. METHODS:Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) and fluorescence in situ hybridization assays were used to detect small nucleolar RNA host gene 12 (SNHG12) levels in TMZ-sensitive and TMZ-resistant GBM cells and tissues. The effects of SNHG12 on TMZ resistance were investigated through in vitro assays (western blots, colony formation assays, flow cytometry assays, and TUNEL assays). The mechanism mediating the high expression of SNHG12 in TMZ-resistant cells and its relationships with miR-129-5p, mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1), and E2F transcription factor 7 (E2F7) were determined by bioinformatic analysis, bisulfite amplicon sequencing, methylation-specific PCR, dual luciferase reporter assays, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, RNA immunoprecipitation assays, immunofluorescence, qRT-PCR, and western blot. For in vivo experiments, an intracranial xenograft tumor mouse model was used to investigate SNHG12 function. RESULTS:SNHG12 was upregulated in TMZ-resistant cells and tissues. Overexpression of SNHG12 led to the development of acquired TMZ resistance, while knockdown of SNHG12 restored TMZ sensitivity. An abnormally low level of DNA methylation was detected within the promoter region of SNHG12, and loss of DNA methylation made this region more accessible to the Sp1 transcription factor (SP1); this indicated that methylation and SP1 work together to regulate SNHG12 expression. In the cytoplasm, SNHG12 served as a sponge for miR-129-5p, leading to upregulation of MAPK1 and E2F7 and endowing the GBM cells with TMZ resistance. Disinhibition of MAPK1 regulated TMZ-induced cell apoptosis and the G1/S cell cycle transition by activating the MAPK/ERK pathway, while E2F7 dysregulation was primarily associated with G1/S cell cycle transition. Clinically, SNHG12 overexpression was associated with poor survival of GBM patients undergoing TMZ treatment. CONCLUSION:Our results suggest that SNHG12 could serve as a promising therapeutic target to surmount TMZ resistance, thereby improving the clinical efficacy of TMZ chemotherapy.
Project description:Radioresistance remains a major challenge in the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Recent data strongly suggests the important role of miRNAs in cancer progression and therapeutic response. Here, we have established a radioresistant human GBM cell line U87R derived from parental U87 and found miR-135b expression was upregulated in U87R cells. miR-135b knockdown reversed radioresistance of U87R cells, and miR-135b overexpression enhanced radioresistance of U87 cells. Mechanically, bioinformatics analysis combined with experimental analysis demonstrated GSK3? (Glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta) was a novel direct target of miR-135b. Moreover, GSK3? protein expression was downregulated in U87R cells and restored expression of GSK3? increased radiosensitivity of U87R cells. In addition, clinical data indicated that the expression of miR-135b or GSK3? was significantly association with IR resistance of GBM samples. Our findings suggest miR-135b is involved in the radioresistance of human GBM cells and miR-135b-GSK3? axis may be a novel candidate for developing rational therapeutic strategies for human GBM treatment.
Project description:Despite management efforts with standard surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, glioblastoma multiform (GBM) remains resistant to treatment, which leads to tumor recurrence due to glioma stem cells (GSCs) and therapy resistance. In this study, we used random computer-based prediction and target identification to assess activities of our newly synthesized niclosamide-derived compound, NSC765689, to target GBM oncogenic signaling. Using target prediction analyses, we identified <i>glycogen synthase kinase 3?</i> (<i>GSK3?</i>), <i>?-Catenin</i>, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (<i>STAT3</i>), and cluster of differentiation 44 (<i>CD44</i>) as potential druggable candidates of NSC765689. The above-mentioned signaling pathways were also predicted to be overexpressed in GBM tumor samples compared to adjacent normal samples. In addition, using bioinformatics tools, we also identified microRNA (miR)-135b as one of the most suppressed microRNAs in GBM samples, which was reported to be upregulated through inhibition of <i>GSK3?</i>, and subsequently suppresses GBM tumorigenic properties and stemness. We further performed in silico molecular docking of NSC765689 with GBM oncogenes; <i>GSK3?</i>, <i>?-Catenin</i>, and <i>STAT3</i>, and the stem cell marker, <i>CD44</i>, to predict protein-ligand interactions. The results indicated that NSC765689 exhibited stronger binding affinities compared to its predecessor, LCC09, which was recently published by our laboratory, and was proven to inhibit GBM stemness and resistance. Moreover, we used available US National Cancer Institute (NCI) 60 human tumor cell lines to screen in vitro anticancer effects, including the anti-proliferative and cytotoxic activities of NSC765689 against GBM cells, and 50% cell growth inhibition (GI<sub>50</sub>) values ranged 0.23~5.13 ?M. In summary, using computer-based predictions and target identification revealed that NSC765689 may be a potential pharmacological lead compound which can regulate GBM oncogene (<i>GSK3?/?-Catenin</i>/<i>STAT3</i>/<i>CD44</i>) signaling and upregulate the <i>miR-135b</i> tumor suppressor. Therefore, further in vitro and in vivo investigations will be performed to validate the efficacy of NSC765689 as a novel potential GBM therapeutic.