Endothelial cells microparticle-associated protein disulfide isomerase promotes platelet activation in metabolic syndrome.
ABSTRACT: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a common challenge in the world, and the platelet activation is enhanced in MetS patients. However, the fundamental mechanism that underlies platelet activation in MetS remains incompletely understood. Endothelial cells are damaged seriously in MetS patients, then they release more endothelial microparticles (EMPs). After all, whether the EMPs participate in platelet activation is still obscure. If they were, how did they work?We demonstrated that the levels of EMPs, PMPs (platelet derived microparticles) and microparticle-carried-PDI activity increased in MetS patients. IR endothelial cells released more EMPs, the EMP-PDI was more activated. EMPs can enhance the activation of CD62P, GPIIb/IIIa and platelet aggregation and this process can be partly inhibited by PDI inhibitor such as RL90 and rutin. Activated platelets stimulated by EMPs expressed more PDI on cytoplasm and released more PMPs.We obtained plasma from 23 MetS patients and 8 normal healthy controls. First we built insulin resistance (IR) model of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and then we separated EMPs from HUVECs culture medium and used these EMPs to stimulate platelets. Levels of microparticles, P-selectin(CD62P), Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (GPIIb/IIIa) were detected by flow cytometry and levels of EMPs were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) activity was detected by insulin transhydrogenase assay. Platelet aggregation was assessed by turbidimetry.EMPs can promote the activation of GPIIb/IIIa in platelets and platelet aggregation by the PDI which is carried on the surface of EMPs.
Project description:Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) present at platelet surfaces has been considered to play an important role in the conformational change and activation of the integrin glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (GPIIb/IIIa) and thus enhances platelet aggregation. Growing evidences indicated that platelet surface PDI may serve as a potential target for developing of a new class of antithrombotic agents. In the present study, we investigated the effects of HPW-RX40, a chemical derivative of ?-nitrostyrene, on platelet activation and PDI activity. HPW-RX40 inhibited platelet aggregation, GPIIb/IIIa activation, and P-selectin expression in human platelets. Moreover, HPW-RX40 reduced thrombus formation in human whole blood under flow conditions, and protects mice from FeCl3-induced carotid artery occlusion. HPW-RX40 inhibited the activity of recombinant PDI family proteins (PDI, ERp57, and ERp5) as well as suppressed cell surface PDI activity of platelets in a reversible manner. Exogenous addition of PDI attenuated the inhibitory effect of HPW-RX40 on GPIIb/IIIa activation. Structure-based molecular docking simulations indicated that HPW-RX40 binds to the active site of PDI by forming hydrogen bonds. In addition, HPW-RX40 neither affected the cell viability nor induced endoplasmic reticulum stress in human cancer A549 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Taken together, our results suggest that HPW-RX40 is a reversible and non-cytotoxic PDI inhibitor with antiplatelet effects, and it may have a potential for development of novel antithrombotic agents.
Project description:Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) is an amino acid sequence in fibrinogen recognized by platelet glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa. Recently, it was found that RGD peptide binding to GPIIb/IIIa leads to conformational changes in the complex that are associated with the acquisition of high-affinity fibrinogen-binding function. In this study, we found that tetrafibricin, a novel non-peptidic GPIIb/IIIa antagonist, induced similar conformational changes in GPIIb/IIIa as did RGD peptides. Tetrafibricin increased the binding of purified inactive GPIIb/IIIa to immobilized pl-80, a monoclonal antibody that preferentially recognizes ligand-occupied GPIIb/IIIa. Exposure of the pl-80 epitope by tetrafibricin was also observed on resting human platelets by flow cytometry. On intact platelets, the conformational changes transformed GPIIb/IIIa into a high-affinity receptor for fibrinogen and triggered subsequent platelet aggregation. Tetrafibricin is the first non-peptidic GPIIb/IIIa antagonist reported that has the capacity to induce conformational changes in GPIIb/IIIa.
Project description:Platelets play an important role in thrombosis and in neo-vascularisation as they release and produce factors that both promote and suppress angiogenesis. Amongst these factors is the angiogenesis inhibitor angiostatin, which is released during thrombus formation. The impact of anti-thrombotic agents and the kinetics of platelet angiostatin release are unknown. Hence, our objectives were to characterize platelet angiostatin release temporally and pharmacologically and to determine how angiostatin release influences endothelial cell migration, an early stage of angiogenesis. We hypothesized anti-platelet agents would suppress angiostatin release but not generation by platelets. Human platelets were aggregated and temporal angiostatin release was compared to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Immuno-gold electron microscopy and immunofluorescence microscopy identified ?-granules as storage organelles of platelet angiostatin. Acetylsalicylic acid, MRS2395, GPIIb/IIIa blocking peptide, and aprotinin were used to characterize platelet angiostatin release and generation. An endothelial cell migration assay was performed under hypoxic conditions to determine the effects of pharmacological platelet and angiostatin inhibition. Compared to VEGF, angiostatin generation and release from ?-granules occurred later temporally during platelet aggregation. Consequently, collagen-activated platelet releasates stimulated endothelial cell migration more potently than maximally-aggregated platelets. Platelet inhibitors prostacyclin, S-nitroso-glutathione, acetylsalicylic acid, and GPIIb/IIIa blocking peptide, but not a P2Y12 inhibitor, suppressed angiostatin release but not generation. Suppression of angiostatin generation in the presence of acetylsalicylic acid enhanced platelet-stimulated endothelial migration. Hence, the temporal and pharmacological modulation of platelet angiostatin release may have significant consequences for neo-vascularization following thrombus formation.
Project description:1. We have studied the effects of a novel agonist, solid-phase von Willebrand Factor (sVWF), on tumour cell-induced platelet aggregation (TCIPA). 2. Washed platelet suspensions were obtained from human blood and the effects of HT-1080 human fibrosarcoma cells and sVWF on platelets were studied using aggregometry, phase-contrast microscopy, and flow cytometry. 3. Incubation of platelets with sVWF (1.2 microg ml(-1)) and HT-1080 cells (5 x 10(3) ml(-1)) resulted in a two-phased reaction characterized first by the adhesion of platelets to sVWF, then by aggregation. 4. TCIPA in the presence of sVWF was inhibited by S-nitroso-glutathione (GSNO, 100 microM) and prostacyclin (PGI(2), 30 nM). 5. Platelet activation in the presence of tumour cells and sVWF resulted in the decreased surface expression of platelet glycoprotein (GP)Ib and up-regulation of GPIIb/IIIa receptors. 6. Pre-incubation of platelets with PGI(2) (30 nM) resulted in inhibition of sVWF-tumour cell-stimulated platelet surface expression of GPIIb/IIIa as measured by flow cytometry using antibodies directed against both non-activated and activated receptor. In contrast, GSNO (100 microM) did not affect sVWF-tumour cell-stimulated platelet surface expression of GPIIb/IIIa. 7. Flow cytometry performed with PAC-1 antibodies that bind only to the activated GPIIb/IIIa revealed that GSNO (100 microM) caused inhibition of activation of GPIIb/IIIa. 8. The inhibitors exerted no significant effects on TCIPA-mediated changes in GPIb. 9. Thus, sVWF potentiates the platelet-aggregatory activity of HT-1080 cells and these effects appear to be mediated via up-regulation of platelet GPIIb/IIIa. 10. Prostacyclin and NO inhibit TCIPA-sVWF-mediated platelet aggregation. The mechanisms of inhibition of this aggregation by PGI(2) differ from those of NO.
Project description:Platelet microparticles are a normal constituent of circulating blood. Several studies have demonstrated positive correlations between thrombotic states and platelet microparticle levels. Yet little is known about the processes by which platelet microparticles are generated in vivo. We now characterize microparticles derived directly from megakaryocytes. Video microscopy of live mouse megakaryocytes demonstrated that microparticles form as submicron beads along the lengths of slender, unbranched micropodia. These microparticles are CD41(+), CD42b(+), and express surface phosphatidylserine. Megakaryocyte microparticle generation is resistant to inhibition of microtubule assembly, which is critical to platelet formation, and augmented by inhibition of actin polymerization. To determine whether circulating microparticles are derived primarily from activated platelets or megakaryocytes, we identified markers that distinguish between these 2 populations. CD62P and LAMP-1 were found only on mouse microparticles from activated platelets. In contrast, full-length filamin A was found in megakaryocyte-derived microparticles, but not microparticles from activated platelets. Circulating microparticles isolated from mice were CD62P(-), LAMP-1(-) and expressed full-length filamin A, indicating a megakaryocytic origin. Similarly, circulating microparticles isolated from healthy volunteers were CD62P(-) and expressed full-length filamin A. Cultured human megakaryocytes elaborated microparticles that were CD41(+), CD42b(+), and express surface phosphatidylserine. These results indicate that direct production by megakaryocytes represents a physiologic means to generate circulating platelet microparticles.
Project description:Activation of platelet glycoprotein IIb-IIIa (GPIIb-IIIa; integrin ?IIb?3) leads to high-affinity fibrinogen binding and platelet aggregation during hemostasis. Whereas GTP-bound Rap1 GTPase promotes talin 1 binding to the ?3 cytoplasmic domain to activate platelet GPIIb-IIIa, the Rap1 effector that regulates talin association with ?3 in platelets is unknown. Rap1 binding to the talin 1 F0 subdomain was proposed to forge the talin 1-Rap1 link in platelets. Here, we report a talin 1 point mutant (R35E) that significantly reduces Rap1 affinity without a significant effect on its structure or expression. Talin 1 head domain (THD) (R35E) was of similar potency to wild-type THD in activating ?IIb?3 in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Coexpression with activated Rap1b increased activation, and coexpression with Rap1GAP1 reduced activation caused by transfection of wild-type THD or THD(R35E). Furthermore, platelets from Tln1R35E/R35E mice showed similar GPIIb-IIIa activation to those from wild-type littermates in response to multiple agonists. Tln1R35E/R35E platelets exhibited slightly reduced platelet aggregation in response to low doses of agonists; however, there was not a significant hemostatic defect, as judged by tail bleeding times. Thus, the Rap1-talin 1 F0 interaction has little effect on platelet GPIIb-IIIa activation and hemostasis and cannot account for the dramatic effects of loss of Rap1 activity on these platelet functions.
Project description:<h4>Background and aim</h4>The study aimed to determine whether the MPs levels and platelet activation are affected by the COVID-19 infection in both malignant and non-malignant patients compared to healthy individuals and define their contribution to the COVID-19 associated coagulopathy and the relation of these MPs to other hematologic parameters.<h4>Patients and methods</h4>We recruited 23 malignant patients with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) positive COVID-19, also, 19 COVID-19 non-malignant patients, and 20 healthy volunteers were also enrolled for comparison. Blood samples were collected from patients and healthy donors into 5 mL vacutainer tube containing 3.5% buffered sodium citrate solution for measurement of total microparticles (TMPs), platelet microparticles (PMPs), endothelial microparticles (EMPs), CD62 activated platelets, and CD41 platelet marker.<h4>Results</h4>COVID-19 malignant patients had significantly lower hemoglobin and platelets compared to COVID non-malignant ones, while they had significantly higher C-reactive protein, LDH, AST, Albunim, creatinine, and prognostic index (PI) compared to COVID-19 non-malignant patients. significant accumulations of TMPs, PMPs, EMPs, and activated platelets in COVID-19 affected patients compared to healthy controls. TMPs, and EMPs were significantly accumulated in COVID-19 malignant compared to COVID-19 non-malignant patients with no significant difference in PMPs between both.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Circulating MPs and activated platelets may be promising novel prognostic biomarkers capable of identifying potentially severe COVID-19 patients who require immediate care especially in cancer patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The marine-derived triterpenoid frondoside A inhibits the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) pathway in cancer cells. Because this pathway is also crucially involved in platelet activation, we studied the effect of frondoside A on thrombus formation. METHODS:Frondoside A effects on platelet viability, surface adhesion molecule expression, and intracellular signaling were analyzed by flow cytometry and Western blot. The effect of frondoside A was analyzed by photochemically induced thrombus formation in the mouse dorsal skinfold chamber model and by tail vein bleeding. RESULTS:Concentrations of up to 15 µM frondoside A did not affect the viability of platelets, but reduced their surface expression of P-selectin (CD62P) and the activation of glycoprotein (GP)IIb/IIIa after agonist stimulation. Additional mechanistic analyses revealed that this was mediated by downregulation of PI3K-dependent Akt and extracellular-stimuli-responsive kinase (ERK) phosphorylation. Frondoside A significantly prolonged the complete vessel occlusion time in the mouse dorsal skinfold chamber model of photochemically induced thrombus formation and also the tail vein bleeding time when compared to vehicle-treated controls. CONCLUSION:Our findings demonstrated that frondoside A inhibits agonist-induced CD62P expression and activation of GPIIb/IIIa. Moreover, frondoside A suppresses thrombus formation. Therefore, this marine-derived triterpenoid may serve as a lead compound for the development of novel antithrombotic drugs.
Project description:Glycoprotein IIb (GPIIb) is a major glycoprotein of the human platelet plasma membrane, which together with glycoprotein IIIa (GPIIIa) forms a Ca2(+)-dependent heterodimer, GPIIb/IIIa, which serves as the major fibrinogen receptor in activated platelets. The precise localization of the epitopes for six anti-GPIIb monoclonal antibodies (M1-M6) has been determined by a combination of enzymic and chemical cleavage procedures, peptide isolation, N-terminal sequence analysis, peptide synthesis and enzyme immunoassay. The following localizations were found: M1, beta 1-16-36, beta 2-4-24; M2, alpha 747-755; M alpha 2, alpha 837-843; M3, alpha 849-857; M4, alpha 143-151; M5, alpha 550-558; M6, alpha 657-665. Besides considerations of the degree of exposure of these epitopes, several remarkable features are readily apparent. The earliest and main chymotryptic cleavage site of GPIIb in whole platelets is between alpha cysteine-545 and alpha phenylalanine-551. The epitope for M3 was located within the same sequence (alpha 842-857) as is the epitope for PMI-1 [Loftus, Plow, Frelinger, D'Souza, Dixon, Lacy, Sorge & Ginsberg (1987) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84, 7114-7118] in spite of the fact that the exposure of the latter in whole platelets is EDTA-dependent whereas that in the former is not. The epitope for M5 shares full homology with the 540-548 peptide stretch of the alpha-subunit of the vitronectin receptor, and this antibody cross-reacts with endothelial cells. The M6 epitope is located in the 25 kDa membrane-bound fragment of GPIIb, which is most epitope is destroyed at an early stage of chymotrypic digestion. This suggests that this region of GPIIb, somewhere between the epitope for M5 (alpha 550-558) and the epitope for M2 (alpha 747-755), may carry the surface of interaction of GPIIb with GPIIIa in the GPIIb/IIIa heterodimer. Finally, the sequence where the epitope for M6 has been located (alpha 657-667) was the only one found to be hydropathically complementary to the gamma 402-411 peptide of fibrinogen within the amino acid sequence of both GPIIb and GPIIIa. This complementariness, the EDTA- or thrombin-dependence of the exposure of the alpha 657-665 stretch in whole platelets to M6 and the ability of this antibody to inhibit platelet aggregation led us to postulate that this peptide stretch is a putative binding site for fibrinogen in the platelet receptor.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
Project description:1. The pharmacological characteristics of solid-phase von Willebrand factor (svWF), a novel platelet agonist, were studied. 2. Washed platelet suspensions were obtained from human blood and the effects of svWF on platelets were measured using aggregometry, phase-contrast microscopy, flow cytometry and zymography. 3. Incubation of platelets with svWF (0.2 - 1.2 microg ml(-1)) resulted in their adhesion to the ligand, while co-incubations of svWF with subthreshold concentrations of ADP, collagen and thrombin resulted in aggregation. 4. 6B4 inhibitory anti-glycoprotein (GP)Ib antibodies abolished platelet adhesion stimulated by svWF, while aggregation was reduced in the presence of 6B4 and N-Acetyl-Pen-Arg-Gly-Asp-Cys, an antagonist of GPIIb/IIIa. 5. Platelet adhesion stimulated with svWF was associated with a concentration-dependent increase in expression of GPIb, but not of GPIIb/IIIa. 6. In contrast, collagen (0.5 - 10.0 microg ml(-1)) caused down-regulation of GPIb and up-regulation of GPIIb/IIIa in platelets. 7. Solid-phase vWF (1.2 microg ml(-1)) resulted in the release of MMP-2 from platelets. 8. Inhibition of MMP-2 with phenanthroline (10 microM), but not with aspirin or apyrase, inhibited platelet adhesion stimulated with svWF. 9. In contrast, human recombinant MMP-2 potentiated both the effects of svWF on adhesion and up-regulation of GPIb. 10. Platelet adhesion and aggregation stimulated with svWF were reduced by S-nitroso-n-acetyl-penicillamine, an NO donor, and prostacyclin. 11. Thus, stimulation of human platelets with svWF leads to adhesion and aggregation that are mediated via activation of GPIb and GPIIb/IIIa, respectively. 12. Mechanisms of activation of GPIb by svWF involve the release of MMP-2, and are regulated by NO and prostacyclin.