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The lysosomotropic drug LeuLeu-OMe induces lysosome disruption and autophagy-independent cell death in Trypanosoma brucei.


ABSTRACT: Trypanosoma brucei is a blood-borne, protozoan parasite that causes African sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in animals. The current chemotherapy relies on only a handful of drugs that display undesirable toxicity, poor efficacy and drug-resistance. In this study, we explored the use of lysosomotropic drugs to induce bloodstream form T. brucei cell death via lysosome destabilization.We measured drug concentrations that inhibit cell proliferation by 50% (IC50) for several compounds, chosen based on their lysosomotropic effects previously reported in Plasmodium falciparum. The lysosomal effects and cell death induced by L-leucyl-L-leucyl methyl ester (LeuLeu-OMe) were further analyzed by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence analyses of different lysosomal markers. The effect of autophagy in LeuLeu-OMe-induced lysosome destabilization and cytotoxicity was also investigated in control and autophagy-deficient cells.LeuLeu-OMe was selected for detailed analyses due to its strong inhibitory profile against T. brucei with minimal toxicity to human cell lines in vitro. Time-dependent immunofluorescence studies confirmed an effect of LeuLeu-OMe on the lysosome. LeuLeu-OMe-induced cytotoxicity was also found to be dependent on the acidic pH of the lysosome. Although an increase in autophagosomes was observed upon LeuLeu-OMe treatment, autophagy was not required for the cell death induced by LeuLeu-OMe. Necrosis appeared to be the main cause of cell death upon LeuLeu-OMe treatment.LeuLeu-OMe is a lysosomotropic agent capable of destabilizing lysosomes and causing necrotic cell death in bloodstream form of T. brucei.

SUBMITTER: Koh HX 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC5349101 | BioStudies | 2015-01-01T00:00:00Z

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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