Bioactive 4-Oxoheptanedioic Monoamide Derivatives of Proteins and Ethanolaminephospholipids: Products of Docosahexaenoate Oxidation.
ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress causes lipid-derived oxidative modification of biomolecules that has been implicated in many pathological states. Phospholipids containing polyunsaturated fatty acids are major targets of free radical-initiated oxidation. Phospholipids that incorporate docosahexaenoate (DHA) are highly enriched in important neural structures including the brain and retina, where DHA comprises 40% and 60% of total fatty acids, respectively. Oxidative fragmentation of 2-docosahexaenoyl-1-palmityl-sn-glycerophosphocholine generates esters of 4-hydroxy-7-oxohept-5-enoic acid (HOHA) and 4-keto-7-oxohept-5-enoic acid (KOHA) with 2-lysophosphatidylcholine, HOHA-PC, and KOHA-PC. Covalent HOHA adducts that incorporate the primary amino groups of proteins and ethanolamine phospholipids in carboxyethylpyrrole (CEP) derivatives were detected immunologically with anti-CEP antibodies in human tumors, retina, and blood. Now, we generated an anti-OHdiA antibody to test the hypothesis that KOHA adducts, which incorporate the primary amino groups of proteins or ethanolamine phospholipids in 4-oxo-heptanedioic (OHdiA) monoamide derivatives, are present in vivo. However, whereas the anti-CEP antibody is highly specific and does not cross-react with the OHdiA monoamide epitope, the anti-OHdiA monoamide antibody cross-reacted with CEP epitopes making it of little value as an analytical tool for OHdiA monoamides but suggesting the possibility that OHdiA monoamides would exhibit receptor-mediated biological activity similar to that of CEP. An LC-MS/MS method was developed that allows quantification of OHdiA derivatives in biological samples. We now find that KOHA-PC forms OHdiA monoamide adducts of proteins and ethanolamine phospholipids and that OHdiA-protein levels are significantly higher than OHdiA-ethanloamine phospholipid levels in blood from healthy human subjects, 0.45 ?M and 0.18 ?M, respectively (n = 3, and p = 0.027). OHdiA monoamide epitopes are angiogenic, causing TLR2-dependent adhesion and tube formation by human umbilical vein endothelial cells. OHdiA monoamide epitopes are only slightly less potent than CEP epitopes that contribute to the pathological angiogenesis of age-related macular degeneration and tumor growth.
Project description:Oxidative cleavage of docosahexaenoate (DHA) in retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells produces 4-hydroxy-7-oxohept-5-enoic acid (HOHA) esters of 2-lysophosphatidylcholine (PC). HOHA-PC spontaneously releases a membrane-permeant HOHA lactone that modifies primary amino groups of proteins and ethanolamine phospholipids to produce 2-(?-carboxyethyl)pyrrole (CEP) derivatives. CEPs have significant pathological relevance to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) including activation of CEP-specific T-cells leading to inflammatory M1 polarization of macrophages in the retina involved in "dry AMD" and TLR2-dependent induction of angiogenesis that characterizes "wet AMD". RPE cells accumulate DHA from shed rod photoreceptor outer segments through phagocytosis and from plasma lipoproteins secreted by the liver through active uptake from the choriocapillaris. As a cell model of light-induced oxidative damage of DHA phospholipids in RPE cells, ARPE-19?cells were supplemented with DHA, with or without the lipofuscin fluorophore A2E. In this model, light exposure, in the absence of A2E, promoted the generation HOHA lactone-glutathione (GSH) adducts, depletion of intracellular GSH and a competing generation of CEPs. While DHA-rich RPE cells exhibit an inherent proclivity toward light-induced oxidative damage, photosensitization by A2E nearly doubled the amount of lipid oxidation and expanded the spectral range of photosensitivity to longer wavelengths. Exposure of ARPE-19?cells to 1??M HOHA lactone for 24?h induced massive (50%) loss of lysosomal membrane integrity and caused loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Using senescence-associated ?-galactosidase (SA ?-gal) staining that detects lysosomal ?-galactosidase, we determined that exposure to HOHA lactone induces senescence in ARPE-19?cells. The present study shows that products of light-induced oxidative damage of DHA phospholipids in the absence of A2E can lead to RPE cell dysfunction. Therefore, their toxicity may be especially important in the early stages of AMD before RPE cells accumulate lipofuscin fluorophores.
Project description:The diverse biological activities of ?-hydroxyalkenal phospholipids and their involvement in disease are the subject of intense study. Phospholipid aldehydes, such as the 4-hydroxy-7-oxohept-5-enoic acid ester of 2-lyso-phosphatidylcholine (HOHA-PC), the 5-hydroxy-8-oxo-6-octenoic acid ester of 2-lyso-PC (HOOA-PC), and the 9-hydroxy-12-oxododec-10-enoic acid ester of 2-lyso-PC (HODA-PC), are generated by oxidative cleavage of polyunsaturated fatty acyl phospholipids. To facilitate investigations of their chemistry and biology, we now report efficient total synthesis of HOOA, HODA, and HOHA phospholipids. Because the target ?-hydroxyalkenals readily decompose through oxidation of the aldehyde group to a carboxylic acid or through cyclization to furans, these synthesis generate the sensitive functional array of the target phospholipids under mild conditions from acetal derivatives that are suitable for long-term storage.
Project description:Oxidation of docosahexaenoate phospholipids produces 4-hydroxy-7-oxo-hept-5-eonyl phospholipids (HOHA-PLs) that react with protein lysyl ?-amino residues to generate 2-?-carboxyethylpyrrole (CEP) derivatives, endogenous factors that induce angiogenesis in the retina and tumors. It seemed likely, but remained unproven, that HOHA-PLs react with ethanolamine phospholipids (EPs) in vivo to generate CEP-EPs. We now show that CEP-EPs are present in human blood at 4.6-fold higher levels in age-related macular degeneration plasma than in normal plasma. We also show that CEP-EPs are pro-angiogenic, inducing tube formation by human umbilical vein endothelial cells by activating Toll-like receptor 2. CEP-EP levels may be a useful biomarker for clinical assessment of AMD risk and CEP-associated tumor progression and a tool for monitoring the efficacy of therapeutic interventions.
Project description:2-(?-Carboxyethyl)pyrrole (CEP) derivatives of proteins were previously shown to have significant pathological and physiological relevance to age-related macular degeneration, cancer and wound healing. Previously, we showed that CEPs are generated in the reaction of ?-amino groups of protein lysyl residues with 1-palmityl-2-(4-hydroxy-7-oxo-5-heptenoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (HOHA-PC), a lipid oxidation product uniquely generated by oxidative truncation of docosahexanenate-containing phosphatidylcholine. More recently, we found that HOHA-PC rapidly releases HOHA-lactone and 2-lyso-PC (t1/2 = 30 min at 37 °C) by nonenzymatic transesterification/deacylation. Now we report that HOHA-lactone reacts with Ac-Gly-Lys-OMe or human serum albumin to form CEP derivatives in vitro. Incubation of human red blood cell ghosts with HOHA-lactone generates CEP derivatives of membrane proteins and ethanolamine phospholipids. Quantitative analysis of the products generated in the reaction HOHA-PC with Ac-Gly-Lys-OMe showed that HOHA-PC mainly forms CEP-dipeptide that is not esterified to 2-lysophosphatidycholine. Thus, the HOHA-lactone pathway predominates over the direct reaction of HOHA-PC to produce the CEP-PC-dipeptide derivative. Myleoperoxidase/H2O2/NO2(-) promoted in vitro oxidation of either 1-palmityl-2-docosahexaneoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DHA-PC) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) generates HOHA-lactone in yields of 0.45% and 0.78%, respectively. Lipid oxidation in human red blood cell ghosts also releases HOHA-lactone. Oxidative injury of ARPE-19 human retinal pigmented epithelial cells by exposure to H2O2 generated CEP derivatives. Treatment of ARPE-19 cells with HOHA-lactone generated CEP-modified proteins. Low (submicromolar), but not high, concentrations of HOHA-lactone promote increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion by ARPE-19 cells. Therefore, HOHA-lactone not only serves as an intermediate for the generation of CEPs but also is a biologically active oxidative truncation product from docosahexaenoate lipids.
Project description:Often guided by analogy with nonphospholipid products from oxidative cleavage of polyunsaturated fatty acids, we previously identified a variety of biologically active oxidatively truncated phospholipids. Previously, 4,5-epoxy-2(E)-decenal (4,5-EDE) was found to be produced by oxidative cleavage of 13-(S)-hydroperoxy-9,11-(Z,E)-octadeca-dienoic acid (13-HPODE). 4,5-EDE reacts with deoxy-adenosine (dAdo) and deoxy-guanosine (dGuo) to form mutagenic etheno derivatives. We hypothesized that a functionally similar and potentially mutagenic compound, that is, 13-oxo-9,10-epoxytridecenoic acid (OETA), would be generated from 9-HPODE through an analogous fragmentation. We expected that an ester of 2-lysophosphatidylcoline (PC), OETA-PC, would be produced by oxidative cleavage of 9-HPODE-PC in biological membranes. An efficient, unambiguous total synthesis of trans-OETA-PC was first executed to provide a standard that could facilitate the identification of this phospholipid epoxyalkenal that was shown to be produced during oxidation of the linoleic acid ester of 2-lysoPC. Finally, trans-OETA-PC was detected in a lipid extract from rat retina. The identity of the naturally occurring oxidatively truncated phospholipid was further confirmed by derivatization with methoxylamine that produced characteristic mono and bis adducts. The average amount of trans-OETA-PC in rat retina, 0.33 pmol, is relatively low as compared to other oxidatively truncated PCs, for example, the 4-hydroxy-7-oxohept-5-enoic acid PC ester (2.5 pmol) or the 4-keto-7-oxohept-5-enoic acid PC ester (1.7 pmol), derived from the docosahexaenoic acid ester of 2-lysoPC. This, most likely, is because docosahexaenoate PCs are particularly abundant in the retina as compared to the linoleate PC ester precursor of OETA-PC. As predicted by analogy with 4,5-EDE, OETA-PC reacts with dAdo and dGuo, as well as with DNA, to form mutagenic etheno adducts.
Project description:Oxidative stress and angiogenesis have been implicated not only in normal phenomena such as tissue healing and remodeling but also in many pathological processes. However, the relationships between oxidative stress and angiogenesis still remain unclear, although oxidative stress has been convincingly demonstrated to influence the progression of angiogenesis under physiological and pathological conditions. The retina is particularly susceptible to oxidative stress because of its intensive oxygenation and high abundance of polyunsaturated fatty acyls. In particular, it has high levels of docosahexanoates, whose oxidative fragmentation produces 4-hydroxy-7-oxo-5-heptenoic acid lactone (HOHA-lactone). Previously, we found that HOHA-lactone is a major precursor of 2-(?-carboxyethyl)pyrrole (CEP) derivatives, which are tightly linked to age-related macular degeneration (AMD). CEPs promote the pathological angiogenesis of late-stage AMD. We now report additional mechanisms by which HOHA-lactone promotes angiogenesis. Using cultured ARPE-19 cells, we observed that HOHA-lactone induces secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which is correlated to increases in reactive oxygen species and decreases in intracellular glutathione (GSH). Wound healing and tube formation assays provided, for the first time, in vitro evidence that HOHA-lactone induces the release of VEGF from ARPE-19 cells, which promotes angiogenesis by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in culture. Thus, HOHA-lactone can stimulate vascular growth through a VEGF-dependent pathway. In addition, results from MTT and wound healing assays as well as tube formation experiments showed that GSH-conjugated metabolites of HOHA-lactone stimulate HUVEC proliferation and promote angiogenesis in vitro. Previous studies demonstrated that HOHA-lactone, through its CEP derivatives, promotes angiogenesis in a novel Toll-like receptor 2-dependent manner that is independent of the VEGF receptor or VEGF expression. The new studies show that HOHA-lactone also participates in other angiogenic signaling pathways that include promoting the secretion of VEGF from retinal pigmented epithelial cells.
Project description:?-Hydroxy-?,?-unsaturated aldehydes, generated by oxidative damage of polyunsaturated phospholipids, form pyrrole derivatives that incorporate the ethanolamine phospholipid (EP) amino group such as 2-pentylpyrrole (PP)-EP and 2-(?-carboxyalkyl)pyrrole (CAP)-EP derivatives: 2-(?-carboxyethyl)pyrrole (CEP)-EP, 2-(?-carboxypropyl)pyrrole (CPP)-EP, and 2-(?-carboxyheptyl)pyrrole (CHP)-EP. Because EPs occur in vivo in various forms, a complex mixture of pyrrole-modified EPs with different molecular weights is expected to be generated. To provide a sensitive index of oxidative stress, all of the differences in mass related to the glycerophospholipid moieties were removed by releasing a single CAP-ethanolamine (ETN) or PP-ETN from each mixture by treatment with phospholipase D. Accurate quantization was achieved using the corresponding ethanolamine-d4 pyrroles as internal standards. The product mixture obtained by phospholipolysis of total blood phospholipids from sickle cell disease (SCD) patients was analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The method was applied to measure CAP-EP and PP-EP levels in blood plasma from clinical monitoring of SCD patients. We found uniformly elevated blood levels of CEP-EP (63.9 ± 9.7 nM) similar to mean levels in blood from age-related macular degeneration (AMD) patients (56.3 ± 37.1 nM), and 2-fold lower levels (27.6 ± 3.6 nM, n = 5) were detected in plasma from SCD patients hospitalized to treat a sickle cell crisis, although mean levels remain higher than those (12.1 ± 10.5 nM) detected in blood from healthy controls. Plasma levels of CPP-EPs from SCD clinic patients were 4-fold higher than those of SCD patients hospitalized to treat a sickle cell crisis (45.1 ± 10.9 nM, n = 5 versus 10.9 ± 3.4 nM, n = 6; p < 0.002). PP-EP concentration in plasma from SCD clinic patients is nearly 4.8-fold higher than its level in plasma samples from SCD patients hospitalized to treat a sickle cell crisis (7.06 ± 4.05 vs 1.48 ± 0.92 nM; p < 0.05). Because CAP-EPs promote angiogenesis and platelet activation, the elevated levels present in SCD blood can contribute to the hypercoaguability and vaso-occlusive events that are critical pathophysiologic features of SCD.
Project description:Carboxyethylpyrrole (CEP) adducts are oxidative modifications derived from docosahexaenoate-containing lipids that are elevated in ocular tissues and plasma in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and in rodents exposed to intense light. The goal of this study was to determine whether light-induced CEP adducts and autoantibodies are modulated by pretreatment with AL-8309A under conditions that prevent photo-oxidative damage of rat retina. AL-8309A is a serotonin 5-HT1A receptor agonist.Albino rats were dark adapted prior to blue light exposure. Control rats were maintained in normal cyclic light. Rats were injected subcutaneously 3x with 10 mg/kg AL-8309A (2 days, 1 day and 0 hours) before light exposure for 6 h (3.1 mW/cm(2), ?=450 nm). Animals were sacrificed immediately following light exposure and eyes, retinas and plasma were collected. CEP adducts and autoantibodies were quantified by Western analysis or ELISA.ANOVA supported significant differences in mean amounts of CEP adducts and autoantibodies among the light + vehicle, light + drug and dark control groups from both retina and plasma. Light-induced CEP adducts in retina were reduced ~20% following pretreatment with AL-8309A (n = 62 rats, p = 0.006) and retinal CEP immunoreactivity was less intense by immunohistochemistry. Plasma levels of light-induced CEP adducts were reduced at least 30% (n = 15 rats, p = 0.004) by drug pretreatment. Following drug treatment, average CEP autoantibody titer in light exposed rats (n = 22) was unchanged from dark control levels, and ~20% (p = 0.046) lower than in vehicle-treated rats.Light-induced CEP adducts in rat retina and plasma were significantly decreased by pretreatment with AL-8309A. These results are consistent with and extend previous studies showing AL-8309A reduces light-induced retinal lesions in rats and support CEP biomarkers as possible tools for monitoring the efficacy of select therapeutics.
Project description:Proteins that are post-translationally adducted with 2-(?-carboxyethyl)pyrrole (CEP) have been proposed to play a pathogenic role in age-related macular degeneration, by inducing angiogenesis in a Toll Like Receptor 2 (TLR2)-dependent manner. We have investigated the involvement of CEP adducts in angiogenesis and TLR activation, to assess the therapeutic potential of inhibiting CEP adducts and TLR2 for ocular angiogenesis. As tool reagents, several CEP-adducted proteins and peptides were synthetically generated by published methodology and adduction was confirmed by NMR and LC-MS/MS analyses. Structural studies showed significant changes in secondary structure in CEP-adducted proteins but not the untreated proteins. Similar structural changes were also observed in the treated unadducted proteins, which were treated by the same adduction method except for one critical step required to form the CEP group. Thus some structural changes were unrelated to CEP groups and were artificially induced by the synthesis method. In biological studies, the CEP-adducted proteins and peptides failed to activate TLR2 in cell-based assays and in an in vivo TLR2-mediated retinal leukocyte infiltration model. Neither CEP adducts nor TLR agonists were able to induce angiogenesis in a tube formation assay. In vivo, treatment of animals with CEP-adducted protein had no effect on laser-induced choroidal neovascularization. Furthermore, in vivo inactivation of TLR2 by deficiency in Myeloid Differentiation factor 88 (Myd88) had no effect on abrasion-induced corneal neovascularization. Thus the CEP-TLR2 axis, which is implicated in other wound angiogenesis models, does not appear to play a pathological role in a corneal wound angiogenesis model. Collectively, our data do not support the mechanism of action of CEP adducts in TLR2-mediated angiogenesis proposed by others.
Project description:Shikimic acid (SA) pathway is the common route used by bacteria, plants, fungi, algae, and certain Apicomplexa parasites for the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids and other secondary metabolites. As this essential pathway is absent in mammals designing inhibitors against implied enzymes may lead to the development of antimicrobial and herbicidal agents harmless to humans. Shikimate dehydrogenase (SDH) is the fourth enzyme of the SA pathway. In this contribution, a series of SA amide derivatives were synthesised and evaluated for in vitro SDH inhibition and antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli. All tested compounds showed to be mixed type inhibitors; diamide derivatives displayed more inhibitory activity than synthesised monoamides. Among the evaluated compounds, molecules called 4a and 4b were the most active derivatives with IC50 588 and 589 µM, respectively. Molecular modelling studies suggested two different binding modes of monoamide and diamide derivatives to the SDH enzyme of E. coli.