Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and the Incidence of Hypertension in Three Prospective Cohort Studies.
ABSTRACT: Increased fruit and vegetable intake lowers blood pressure in short-term interventional studies. However, data on the association of long-term intake of fruits and vegetables with hypertension risk are scarce. We prospectively examined the independent association of whole fruit (excluding juices) and vegetable intake, as well as the change in consumption of whole fruits and vegetables, with incident hypertension in 3 large longitudinal cohort studies: Nurses' Health Study (n=62 175), Nurses' Health Study II (n=88 475), and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (n=36 803). We calculated hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for fruit and vegetable consumption while controlling for hypertension risk factors. Compared with participants whose consumption was ?4 servings/week, the pooled hazard ratios among those whose intake was ?4 servings/day were 0.92(0.87-0.97) for total whole fruit intake and 0.95(0.86-1.04) for total vegetable intake. Similarly, compared with participants who did not increase their fruit or vegetable consumption, the pooled hazard ratios for those whose intake increased by ?7 servings/week were 0.94(0.90-0.97) for total whole fruit intake and 0.98(0.94-1.01) for total vegetable. Analyses of individual fruits and vegetables yielded different results. Consumption levels of ?4 servings/week (as opposed to <1 serving/month) of broccoli, carrots, tofu or soybeans, raisins, and apples was associated with lower hypertension risk. In conclusion, our results suggest that greater long-term intake and increased consumption of whole fruits may reduce the risk of developing hypertension.
Project description:High milk consumption might shorten life span through increased oxidative stress. We aimed to determine whether higher mortality rates with high milk consumption are modified by fruit and vegetable intake or total antioxidant intake (oxygen radical absorbance capacity). We used information from food frequency questionnaires completed by 61,420 women in a Swedish cohort (22,391 deaths from the 1987-1990 baseline onward), 36,714 women from a second survey (1997) of this cohort, and 45,280 Swedish men (15,478 deaths from the 1998 baseline onward). Compared with low consumption of milk (<1 glass/day) and high consumption of fruits/vegetables (?5 servings/day), time-updated information revealed an adjusted hazard ratio for death of 2.79 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.42, 3.21) in women who consumed ?3 glasses of milk/day and <1 serving/day of fruit/vegetables and a hazard ratio of 1.60 (95% CI: 1.40, 1.82) in women who consumed the same amount of milk but ?5 servings/day of fruits/vegetables. The same comparisons in men, based on a single food frequency questionnaire, displayed hazard ratios of 1.31 (95% CI: 1.14, 1.51) and 1.07 (95% CI: 0.97, 1.18), respectively. Total antioxidant consumption showed similar patterns as fruit/vegetable intakes. Dietary antioxidant intake, especially in women, seems to modify the elevated death rate associated with high milk consumption.
Project description:We evaluated the relation of fruit and vegetable consumption, including specific fruits and vegetables, with incident breast cancer characterized by menopausal status, hormone receptor status and molecular subtypes. Fruit and vegetable consumption, cumulatively averaged across repeated, validated questionnaires, was examined in relation to risk of invasive breast cancer among 182,145 women initially aged 27-59 years in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS, 1980-2012) and NHSII (1991-2013). Cox proportional hazards regression, adjusted for known risk factors, was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and assessed tumors by hormone receptor status and molecular subtypes. We prospectively documented 10,911 invasive breast cancer cases. Greater intake of total fruits and vegetables, especially cruciferous and yellow/orange vegetables, was associated with significantly lower breast cancer risk (>5.5 vs. ?2.5 servings/day HR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.83-0.96; ptrend = 0.006). Intake of total vegetables was especially associated with lower risk of estrogen receptor negative tumors (HR per 2 additional servings/day as a continuous variable = 0.84, 95%CI = 0.77-0.93; pheterogeneity = 0.02). Among molecular subtypes, higher intake of total fruits and vegetables (HR per 2 additional servings/day as a continuous variable) was most strongly associated with lower risk of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-enriched (HR = 0.79, 95%CI = 0.67-0.93), basal-like (HR = 0.84, 95%CI = 0.72-0.97) and luminal A (HR = 0.94, 95%CI = 0.89-0.99), but not with luminal B tumors (pheterogeneity = 0.03). In conclusion, our findings support that higher intake of fruits and vegetables, and specifically cruciferous and yellow/orange vegetables, may reduce the risk of breast cancer, especially those that are more likely to be aggressive tumors.
Project description:Is consumption of fruits and vegetables with high levels of pesticide residues associated with lower semen quality?Consumption of fruits and vegetables with high levels of pesticide residues was associated with a lower total sperm count and a lower percentage of morphologically normal sperm among men presenting to a fertility clinic.Occupational and environmental exposure to pesticides is associated with lower semen quality. Whether the same is true for exposure through diet is unknown.Men enrolled in the Environment and Reproductive Health (EARTH) Study, an ongoing prospective cohort at an academic medical fertility center. Male partners (n = 155) in subfertile couples provided 338 semen samples during 2007-2012.Semen samples were collected over an 18-month period following diet assessment. Sperm concentration and motility were evaluated by computer-aided semen analysis (CASA). Fruits and vegetables were categorized as containing high or low-to-moderate pesticide residues based on data from the annual United States Department of Agriculture Pesticide Data Program. Linear mixed models were used to analyze the association of fruit and vegetable intake with sperm parameters accounting for within-person correlations across repeat samples while adjusting for potential confounders.Total fruit and vegetable intake was unrelated to semen quality parameters. High pesticide residue fruit and vegetable intake, however, was associated with poorer semen quality. On average, men in highest quartile of high pesticide residue fruit and vegetable intake (?1.5 servings/day) had 49% (95% confidence interval (CI): 31%, 63%) lower total sperm count and 32% (95% CI: 7%, 58%) lower percentage of morphologically normal sperm than men in the lowest quartile of intake (<0.5 servings/day) (P, trend = 0.003 and 0.02, respectively). Low-to-moderate pesticide residue fruit and vegetable intake was associated with a higher percentage of morphologically normal sperm (P, trend = 0.04).Surveillance data, rather than individual pesticide assessment, was used to assess the pesticide residue status of fruits and vegetables. CASA is a useful method for clinical evaluation but may be considered less favorable for accurate semen analysis in the research setting. Owing to the observational nature of the study, confirmation is required by interventional studies as well.To our knowledge, this is the first report on the consumption of fruits and vegetables with high levels of pesticide residue in relation to semen quality. Further confirmation of these findings is warranted.Supported by National Institutes of Health grants ES009718, ES022955, ES000002, P30 DK046200 and Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award T32 DK007703-16. None of the authors has any conflicts of interest to declare.
Project description:To evaluate the association between fruit and vegetable intake during adolescence and early adulthood and risk of breast cancer.Prospective cohort study.Health professionals in the United States.90?476 premenopausal women aged 27-44 from the Nurses' Health Study II who completed a questionnaire on diet in 1991 as well as 44?223 of those women who completed a questionnaire about their diet during adolescence in 1998.Incident cases of invasive breast cancer, identified through self report and confirmed by pathology report.There were 3235 cases of invasive breast cancer during follow-up to 2013. Of these, 1347 cases were among women who completed a questionnaire about their diet during adolescence (ages 13-18). Total fruit consumption during adolescence was associated with a lower risk of breast cancer. The hazard ratio was 0.75 (95% confidence interval 0.62 to 0.90; P=0.01 for trend) for the highest (median intake 2.9 servings/day) versus the lowest (median intake 0.5 serving/day) fifth of intake. The association for fruit intake during adolescence was independent of adult fruit intake. There was no association between risk and total fruit intake in early adulthood and total vegetable intake in either adolescence or early adulthood. Higher early adulthood intake of fruits and vegetables rich in ? carotene was associated with lower risk of premenopausal breast cancer. The hazard ratio was 0.82 (0.70 to 0.96) for the highest fifth (median intake 0.5 serving/day) versus the lowest fifth (median intake 0.03 serving/day) intake. The association with adolescent fruit intake was stronger for both estrogen and progesterone receptor negative cancers than estrogen and progesterone receptor positive cancers (P=0.02 for heterogeneity). For individual fruits and vegetables, greater consumption of apple, banana, and grapes during adolescence and oranges and kale during early adulthood was significantly associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer. Fruit juice intake in adolescence or early adulthood was not associated with risk.There is an association between higher fruit intake and lower risk of breast cancer. Food choices during adolescence might be particularly important.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Psychological well-being is associated with longevity and reduced risk of disease, but possible mechanisms are understudied. Health behaviors like eating fruits and vegetables may link psychological well-being with better health; however, most evidence is cross-sectional. PURPOSE:This study investigated psychological well-being's longitudinal association with fruit and vegetable consumption across as many as 7 years. METHOD:Participants were 6,565 older adults from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, which includes men and women aged 50 years or older. Psychological well-being was assessed with 17 items from the Control, Autonomy, Satisfaction, Pleasure Scale. Fruit and vegetable consumption was initially assessed during 2006-2007 and then approximately every 2 years through 2012-2013. Covariates included sociodemographic factors, health status, and other health behaviors. RESULTS:Mixed linear models showed that higher baseline levels of psychological well-being were associated with more fruit and vegetable consumption at baseline (? = 0.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.02, 0.08]) and that fruit and vegetable consumption declined across time (? = -0.01, 95% CI [-0.02, -0.004]). Psychological well-being interacted significantly with time such that individuals with higher baseline psychological well-being had slower declines in fruit and vegetable consumption (? = 0.01, 95% CI [0.01, 0.02]). Among individuals who initially met recommendations to consume 5 or more servings of fruits and vegetables (N = 1,719), higher baseline psychological well-being was associated with 11% reduced risk of falling below recommended levels during follow-up (hazard ratio = 0.89, 95% CI [0.83, 0.95]). CONCLUSIONS:Findings suggest that psychological well-being may be a precursor to healthy behaviors such as eating a diet rich in fruits and vegetables. (PsycINFO Database Record
Project description:Sufficient fruit and vegetable consumption (? 5 servings/d) has been associated with a probable decreased risk for cancers of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, stomach and lung (fruit only). The purpose of this study was to estimate the proportion and absolute number of cancer cases in Alberta in 2012 that were attributable to insufficient fruit and vegetable consumption.The numbers and proportions of cancers attributable to insufficient fruit and vegetable consumption were estimated using the population attributable risk. Relative risks were obtained from international collaborative panels and peer-reviewed literature. Prevalence data for insufficient fruit and vegetable consumption in Alberta were obtained from the Canadian Community Health Survey (2003, 2004, 2005, 2007/08). Age-, site- and sex-specific cancer incidence data for 2012 were obtained from the Alberta Cancer Registry.The proportion of men consuming 5 or more servings of fruits and vegetables per day ranged from 25.9%-30.4% across age groups; the range among women was 46.8%-51.5% across age groups. The proportion of cancers attributable to insufficient fruit and vegetable consumption in Alberta was highest for esophageal cancer (40.0%) and lowest for lung cancer (3.3%). Overall, 290 cancer cases (1.8%) in Alberta in 2012 were attributable to insufficient fruit and vegetable consumption.Almost 2% of cancers in Alberta can be attributed to insufficient fruit and vegetable consumption. A diet rich in fruits and vegetables has benefits for the prevention of cancer and other chronic diseases; thus, increasing the proportion of Albertans who meet cancer prevention guidelines for fruit and vegetable consumption is a priority.
Project description:Many patients exhibit multiple chronic disease risk behaviors. Research provides little information about advice that can maximize simultaneous health behavior changes.To test which combination of diet and activity advice maximizes healthy change, we randomized 204 adults with elevated saturated fat and low fruit and vegetable intake, high sedentary leisure time, and low physical activity to 1 of 4 treatments: increase fruit/vegetable intake and physical activity, decrease fat and sedentary leisure, decrease fat and increase physical activity, and increase fruit/vegetable intake and decrease sedentary leisure. Treatments provided 3 weeks of remote coaching supported by mobile decision support technology and financial incentives. During treatment, incentives were contingent on using the mobile device to self-monitor and attain behavioral targets; during follow-up, incentives were contingent only on recording. The outcome was standardized, composite improvement on the 4 diet and activity behaviors at the end of treatment and at 5-month follow-up.Of the 204 individuals randomized, 200 (98.0%) completed follow-up. The increase fruits/vegetables and decrease sedentary leisure treatments improved more than the other 3 treatments (P < .001). Specifically, daily fruit/vegetable intake increased from 1.2 servings to 5.5 servings, sedentary leisure decreased from 219.2 minutes to 89.3 minutes, and saturated fat decreased from 12.0% to 9.5% of calories consumed. Differences between treatment groups were maintained through follow-up. Traditional dieting (decrease fat and increase physical activity) improved less than the other 3 treatments (P < .001).Remote coaching supported by mobile technology and financial incentives holds promise to improve diet and activity. Targeting fruits/vegetables and sedentary leisure together maximizes overall adoption and maintenance of multiple healthy behavior changes.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the prospective association of long-term intake of vegetables and fruits with late-life subjective cognitive function (SCF). METHODS:Among 27,842 men with a mean age of 51 years in 1986, we used multinomial logistic regression to examine the relation of vegetable and fruit consumption to future SCF. Average dietary intake was calculated from 5 repeated food frequency questionnaires collected every 4 years until 2002. SCF score was assessed twice (2008 and 2012) using a 6-item questionnaire; validity was supported by strong associations with APO ?4 genotype. We categorized the average of the 2 scores as good, moderate, and poor SCF. RESULTS:Higher intakes of total vegetables, total fruits, and fruit juice were each significantly associated with lower odds of moderate or poor SCF after controlling for major nondietary factors and total energy intake. The association with total fruit intake was weaker after further adjusting for major dietary factors. In this model, the multivariate odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for vegetable intake (top vs bottom quintile) were 0.83 (0.76-0.92), p trend <0.001 for moderate SCF and 0.66 (0.55-0.80), p trend <0.001 for poor SCF. For orange juice, compared to <1 serving/mo of intake, daily consumption was associated with a substantially lower odds of poor SCF (0.53 [0.43-0.67], p trend <0.001). Higher consumption of vegetables and fruits 18 to 22 years before SCF assessment was associated with lower odds of poor SCF independent of more proximal intake. CONCLUSION:Our findings support a long-term beneficial role of vegetable, fruit, and orange juice consumption on SCF.
Project description:Children are encouraged to eat a specific amount of fruits and vegetables to optimize health. The purpose of this study was to assess whether consumption of a variety of fruits and vegetables, respectively, was associated with a greater diet quality among preschool-aged children. Analyses were performed using a cross-sectional, nationally representative sample of US children. Dietary intakes from 24-h dietary recalls of two-five year old children (n = 2595) in 2005-2010 NHANES were examined. Diet quality was evaluated using MyPlate equivalents and the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010). Variety categories were determined based on children's fruit, fruit juice, and vegetable consumption on the recalled day. Differences in diet quality were examined using t-tests. Variety of fruits and vegetables was linked to higher overall diet quality. Children who consumed whole fruit had better diet quality scores for total fruit, whole fruit, whole grains, dairy, seafood, refined grains, sodium, and empty calories (P ? 0.018). Significantly higher HEI-2010 scores for total fruit, whole fruit, fatty acids, sodium, and empty calories, but a lower dairy HEI-2010 score, were identified in children who drank fruit juice (P ? 0.038). Vegetable consumption was significantly associated with higher total vegetables, greens/beans, and empty calories, but a lower sodium score (P ? 0.027). Children who consumed whole fruit, fruit juice and non-starchy vegetables (P ? 0.017), but not white potatoes, had significantly higher total HEI-2010 scores. Reinforcing fruit and 100% fruit juice consumption may indirectly support healthier diets among children. However, underlying associations between fruit and vegetable intakes and overall diet quality should be examined further.
Project description:To examine and quantify the potential dose-response relation between fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of all cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality.Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane library searched up to 30 August 2013 without language restrictions. Reference lists of retrieved articles.Prospective cohort studies that reported risk estimates for all cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality by levels of fruit and vegetable consumption.Random effects models were used to calculate pooled hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals and to incorporate variation between studies. The linear and non-linear dose-response relations were evaluated with data from categories of fruit and vegetable consumption in each study.Sixteen prospective cohort studies were eligible in this meta-analysis. During follow-up periods ranging from 4.6 to 26 years there were 56,423 deaths (11,512 from cardiovascular disease and 16,817 from cancer) among 833,234 participants. Higher consumption of fruit and vegetables was significantly associated with a lower risk of all cause mortality. Pooled hazard ratios of all cause mortality were 0.95 (95% confidence interval 0.92 to 0.98) for an increment of one serving a day of fruit and vegetables (P=0.001), 0.94 (0.90 to 0.98) for fruit (P=0.002), and 0.95 (0.92 to 0.99) for vegetables (P=0.006). There was a threshold around five servings of fruit and vegetables a day, after which the risk of all cause mortality did not reduce further. A significant inverse association was observed for cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio for each additional serving a day of fruit and vegetables 0.96, 95% confidence interval 0.92 to 0.99), while higher consumption of fruit and vegetables was not appreciably associated with risk of cancer mortality.This meta-analysis provides further evidence that a higher consumption of fruit and vegetables is associated with a lower risk of all cause mortality, particularly cardiovascular mortality.