The change of HCN1/HCN2 mRNA expression in peripheral nerve after chronic constriction injury induced neuropathy followed by pulsed electromagnetic field therapy.
ABSTRACT: Neuropathic pain is usually defined as a chronic pain state caused by peripheral or central nerve injury as a result of acute damage or systemic diseases. It remains a difficult disease to treat. Recent studies showed that the frequency of action potentials in nociceptive afferents is affected by the activity of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated cation channels (HCN) family. In the current study, we used a neuropathy rat model induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) of sciatic nerve to evaluate the change of expression of HCN1/HCN2 mRNA in peripheral nerve and spinal cord. Rats were subjected to CCI with or without pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) therapy. It was found that CCI induced neural cell degeneration while PEMF promoted nerve regeneration as documented by Nissl staining. CCI shortened the hind paw withdrawal latency (PWL) and hind paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) and PEMF prolonged the PWL and PWT. In addition, CCI lowers the expression of HCN1 and HCN2 mRNA and PEMF cannot restore the expression of HCN1 and HCN2 mRNA. Our results indicated that PEMF can promote nerve regeneration and could be used for the treatment of neuropathic pain.
Project description:Previous studies have demonstrated that myeloid zinc finger 1 (MZF1) in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) participates in neuropathic pain induced by chronic-constriction injury (CCI) via regulation of voltage-gated K+ channels (Kv). Emerging evidence indicates that transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is involved in the development and maintenance of neuropathic pain. Although it is known that the transcription of TRPV1 is regulated by Kruppel-like zinc-finger transcription factor 7 (Klf7)-and that the structure of TRPV1 is similar to that of Kv-few studies have systematically investigated the relationship between MZF1 and TRPV1 in neuropathic pain. In the present study, we demonstrated that CCI induced an increase in MZF1 and TRPV1 in lumbar-level 4/5 (L4/5) DRGs at 3 days post-CCI and that this increase was persistent until at least 14 days post-CCI. DRG microinjection of rAAV5-MZF1 into the DRGs of naïve rats resulted in a decrease in paw-withdrawal threshold (PWT) and paw-withdrawal latency (PWL) compared with that of the rAAV5-EGFP group, which started at four weeks and lasted until at least eight weeks after microinjection. Additionally, prior microinjection of MZF1 siRNA clearly ameliorated CCI-induced reduction in PWT and PWL at 3 days post-CCI and lasted until at least 7 days post-CCI. Correspondingly, microinjection of MZF1 siRNA subsequent to CCI alleviated the established mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia induced by CCI, which occurred at 3 days postinjection and lasted until at least 10 days postinjection. Microinjection of rAAV5-MZF1 increased the expression of TRPV1 in DRGs. Microinjection of MZF1 siRNA diminished the CCI-induced increase of TRPV1, but not P2X7R, in DRGs. These findings suggest that MZF1 may contribute to neuropathic pain via regulation of TRPV1 expression in DRGs.
Project description:Background:Neuropathic pain can develop after nerve injury, when deleterious changes occur in injured neurons and glia cells. Melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) is involved in the regulation of pain due to its high expressions in brain. Moreover, MC4R could mediate the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway, but whether the MC4R-regulated JNK signaling pathway participated in neuropathic pain after chronic constriction injury (CCI) is still unclear. Methods:A total of 128 Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated into four experiment groups: the SHAM group, CCI + NaCl group, CCI + HS group, and CCI + SP + HS group. For the CCI + NaCl group, the sciatic nerves were ligated. For the SHAM group, an identical manner to the CCI without ligation was performed. For CCI + HS and CCI + SP + HS groups, rats were injected with MC4R inhibitor (HS014) and HS014 plus JNK inhibitor (SP600125), respectively, from days 3 to 14 after CCI. Paw withdrawal latency (PWL) and paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) were used to assess the nociceptive behavior. ELISA was used to detect the levels of inflammatory cytokines. qRT-PCR and Western blots (WB) were utilized to examine the mRNA and protein expressions of JNK signaling pathway-related genes. Meanwhile, the expression levels of MC4R and p-JNK were further evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and immunofluorescence (IF) experiments. Finally, in order to confirm the in vivo results, astrocytes were isolated and transfected with MC4R-overexpression plasmid. Furthermore, the protein expressions of JNK signaling pathway-related genes were tested by WB. Results:It was showed that the values of PWL and PWT were significantly increased in CCI + HS group and CCI + SP + HS group compared with CCI + NaCl group. The increased interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1?, and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) secretion in CCI + NaCl group was lowered by HS and SP + HS. MC4R, p-JNK, ATF3, and c-Jun levels were up-regulated with CCI surgery, but down-regulated with HS and SP + HS treatments. Moreover, the IHC and IF results further revealed that MC4R and p-JNK expressions in CCI + NaCl group were remarkably higher than those in HS group and HS + SP group. In vitro data also indicated that HS, SP, and SP + HS could down-regulate the expressions of MC4R, p-JNK, ATF3, and c-Jun in M1830 astrocytes. Conclusion:Our findings indicated that MC4R is involved in neuropathic pain by regulating JNK signaling pathway after CCI.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) has been attributed to chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatin which adversely affect disease outcome leading to increased cancer related morbidity. The clinical efficacy of systemic gabapentin in neuropathic pain management is limited by central side-effects in addition to a scarceness of conclusive evidence of its efficacy in CIPN management. The topical route therefore may provide a relatively safe alternative for neuropathic pain treatment in general and CIPN in particular. METHODS:Cisplatin induced neuropathic nociception was established in rats after a single weekly cisplatin injection (3.0?mg/kg, intraperitoneally) for 4 weeks. The evoked neuropathic sensation of allodynia was assessed by plantar application of von Frey monofilaments as the paw withdrawal threshold (PWT), whereas the expression of heat-hypoalgesia was determined on a hot-plate as paw withdrawal latency (PWL). Gabapentin gel (10% w/w) was applied three-times daily on the hind paws while in a concurrent systemic study, gabapentin was administered daily (75?mg/kg, intraperitoneally) for 4 weeks. To assess any evidence of neurological adverse symptoms of cisplatin and the central side-effect propensity of systemic or topical gabapentin, evaluation of motor coordination (rotarod test) and gait (footprint analysis) were performed. RESULTS:Cisplatin invoked a progressive development of neuropathic hind paw allodynia (decreased PWT, days 7-28) and heat hypoalgesia (increased PWL, days 21-28). Topical gabapentin significantly delayed the expression of both allodynia on protocol days 21 and 28 and heat-hypoalgesia (day 28). Systemic gabapentin displayed a comparative anti-neuropathic predisposition through a sustained suppression of tactile allodynia on days 14 and 21-28 as well as thermal hypoalgesia (days 21 and 28). Systemic gabapentin also impaired motor coordination and gait thus affirming its clinically documented central side effects, but these outcomes were not evident after topical treatment. CONCLUSIONS:Both topical and systemic gabapentin exhibit a propensity to attenuate CIPN in a cisplatin paradigm. Gabapentin applied topically may therefore provide an adjunctive or alternative route for CIPN management upon cessation of systemic medications due to intolerable side-effects.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Neuropathic pain belongs to chronic pain and is caused by the primary dysfunction of the somatosensory nervous system. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been reported to regulate neuronal functions and play significant roles in neuropathic pain. DLEU1 has been indicated to have close relationship with neuropathic pain. Therefore, our study focused on the significant role of DLEU1 in neuropathic pain rat models. METHODS:We first constructed a chronic constrictive injury (CCI) rat model. Paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) and paw withdrawal latency (PWL) were employed to evaluate hypersensitivity in neuropathic pain. RT-qPCR was performed to analyze the expression of target genes. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was conducted to detect the concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and IL-1?. The underlying mechanisms of DLEU1 were investigated using western blot and luciferase reporter assays. RESULTS:Our findings showed that DLEU1 was upregulated in CCI rats. DLEU1 knockdown reduced the concentrations of IL-6, IL-1? and TNF-? in CCI rats, suggesting that neuroinflammation was inhibited by DLEU1 knockdown. Besides, knockdown of DLEU1 inhibited neuropathic pain behaviors. Moreover, it was confirmed that DLEU1 bound with miR-133a-3p and negatively regulated its expression. SRPK1 was the downstream target of miR-133a-3p. DLEU1 competitively bound with miR-133a-3p to upregulate SRPK1. Finally, rescue assays revealed that SRPK1 overexpression rescued the suppressive effects of silenced DLEU1 on hypersensitivity in neuropathic pain and inflammation of spinal cord in CCI rats. CONCLUSION:DLEU1 regulated inflammation of the spinal cord and mediated hypersensitivity in neuropathic pain in CCI rats by binding with miR-133a-3p to upregulate SRPK1 expression.
Project description:Objective:Neuropathic pain (NP) is a debilitating condition caused by nervous system injury and chronic diseases. LncRNA H19 is upregulated in many human diseases, including NP. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) aggressively worsens inflammatory action and nerve damage to cause severe NP. Phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) is detrimental to nerves and promotes NP progression. Herein, aim of our study was to assess the mechanism of lncRNA H19. Methods:The NP rat model was established using chronic constriction injury (CCI). Paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) tests and paw withdrawal latency (PWL) tests were performed. Then, small interfering (si)RNA against H19 was intrathecally injected into rats to suppress H19 expression. Schwann cells were isolated from NP rats and transfected with siRNA-H19 or a lentivirus (LV)-based vector expressing H19. Inflammatory factors and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were detected. Western blot analysis was conducted to detect CDK5/p35 and p-CREB expression. Finally, H19, CDK5 and CREB phosphorylation were tested with the combination of the CDK5 inhibitor roscovitine and transfection of LV-H19 and siRNA-H19. Finally, we investigated the binding relationships between H19 and miR-196a-5p and between miR-196a-5p and CDK5 and detected the mRNA expression of miR-196a-5p and CDK5 in rats with H19 knockdown and in Schwann cells with H19 knockdown. Results:Highly expressed H19, CDK5/p-35 and p-CREB were observed in NP rats, accompanied by obviously decreased PWT and PWL, upregulated inflammatory factors and GFAP levels, and reduced 5-HT2A and GABAB2 expression. siRNA-H19 restored NP-related indexes and downregulated CDK5/p35 and p-CREB phosphorylation. siRNA-H19, together with the CDK5 inhibitor roscovitine, reduced CDK5 and p-CREB expression in Schwann cells isolated from NP rats. Binding sites between H19 and miR-196a-5p and between miR-196a-5p and CDK5 were identified. Silencing H19 upregulated miR-196a-5p expression and downregulated CDK5 levels. Conclusion:Our study demonstrated that silencing H19 inhibited NP by suppressing CDK5/p35 and p-CREB phosphorylation via the miR-196a-5p/CDK5 axis, which may provide new insight into NP treatment.
Project description:Multiple peripheral nerves are known to degenerate after nerve compression injury but the correlation between the extent of nerve alteration and pain severity remains unclear. Here, we used intravital two-photon fluorescence microscopy to longitudinally observe changes in cutaneous fibers in the hind paw of Nav1.8-Cre-tdTomato mice after chronic constriction injury (CCI). Results showed that the CCI led to variable loss of the skin nerve plexus and intraepidermal nerve fibers. The timing of Nav1.8 nerve fiber loss correlated with the development of mechanical hypersensitivity. We compared a scoring approach that assessed whole-paw nerve degeneration with an index that quantified changes in the nerve plexus and terminals in multiple small regions of interest (ROI) from intravital images of the third and fifth toe tips. We found that the number of surviving nerve fibers was not linearly correlated with mechanical hypersensitivity. On the contrary, at 14 days after CCI, the moderately injured mice showed greater mechanical hypersensitivity than the mildly or severely injured mice. This indicates that both surviving and injured nerves are required for evoked neuropathic pain. In addition, these two methods may have the estimative effect as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for the assessment of neuropathic pain.
Project description:Chronic pain after peripheral nerve injury is associated with afferent hyperexcitability and upregulation of hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-regulated (HCN)-mediated IH pacemaker currents in sensory neurons. HCN channels thus constitute an attractive target for treating chronic pain. HCN channels are ubiquitously expressed; analgesics targeting HCN1-rich cells in the peripheral nervous system must spare the cardiac pacemaker current (carried mostly by HCN2 and HCN4) and the central nervous system (where all four isoforms are expressed). The alkylphenol general anesthetic propofol (2,6-di-iso-propylphenol) selectively inhibits HCN1 channels versus HCN2-HCN4 and exhibits a modest pharmacokinetic preference for the periphery. Consequently, we hypothesized that propofol, and congeners, should be antihyperalgesic. Alkyl-substituted propofol analogs have different rank-order potencies with respect to HCN1 inhibition, GABA(A) receptor (GABA(A)-R) potentiation, and general anesthesia. Thus, 2,6- and 2,4-di-tertbutylphenol (2,6- and 2,4-DTBP, respectively) are more potent HCN1 antagonists than propofol, whereas 2,6- and 2,4-di-sec-butylphenol (2,6- and 2,4-DSBP, respectively) are less potent. In contrast, DSBPs, but not DTBPs, enhance GABA(A)-R function and are general anesthetics. 2,6-DTBP retained propofol's selectivity for HCN1 over HCN2-HCN4. In a peripheral nerve ligation model of neuropathic pain, 2,6-DTBP and subhypnotic propofol are antihyperalgesic. The findings are consistent with these alkylphenols exerting analgesia via non-GABA(A)-R targets and suggest that antagonism of central HCN1 channels may be of limited importance to general anesthesia. Alkylphenols are hydrophobic, and thus potential modifiers of lipid bilayers, but their effects on HCN channels are due to direct drug-channel interactions because they have little bilayer-modifying effect at therapeutic concentrations. The alkylphenol antihyperalgesic target may be HCN1 channels in the damaged peripheral nervous system.
Project description:Background:Bone cancer pain (BCP) is a common symptom occurring among patients with cancer and has a detrimental effect on their quality of life. Growing evidence has implicated microRNA-329 (miR-329) in the progression of bone diseases. In the present study, we aimed to elucidate the potential effects of miR-329 on BCP in a BCP mouse model via binding to lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1 (LPAR1) through the LPAR1/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway. Methods:Initially, a BCP mouse model was established via injection of 4?×?104 murine breast tumor (4T1 cell) cells (4 ?l). The interaction between miR-329 and LPAR1 was identified using a bioinformatics website and dual luciferase reporter gene assay. The modeled mice were subsequently treated with miR-329 mimic, LPAR1 shRNA, or both, in order to examine the effect of miR-329 on the paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) and paw withdrawal latency (PWL) of mice, the expression of LPAR1/ERK signaling pathway-related genes. Results:The positive expression rate of LPAR1 protein and extent of ERK1/2 phosphorylation were increased in BCP mouse models. LPAR1 is a target gene of miR-329, which can inhibit the expression of LPAR1. In response to miR-329 overexpression and LPAR1 silencing, BCP mice showed increased PWT and PWL, along with decreased LPAR1 expression and ratio of p-ERK/ERK. Conclusions:Altogether, the results obtained indicated that miR-329 can potentially alleviate BCP in mice via the inhibition of LPAR1 and blockade of the LPAR1/ERK signaling pathway, highlighting that upregulation of miR-329 could serve as a therapeutic target for BCP treatment.
Project description:It is known that interleukin-17 (IL-17) is associated with autoimmune disorders and that peripheral IL-17 plays a role in arthritis and neuropathic pain. The present study investigated the possibility of spinal cell expression of IL-17 during inflammatory pain and possible IL-17 involvement in such pain. Hyperalgesia was induced by injecting complete Freund adjuvant (CFA, 0.08mL, 40?g Mycobacterium tuberculosis) into one hind paw of the rat. Paw withdrawal latency (PWL) was tested before (-48h) and 2 and 24h after CFA injection to assess hyperalgesia. IL-17 antibody (0.2-2?g/rat) was given intrathecally (i.t.) 24h before CFA to block the action of basal IL-17 and 2h before each of 2 PWL tests to block CFA-induced IL-17. I.t. recombinant IL-17 (10-400ng per rat) was administered to naive rats to determine its effects on PWL and phosphorylated NR1 (p-NR1). p-NR1 modulates N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activity to facilitate pain. Spinal cords were removed for IL-17 immunostaining, double immunostaining of IL-17/cell markers and IL-17 receptor A (IL-17RA)/NR1, for Western blot testing of IL-17, p-NR1, IL-17RA, and GFAP, for in situ IL-17RA hybridization, and for real time polymerase chain reaction of IL-17RA. The data reveal that IL-17 is up-regulated in activated and nonactivated astrocytes; that IL-17RA is localized in NR1-immunoreactive neurons and up-regulated; and that IL-17 antibody at 2?g/rat significantly increased PWL (P<.05) and decreased p-NR1 and IL-17RA compared to control in CFA- and IL-17-injected rats. The results suggest that spinal IL-17 is produced by astrocytes and enhances p-NR1 to facilitate pain.
Project description:I(h), which influences neuronal excitability, has recently been measured in vivo in sensory neuron subtypes in dorsal root ganglia (DRGs). However, expression levels of HCN (hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated) channel proteins that underlie I(h) were unknown. We therefore examined immunostaining of the most abundant isoforms in DRGs, HCN1 and HCN2 in these neuron subtypes. This immunostaining was cytoplasmic and membrane-associated (ring). Ring-staining for both isoforms was in neurofilament-rich A-fiber neurons, but not in small neurofilament-poor C-fiber neurons, although some C-neurons showed cytoplasmic HCN2 staining. We recorded intracellularly from DRG neurons in vivo, determined their sensory properties (nociceptive or low-threshold-mechanoreceptive, LTM) and conduction velocities (CVs). We then injected fluorescent dye enabling subsequent immunostaining. For each dye-injected neuron, ring- and cytoplasmic-immunointensities were determined relative to maximum ring-immunointensity. Both HCN1- and HCN2-ring-immunointensities were positively correlated with CV in both nociceptors and LTMs; they were high in A?-nociceptors and A?/?-LTMs. High HCN1 and HCN2 levels in A?/?-neurons may, via I(h), influence normal non-painful (e.g. touch and proprioceptive) sensations as well as nociception and pain. HCN2-, not HCN1-, ring-intensities were higher in muscle spindle afferents (MSAs) than in all other neurons. The previously reported very high I(h) in MSAs may relate to their very high HCN2. In normal C-nociceptors, low HCN1 and HCN2 were consistent with their low/undetectable I(h.) In some C-LTMs HCN2-intensities were higher than in C-nociceptors. Together, HCN1 and HCN2 expressions reflect previously reported I(h) magnitudes and properties in neuronal subgroups, suggesting these isoforms underlie I(h) in DRG neurons. Expression of both isoforms was NT3-dependent in cultured DRG neurons. HCN2-immunostaining in small neurons increased 1 day after cutaneous inflammation (CFA-induced) and recovered by 4 days. This could contribute to acute inflammatory pain. HCN2-immunostaining in large neurons decreased 4 days after CFA, when NT3 was decreased in the DRG. Thus HCN2-expression control differs between large and small neurons.