A de novo variant in the ASPRV1 gene in a dog with ichthyosis.
ABSTRACT: Ichthyoses are a heterogeneous group of inherited cornification disorders characterized by generalized dry skin, scaling and/or hyperkeratosis. Ichthyosis vulgaris is the most common form of ichthyosis in humans and caused by genetic variants in the FLG gene encoding filaggrin. Filaggrin is a key player in the formation of the stratum corneum, the uppermost layer of the epidermis and therefore crucial for barrier function. During terminal differentiation of keratinocytes, the precursor profilaggrin is cleaved by several proteases into filaggrin monomers and eventually processed into free amino acids contributing to the hydration of the cornified layer. We studied a German Shepherd dog with a novel form of ichthyosis. Comparing the genome sequence of the affected dog with 288 genomes from genetically diverse non-affected dogs we identified a private heterozygous variant in the ASPRV1 gene encoding "aspartic peptidase, retroviral-like 1", which is also known as skin aspartic protease (SASPase). The variant was absent in both parents and therefore due to a de novo mutation event. It was a missense variant, c.1052T>C, affecting a conserved residue close to an autoprocessing cleavage site, p.(Leu351Pro). ASPRV1 encodes a retroviral-like protease involved in profilaggrin-to-filaggrin processing. By immunofluorescence staining we showed that the filaggrin expression pattern was altered in the affected dog. Thus, our findings provide strong evidence that the identified de novo variant is causative for the ichthyosis in the affected dog and that ASPRV1 plays an essential role in skin barrier formation. ASPRV1 is thus a novel candidate gene for unexplained human forms of ichthyoses.
Project description:The discovery of genetic causes of inherited skin disorders has been pivotal to the understanding of epidermal differentiation, function, and renewal. Here we show via exome sequencing that mutations in ASPRV1 (aspartic peptidase retroviral-like 1) cause a dominant Mendelian disorder featuring palmoplantar keratoderma and lamellar ichthyosis, a phenotype that has otherwise been exclusively recessive. ASPRV1 encodes a mammalian-specific and stratified epithelia-specific protease important in processing of filaggrin, a critical component of the uppermost epidermal layer. Three different heterozygous ASPRV1 missense mutations in four unrelated ichthyosis kindreds segregate with disease and disrupt protein residues within close proximity to each other and autocatalytic cleavage sites. Expression of mutant ASPRV1 proteins demonstrates that all three mutations alter ASPRV1 auto-cleavage and filaggrin processing, a function vital to epidermal barrier integrity.
Project description:Recently, loss-of-function mutations in FLG, the human gene encoding profilaggrin and filaggrin, have been identified as the cause of the common skin condition ichthyosis vulgaris (which is characterised by dry, scaly skin). These mutations, which are carried by up to 10% of people, also represent a strong genetic predisposing factor for atopic eczema, asthma and allergies. Profilaggrin is the major component of the keratohyalin granules within epidermal granular cells. During epidermal terminal differentiation, the approximately 400 kDa profilaggrin polyprotein is dephosphorylated and rapidly cleaved by serine proteases to form monomeric filaggrin (37 kDa), which binds to and condenses the keratin cytoskeleton and thereby contributes to the cell compaction process that is required for squame biogenesis. Within the squames, filaggrin is citrullinated, which promotes its unfolding and further degradation into hygroscopic amino acids, which constitute one element of natural moisturising factor. Loss of profilaggrin or filaggrin leads to a poorly formed stratum corneum (ichthyosis), which is also prone to water loss (xerosis). Recent human genetic studies strongly suggest that perturbation of skin barrier function as a result of reduction or complete loss of filaggrin expression leads to enhanced percutaneous transfer of allergens. Filaggrin is therefore in the frontline of defence, and protects the body from the entry of foreign environmental substances that can otherwise trigger aberrant immune responses.
Project description:Research into the molecular genetics and pathomechanisms of ichthyoses have advanced considerably, resulting in the identification of several causative genes and molecules underlying the disease. In 2009, the First Ichthyosis Consensus Conference was held to establish a consensus for the nomenclature and classification of inherited ichthyoses, by which an international consensus for the classification of inherited ichthyosis was achieved. In this review, the pathogeneses of various ichthyoses are summarized based on their revised classification and terminology. Skin barrier defects are involved in the pathogenesis of various types of ichthyosis. The known causative molecules underlying ichthyosis include ABCA12, lipoxygenase-3, 12R-lipoxygenase, CYP4F22, ichthyin and steroid sulfatase, all of which are thought to be related to the intercellular lipid layers. ABCA12 is a known keratinocyte lipid transporter associated with lipid transport in lamellar granules and a loss of ABCA12 function leads to defective lipid transport in the keratinocytes, resulting in the most severe, harlequin ichthyosis phenotype. Other causative molecules for ichthyoses are transglutaminase 1, keratins and filaggrin. Transglutaminase 1 plays a role in cornified cell envelope formation. Keratins 1, 10 and 2 are involved in the keratin network of suprabasal keratinocytes and filaggrin is essential for the formation of keratohyalin granules. It is important to obtain information concerning genetic defects and to elucidate ichthyotic disease pathomechanisms for the establishment of an effective therapy and beneficial genetic counseling, including a prenatal diagnosis for families affected by ichthyotic disease.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Ichthyoses are a group of rare skin disorders lacking effective treatments. Although genetic mutations are progressively delineated, comprehensive molecular phenotyping of ichthyotic skin could suggest much-needed pathogenesis-based therapy. OBJECTIVE:We sought to profile the molecular fingerprint of the most common orphan ichthyoses. METHODS:Gene, protein, and serum studies were performed on skin and blood samples from 29 patients (congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma, n = 9; lamellar ichthyosis, n = 8; epidermolytic ichthyosis, n = 8; and Netherton syndrome, n = 4), as well as age-matched healthy control subjects (n = 14), patients with psoriasis (n = 30), and patients with atopic dermatitis (AD; n = 16). RESULTS:Using criteria of a fold change of greater than 2 and a false discovery rate of less than 0.05, 132 differentially expressed genes were shared commonly among all ichthyoses, including many IL-17 and TNF-?-coregulated genes, which are considered hallmarks of psoriasis (defensin beta 4A, kynureninase, and vanin 3). Although striking upregulation of TH17 pathway genes (IL17F and IL36B/G) resembling that seen in patients with psoriasis was common to all patients with ichthyoses in a severity-related manner, patients with Netherton syndrome showed the greatest T-cell activation (inducible costimulator [ICOS]) and a broader immune phenotype with TH1/IFN-?, OASL, and TH2/IL-4 receptor/IL-5 skewing, although less than seen in patients with AD (all P < .05). Ichthyoses lacked the epidermal differentiation and tight junction alterations of patients with AD (loricrin, filaggrin, and claudin 1) but showed characteristic alterations in lipid metabolism genes (ELOVL fatty acid elongase 3 and galanin), with parallel reductions in extracellular lipids and corneocyte compaction in all ichthyoses except epidermolytic ichthyosis, suggesting phenotypic variations. Transepidermal water loss, a functional barrier measure, significantly correlated with IL-17-regulated gene expression (IL17F and IL36A/IL36B/IL36G). CONCLUSION:Similar to patients with AD and psoriasis, in whom cytokine dysregulation and barrier impairment orchestrate disease phenotypes, psoriasis-like immune dysregulation and lipid alterations characterize the ichthyoses. These data support the testing of IL-17/IL-36-targeted therapeutics for patients with ichthyosis similar to those used in patients with psoriasis.
Project description:Harlequin ichthyosis (HI) is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the keratinocyte lipid transporter ABCA12. The patients often die in the first 1 or 2 weeks of life, although HI survivors' phenotypes improve within several weeks after birth. In order to clarify the mechanisms of phenotypic recovery, we studied grafted skin and keratinocytes from Abca12-disrupted (Abca12(-/-)) mice showing abnormal lipid transport. Abca12(-/-) neonatal epidermis showed significantly reduced total ceramide amounts and aberrant ceramide composition. Immunofluorescence and immunoblotting of Abca12(-/-) neonatal epidermis revealed defective profilaggrin/filaggrin conversion and reduced protein expression of the differentiation-specific molecules, loricrin, kallikrein 5, and transglutaminase 1, although their mRNA expression was up-regulated. In contrast, Abca12(-/-) skin grafts kept in a dry environment exhibited dramatic improvements in all these abnormalities. Increased transepidermal water loss, a parameter representing barrier defect, was remarkably decreased in grafted Abca12(-/-) skin. Ten-passage sub-cultured Abca12(-/-) keratinocytes showed restoration of intact ceramide distribution, differentiation-specific protein expression and profilaggrin/filaggrin conversion, which were defective in primary-cultures. Using cDNA microarray analysis, lipid transporters including four ATP-binding cassette transporters were up-regulated after sub-culture of Abca12(-/-) keratinocytes compared with primary-culture. These results indicate that disrupted keratinocyte differentiation during the fetal development is involved in the pathomechanism of HI and, during maturation, Abca12(-/-) epidermal keratinocytes regain normal differentiation processes. This restoration may account for the skin phenotype improvement observed in HI survivors.
Project description:The stratum corneum (SC), the outermost layer of the epidermis, acts as a barrier against the external environment. It is hydrated by endogenous humectants to avoid desiccation. However, the molecular mechanisms of SC hydration remain unclear. We report that skin-specific retroviral-like aspartic protease (SASPase) deficiency in hairless mice resulted in dry skin and a thicker and less hydrated SC with an accumulation of aberrantly processed profilaggrin, a marked decrease of filaggrin, but no alteration in free amino acid composition, compared with control hairless mice. We demonstrated that recombinant SASPase directly cleaved a linker peptide of recombinant profilaggrin. Furthermore, missense mutations were detected in 5 of 196 atopic dermatitis (AD) patients and 2 of 28 normal individuals. Among these, the V243A mutation induced complete absence of protease activity in vitro, while the V187I mutation induced a marked decrease in its activity. These findings indicate that SASPase activity is indispensable for processing profilaggrin and maintaining the texture and hydration of the SC. This provides a novel approach for elucidating the complex pathophysiology of atopic dry skin.
Project description:Keratosis linearis with ichthyosis congenita and keratoderma (KLICK) is an autosomal recessive skin disorder associated with a single-nucleotide deletion in the 5'untranslated region of the proteasome maturation protein (POMP) gene. The deletion causes a relative switch in transcription start sites for POMP, predicted to decrease levels of POMP protein in terminally differentiated keratinocytes. To investigate the pathophysiology behind KLICK we created an in vitro model of the disease using siRNA silencing of POMP in epidermal air-liquid cultures. Immunohistochemical analysis of the tissue constructs revealed aberrant staining of POMP, proteasome subunits and the skin differentiation marker filaggrin when compared to control tissue constructs. The staining patterns of POMP siRNA tissue constructs showed strong resemblance to those observed in skin biopsies from KLICK patients. Western blot analysis of lysates from the organotypic tissue constructs revealed an aberrant processing of profilaggrin to filaggrin in samples transfected with siRNA against POMP. Knock-down of POMP expression in regular cell cultures resulted in decreased amounts of proteasome subunits. Prolonged silencing of POMP in cultured cells induced C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) expression consistent with an activation of the unfolded protein response and increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. The combined results indicate that KLICK is caused by reduced levels of POMP, leading to proteasome insufficiency in differentiating keratinocytes. Proteasome insufficiency disturbs terminal epidermal differentiation, presumably by increased ER stress, and leads to perturbed processing of profilaggrin. Our findings underline a critical role for the proteasome in human epidermal differentiation.
Project description:The expression of filaggrin and its stepwise proteolytic degradation are critical events in the terminal differentiation of epidermal keratinocytes and in the formation of the skin barrier to the environment. Here, we investigated whether the evolutionary transition from a terrestrial to a fully aquatic lifestyle of cetaceans, that is dolphins and whales, has been associated with changes in genes encoding filaggrin and proteins involved in the processing of filaggrin. We used comparative genomics, PCRs and re-sequencing of gene segments to screen for the presence and integrity of genes coding for filaggrin and proteases implicated in the maturation of (pro)filaggrin. Filaggrin has been conserved in dolphins (bottlenose dolphin, orca and baiji) but has been lost in whales (sperm whale and minke whale). All other S100 fused-type genes have been lost in cetaceans. Among filaggrin-processing proteases, aspartic peptidase retroviral-like 1 (ASPRV1), also known as saspase, has been conserved, whereas caspase-14 has been lost in all cetaceans investigated. In conclusion, our results suggest that filaggrin is dispensable for the acquisition of fully aquatic lifestyles of whales, whereas it appears to confer an evolutionary advantage to dolphins. The discordant evolution of filaggrin, saspase and caspase-14 in cetaceans indicates that the biological roles of these proteins are not strictly interdependent.
Project description:To explore the usefulness of protein profiling for characterization of ichthyoses, we here determined the profile of human epidermal stratum corneum by shotgun proteomics. Samples were analyzed after collection on tape circles from six anatomic sites (forearm, palm, lower leg, forehead, abdomen, upper back), demonstrating site-specific differences in profiles. Additional samples were collected from the forearms of subjects with ichthyosis vulgaris (filaggrin (FLG) deficiency), recessive X-linked ichthyosis (steroid sulfatase (STS) deficiency) and autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis type lamellar ichthyosis (transglutaminase 1 (TGM1) deficiency). The ichthyosis protein expression patterns were readily distinguishable from each other and from phenotypically normal epidermis. In general, the degree of departure from normal was lower from ichthyosis vulgaris than from lamellar ichthyosis, parallel to the severity of the phenotype. Analysis of samples from families with ichthyosis vulgaris and concomitant modifying gene mutations (STS deficiency, GJB2 deficiency) permitted correlation of alterations in protein profile with more complex genetic constellations.
Project description:The human retroviral-like aspartic protease 1 (ASPRV1) is a mammalian retroviral-like enzyme that catalyzes a critical proteolytic step during epidermal differentiation; therefore, it is also referred to as skin-specific aspartic protease (SASPase). Neutrophil granulocytes were also found recently to express ASPRV1 that is involved in the progression of acute chronic inflammation of the central nervous system, especially in autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Thus, investigation of ASPRV1 is important due to its therapeutic or diagnostic potential. We investigated the structural characteristics of ASPRV1 by homology modeling; analysis of the proposed structure was used for interpretation of in vitro specificity studies. For in-vitro characterization, activities of SASP28 and SASP14 enzyme forms were measured using synthetic oligopeptide substrates. We demonstrated that self-processing of SASP28 precursor causes autoactivation of the protease. The highest activity was measured for GST-SASP14 at neutral pH and at high ionic strength, and we proved that pepstatin A and acetyl-pepstatin can also inhibit the protease. In agreement with the structural characteristics, the relatively lower urea dissociation constant implied lower dimer stability of SASP14 compared to that of HIV-1 protease. The obtained structural and biochemical characteristics support better understanding of ASPRV1 function in the skin and central nervous system.