Dietary patterns and the risk of rhinitis in primary school children: a prospective cohort study.
ABSTRACT: This study was to investigate the association between dietary patterns and rhinitis in primary school children. 1,599 students without rhinitis at baseline survey were selected from a primary school children cohort. Information on food consumption, respiratory symptoms, and confounders was collected using questionnaires. Dietary patterns were defined using principal component analysis. Logistic regression was performed to calculate odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). The incidence of rhinitis during 12 months follow-up was 21.2%. Three patterns were extracted and labeled as pattern I, II and III. Dietary pattern II which had higher factor loadings of legumes, butter, nuts and potatoes was associated with an increased risk of rhinitis (OR: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.01-1.87) when the highest tertile of pattern score was compared to the lowest tertile, after adjusted for confounders. Besides, every 1-unit increase of score of pattern II was also associated with an increased risk of rhinitis (OR: 1.19, 95% CI: 1.05-1.35). Neither pattern I nor Pattern III was observed to be associated with risk of rhinitis. A diet with higher levels of consumption of legumes, butter, nuts and potatoes may increase the risk of allergic rhinitis in primary school children.
Project description:Bioactive food compounds have different effects on global DNA methylation, an epigenetic mechanism associated with chromosomal stability and genome function. Since the diet is characterized by a mixture of foods, we aimed to identify dietary patterns in women, and to evaluate their association with long interspersed nuclear elements (LINE-1) methylation, a surrogate marker of global DNA methylation. We conducted an observational cross-sectional study of 349 women from Southern Italy, with no history of severe diseases. Dietary patterns were derived by food frequency questionnaire and principal component analysis. LINE-1 methylation of leukocyte DNA was assessed by pyrosequencing. We observed that intake of wholemeal bread, cereals, fish, fruit, raw and cooked vegetables, legumes, soup, potatoes, fries, rice, and pizza positively correlated with LINE-1 methylation levels. By contrast, vegetable oil negatively correlated with LINE-1 methylation levels. Next, we demonstrated that adherence to a prudent dietary pattern-characterized by high intake of potatoes, cooked and raw vegetables, legumes, soup and fish-was positively associated with LINE-1 methylation. In particular, women in the 3rd tertile exhibited higher LINE-1 methylation level than those in the 1st tertile (median = 66.7 %5mC; IQR = 4.67 %5mC vs. median = 63.1 %5mC; IQR = 12.3 %5mC; p < 0.001). Linear regression confirmed that women in the 3rd tertile had higher LINE-1 methylation than those in the 1st tertile (? = 0.022; SE = 0.003; p < 0.001), after adjusting for age, educational level, employment status, smoking status, use of folic acid supplement, total energy intake and body mass index. By contrast, no differences in LINE-1 methylation across tertiles of adherence to the Western dietary pattern were evident. Interestingly, women who exclusively adhered to the prudent dietary pattern had a higher average LINE-1 methylation level than those who exclusively or preferably adhered to the Western dietary pattern (? = 0.030; SE = 0.004; p < 0.001; ? = 0.023; SE = 0.004; p < 0.001; respectively), or those with no preference for a specific dietary pattern (? = 0.013; SE = 0.004; p = 0.002). Our study suggested a remarkable link between diet and DNA methylation; however, further mechanistic studies should be encouraged to understand the causal relationship between dietary intake and DNA methylation.
Project description:Changing diet in China contributes to a raising prevalence of overweight and obesity. This study aimed to evaluate the dietary status of Chinese adults (20-59 years old) using the China Food Pagoda (CFP) proposed in the Chinese Dietary Guidelines 2016 (CDG), and investigate the association between adiposity and deviation of real diet from CFP using an ordered logistic regression. Results showed that the consumption of fruits, eggs, meat, and poultry increased significantly during 2004-2011, while the consumption of cereal, potatoes, and beans dropped down significantly during the same period (all p < 0.05). Meanwhile, great disparity was detected between real consumption and recommended intake in CFP. In particular, a deficient intake was found for milk and milk products, eggs, and fruit, while over-consumption was observed for cereal, potatoes and beans, meat and poultry, legumes and nuts, oil, and salt. In addition, over-consumption of cereal, legumes and nuts, and salt, as well as under-consumption of vegetables, and meat and poultry, were associated with a higher risk of having high body mass index (BMI), while lower consumption of cereal, potatoes and beans, eggs, and higher consumption of vegetables contributed to low hazard of overweight/obesity (all p < 0.05). The huge disparity between real consumption and the CFP calls for specific health education campaigns.
Project description:In spite of several studies relating dietary patterns to breast cancer risk, evidence so far remains inconsistent. This study aimed to investigate associations of dietary patterns derived with three different methods with breast cancer risk.The Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS), principal components analyses (PCA) and reduced rank regression (RRR) were used to derive dietary patterns in a case-control study of 610 breast cancer cases and 1891 matched controls within four UK cohort studies. Dietary intakes were collected prospectively using 4- to 7-day food diaries and resulting food consumption data were grouped into 42 food groups. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for associations between pattern scores and breast cancer risk adjusting for relevant covariates. A separate model was fitted for post-menopausal women only.The MDS was not associated with breast cancer risk (OR comparing first tertile with third 1.20 (95% CI 0.92; 1.56)), nor the first PCA-derived dietary pattern, explaining 2.7% of variation of diet and characterized by cheese, crisps and savoury snacks, legumes, nuts and seeds (OR 1.18 (95% CI 0.91; 1.53)). The first RRR-derived pattern, a 'high-alcohol' pattern, was associated with a higher risk of breast cancer (OR 1.27; 95% CI 1.00; 1.62), which was most pronounced in post-menopausal women (OR 1.46 (95% CI 1.08; 1.98)).A 'high-alcohol' dietary pattern derived with RRR was associated with an increased breast cancer risk; no evidence of associations of other dietary patterns with breast cancer risk was observed in this study.
Project description:There are established guidelines for recommended dietary intake for hypertension treatment and cardiovascular disease prevention. Evidence is lacking for effective dietary patterns for kidney disease prevention.Prospective cohort study.Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study participants with baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ? 60mL/min/1.73m2 (N=14,882).The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet score was calculated based on self-reported dietary intake of red and processed meat, sweetened beverages, sodium, fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts and legumes, and low-fat dairy products, averaged over 2 visits.Cases were ascertained based on the development of eGFRs<60mL/min/1.73m2 accompanied by ?25% eGFR decline from baseline, an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth/Tenth Revision code for a kidney disease-related hospitalization or death, or end-stage renal disease from baseline through 2012.3,720 participants developed kidney disease during a median follow-up of 23 years. Participants with a DASH diet score in the lowest tertile were 16% more likely to develop kidney disease than those with the highest score tertile (HR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.07-1.26; P for trend < 0.001), after adjusting for sociodemographics, smoking status, physical activity, total caloric intake, baseline eGFR, overweight/obese status, diabetes status, hypertension status, systolic blood pressure, and antihypertensive medication use. Of the individual components of the DASH diet score, high red and processed meat intake was adversely associated with kidney disease and high nuts, legumes, and low-fat dairy products intake was associated with reduced risk for kidney disease.Potential measurement error due to self-reported dietary intake and lack of data for albuminuria.Consuming a DASH-style diet was associated with lower risk for kidney disease independent of demographic characteristics, established kidney risk factors, and baseline kidney function. Healthful dietary patterns such as the DASH diet may be beneficial for kidney disease prevention.
Project description:Background The role of a healthy dietary pattern in the prevention of abdominal aortic aneurysms ( AAA ) is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between adherence to a Dietary Approaches To Stop Hypertension-style dietary pattern and the risk of incident AAA s. Methods and Results Dietary intake was assessed via a 66-item food frequency questionnaire at baseline (1987-1989) and at visit 3 (1993-1995) in 13 496 participants enrolled in the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) study without clinical AAA (mean age, 54 years). A dietary scoring index based on food times was constructed to assess self-reported adherence to a dietary approaches to stop hypertension-style dietary pattern. Participants were followed for incident clinical AAA s using hospital discharge diagnoses, Medicare inpatient and outpatient diagnoses, or death certificates through December 31, 2011. Cox proportional hazards models with covariate adjustment were used to estimate hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals. During a median follow-up of 23 years, there were 517 incident AAA cases. Individuals with a Dietary Approaches To Stop Hypertension-style diet score in the highest quintile had a 40% lower risk of hospitalization for AAA than those in the lowest quintile (hazard ratioQ5 vs Q1: 0.60; 95% confidence intervals: 0.44, 0.83; Ptrend=0.002). In detailed analyses, higher consumption of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, low-fat dairy, and nuts and legumes was related to a lower risk for AAA . Conclusions Greater adherence to a Dietary Approaches To Stop Hypertension-style dietary pattern was associated with lower risk for AAA . Higher consumption of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, low-fat dairy as well as nuts and legumes may help to decrease the burden of AAA s.
Project description:Vegetarian diets are defined by the absence of meat and fish, but differences in the intake of other foods between meat-eaters and low or non-meat eaters are also important to document. We examined intakes of high-protein foods (meat, poultry, fish, legumes, nuts, vegetarian protein alternatives, dairy products, and eggs) and other major food groups (fruit, vegetables, bread, pasta, rice, snack foods, and beverages) in regular meat-eaters, low meat-eaters, poultry-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians, and vegans of white ethnicity participating in UK Biobank who had completed at least one web-based 24-h dietary assessment (n = 199,944). In regular meat-eaters, around 25% of total energy came from meat, fish, dairy and plant milk, cheese, yogurt, and eggs. In vegetarians, around 20% of energy came from dairy and plant milk, cheese, yoghurt, eggs, legumes, nuts, and vegetarian protein alternatives, and in vegans around 15% came from plant milk, legumes, vegetarian alternatives, and nuts. Low and non-meat eaters had higher intakes of fruit and vegetables and lower intakes of roast or fried potatoes compared to regular meat-eaters. The differences in the intakes of meat, plant-based high-protein foods, and other foods between meat-eaters and low and non-meat eaters in UK Biobank may contribute to differences in health outcomes.
Project description:Quality of life (QoL) is an important clinical outcome in cancer patients. We investigated associations between dietary patterns and QoL changes in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. The study included 192 CRC patients with available EORTC QLQ-C30 data before and 12 months post-surgery and food frequency questionnaire data at 12 months post-surgery. Principal component analysis was used to identify dietary patterns. Multivariate regression models assessed associations between dietary patterns and QoL changes over time. We identified four major dietary patterns: "Western" dietary pattern characterized by high consumption of potatoes, red and processed meat, poultry, and cakes, "fruit&vegetable" pattern: high intake of vegetables, fruits, vegetable oils, and soy products, "bread&butter" pattern: high intake of bread, butter and margarine, and "high-carb" pattern: high consumption of pasta, grains, nonalcoholic beverages, sauces and condiments. Patients following a "Western" diet had lower chances to improve in physical functioning (OR = 0.45 [0.21-0.99]), constipation (OR = 0.30 [0.13-0.72]) and diarrhea (OR: 0.44 [0.20-0.98]) over time. Patients following a "fruit&vegetable" diet showed improving diarrhea scores (OR: 2.52 [1.21-5.34]. A "Western" dietary pattern after surgery is inversely associated with QoL in CRC patients, whereas a diet rich in fruits and vegetables may be beneficial for patients' QoL over time.
Project description:<h4>Background & aims</h4>Low-grade inflammation appears to play an etiological role in cognitive decline. However the association between an inflammatory dietary pattern and cognitive decline has not been investigated. We aimed to investigate dietary patterns associated with inflammation and whether such diet is associated with cognitive decline.<h4>Methods</h4>We analyzed 5083 participants (28.7% women) from the Whitehall II cohort study. Diet and serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) were assessed in 1991-1993 and 1997-1999. We used reduced rank regression methods to determine a dietary pattern associated with elevated IL-6. Cognitive tests were performed in 1997-1999 and repeated in 2002-2004 and 2007-2009. The association between dietary pattern and cognitive decline between ages 45 and 79 was assessed using linear mixed models.<h4>Results</h4>We identified an inflammatory dietary pattern characterized by higher intake of red meat, processed meat, peas and legumes, and fried food, and lower intake of whole grains which correlated with elevated IL-6 both in 1991-1993 and 1997-1999. A greater decline in reasoning was seen in participants in the highest tertile of adherence to the inflammatory dietary pattern (-0.37 SD; 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.40, -0.34) compared to those in the lowest tertile (-0.31; 95% CI -0.34, -0.28) after adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, occupational status, education, and total energy intake (p for interaction across tertiles = 0.01). This association remained significant after multivariable adjustment. Similarly for global cognition, the inflammatory dietary pattern was associated with faster cognitive decline after multivariable adjustment (p for interaction across tertiles = 0.04). Associations were stronger in younger participants (<56 years), reducing the possibility of reverse causation.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our study found that a dietary pattern characterized as higher intake of red and processed meat, peas, legumes and fried food, and lower intake of whole grains was associated with higher inflammatory markers and accelerated cognitive decline at older ages. This supports the case for further research.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Dietary protein restriction is recommended for patients with moderate to severe renal insufficiency. Long-term data on the relationship between dietary protein sources and risk for incident kidney disease in individuals with normal kidney function are largely missing. This study aimed to assess the association between dietary protein sources and incident chronic kidney disease (CKD). DESIGN:Prospective cohort. SETTING:Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study participants from 4 US communities. SUBJECTS:A total of 11,952 adults aged 44-66 years in 1987-1989 who were free of diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and had an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ? 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE:A 66-item food frequency questionnaire was used to assess food intake. CKD stage 3 was defined as a decrease in eGFR of ?25% from baseline resulting in an eGFR of less than 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2; CKD-related hospitalization; CKD-related death; or end-stage renal disease. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS:During a median follow-up of 23 years, there were 2,632 incident CKD cases. Red and processed meat consumption was associated with increased CKD risk (HRQ5 vs. Q1: 1.23, 95% CI: 1.06-1.42, ptrend = 0.01). In contrast, higher dietary intake of nuts, legumes, and low-fat dairy products was associated with lower CKD risk (nuts: HRQ5 vs. Q1: 0.81, 95% CI: 0.72-0.92, ptrend <0.001; low-fat dairy products: HRQ5 vs. Q1: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.65-0.85, ptrend <0.001; legumes: HRQ5 vs. Q1: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.72-0.95, ptrend = 0.03). CONCLUSION:There were varied associations of specific dietary protein sources with risk of incident CKD; with red and processed meat being adversely associated with CKD risk; and nuts, low-fat dairy products, and legumes being protective against the development of CKD.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Assessment of single nutrients or foods does not normally reflect the diet of population groups. Dietary pattern analyses are useful in understanding the overall diet and its relationship with disease conditions. The objective of the present study was to determine the dietary patterns and associated factors among schooling adolescents in Northern Ghana. METHODS:A cross-sectional study involving 366 pupils in 10 junior high schools in the Tamale metropolis was conducted. A Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) which consisted of 60 commonly consumed foods was used to assess pupils' 7-day intake. Foods grouped (14) from FFQ data based on shared nutritional value were used to identify dietary patterns using principal component analysis (PCA). Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to determine the association between identified patterns and sociodemographic, anthropometric status, and household characteristics of pupils. RESULTS:Half of the pupils were female (50.3%) and average age was 15.6?±?2.0?years. PCA identified two dietary patterns which in total explained 49.7% of the variability of the diet of pupils. The patterns were sweet tooth pattern (STP) with high factor loadings for sugar sweetened snacks, energy and soft drinks, sweets, tea and coffee, and milk and milk products, and a traditional pattern (TP) which showed high factor loadings for cereals and grains, local beverages, nuts, seeds and legumes, vegetables, and fish and seafood. Logistic regression showed that pupils who lived with their parents [AOR?=?1.95; 95% CI (1.1-3.4); p?=?0.019], those who went to school with pocket money [AOR?=?4.73; 95% CI (1.5-15.0); p?=?0.008], and those who lived in the wealthiest homes [AOR?=?3.4; 95% CI (1.6-7.5); p?=?0.002)] had higher odds of following the STP. The TP was associated with high dietary diversity (p?=?0.035) and household wealth [AOR?=?3.518; 95% CI (1.763-7.017); p?<?0.001)]. None of the patterns was associated with anthropometric status of pupils. CONCLUSION:Adolescents in the present study followed a sweet tooth or a traditional diet pattern which associated more with household- and individual-level factors but not anthropometric status.