Effect of Delayed Digital Hypothermia on Lamellar Inflammatory Signaling in the Oligofructose Laminitis Model.
ABSTRACT: In the oligofructose (OF) model of sepsis-related laminitis (SRL), digital hypothermia ("cryotherapy") initiated before the onset of clinical signs is reported not only to limit lamellar injury, but also to cause marked inhibition of lamellar inflammatory signaling.Because hypothermia also has been reported to be protective when not initiated until the onset of lameness in the OF model of SRL, we hypothesized that the lamellar protection conferred by hypothermia is caused by local lamellar inhibition of inflammatory signaling as described when hypothermia was initiated earlier in the disease process.Eight Standardbred geldings aged 3-11 years with no lameness and no abnormalities of the feet detectable by gross or radiographic examination.Using the OF model of SRL, lamellar mRNA concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and endothelial adhesion proteins were compared between samples from treated limbs (CRYO, submerged in ice water for 36 hour starting at the onset of lameness), untreated limbs (NON-CRYO, opposite limb from CRYO limbs maintained at ambient temperature), and untreated limbs from normal horses in which laminitis was not induced (CON).Although OF administration resulted in increases in lamellar mRNA concentrations of several inflammatory mediators in NON-CRYO limbs (vs CON), digital hypothermia had no significant effect on these increases.The lack of inflammatory inhibition in lamellar tissue samples in our study indicates that the protective effects of digital hypothermia instituted at the onset of clinical signs of laminitis do not arise from inhibition of inflammatory pathways.
Project description:<label>BACKGROUND</label>Although continuous digital hypothermia (CDH) protects lamellae from injury in the oligofructose (OF) model of sepsis-related laminitis (SRL), conflicting results exist from these studies regarding effects of CDH on lamellar inflammatory events.<label>HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES</label>To determine the effect of CDH on lamellar inflammatory events in normal and OF-treated horses when instituted at a clinically relevant time point (onset of clinical signs of sepsis in this model).<label>ANIMALS</label>Standardbred geldings (n = 15) aged 3-11 years were used.<label>METHODS</label>In a randomized, controlled discovery study, animals were administered either OF (OF group, n = 8) or water (CON group, n = 8) by nasogastric tube and CDH was initiated in one forelimb (ICE) 12 hours later. Lamellar tissue samples were collected 24 hours after initiation of CDH (ICE and ambient [AMB] forelimbs). Lamellar mRNA concentrations of inflammatory mediators and lamellar leukocyte numbers were assessed using qPCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively; values from four sample groups (CON AMB, OF AMB, CON ICE, and OF ICE) were analyzed using mixed model linear regression.<label>RESULTS</label>Although lamellar mRNA concentrations of multiple inflammatory mediators (IL-1?, IL-6, CXCL1, MCP2, COX-2) were increased after OF administration (OF AMB group versus CON AMB; P < 0.05), only 2 inflammatory mediators (IL-6 and COX-2) and lamellar leukocyte numbers were decreased with CDH (OF ICE versus OF AMB; P < 0.05).<label>CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE</label>Continuous digital hypothermia initiated at a time point similar to that commonly used clinically (clinical onset of sepsis) resulted in a more focused inhibition of inflammatory signaling.
Project description:Dysadhesion of laminar basal epithelial cells (LBECs) from the underlying dermis is the central event leading to structural failure in equine laminitis. Although many studies of sepsis-related laminitis have reported multiple events occurring throughout the lamellar tissue, there is minimal information regarding signalling events occurring specifically in LBECs.To determine signalling events in the LBECs during the early stages of carbohydrate-induced laminitis.Experimental study.Eight horses were given an overload of carbohydrate (CHO) consisting of corn starch mixture via nasogastric tube. Prior to administration of CHO, lamellar biopsies were taken from the left forefoot (control [CON]). Biopsies were taken from the left hind foot at the onset of fever (developmental [DEV]) and from the right forefoot at the onset of Obel grade 1 lameness (OG1). Laminar basal epithelial cells were isolated from cryosections using a laser capture microdissection (LCM) microscope. Next generation sequencing (RNA-seq) was used to identify transcripts expressed in the LBECs for each time point and bioinformatic analysis was performed with thresholds for between group comparisons set at a greater than 2-fold change and P value ?0.05.Forty genes (22 increased/18 decreased) were significantly different from DEV time vs. CON and 107 genes (57 increased/50 decreased) were significantly different from OG1 time vs. CON. Significant increases in inflammatory genes were present in addition to significantly altered expression of genes related to extracellular matrix composition, stability and turnover.Signalling related to inflammatory response and extracellular matrix regulation was strongly represented at the DEV and OG1 times. These results indicate that the LBEC is not only a casualty but also an active participant in lamellar events leading to structural failure of the digital lamellae in equine laminitis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Hyperinsulinemia is associated with equine laminitis, and digital lamellar inflammation in equine metabolic syndrome-associated laminitis (EMSAL) is modest when compared with sepsis-associated laminitis. OBJECTIVES:To characterize digital lamellar inflammation in horses in a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp (EHC) model of laminitis. ANIMALS:Sixteen healthy adult Standardbred horses. METHODS:Prospective experimental study. Horses underwent EHC or saline infusion (CON) for 48 hours or until the onset of Obel grade 1 laminitis. Horses were euthanized, and digital lamellar tissue was collected and analyzed via polymerase chain reaction (pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine genes-CXCL1, CXCL6, CXCL8, IL-6, MCP-1, MCP-2, IL-1β, IL11, cyclooxygenases 1 and 2, tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α], E-selectin, and ICAM-1), immunoblotting (phosphorylated and total signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 [STAT1], STAT3, and p38MAPK), and immunohistochemistry (markers of leukocyte infiltration: CD163, MAC387). RESULTS:Lamellar mRNA concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-11, COX-2, and E-selectin were increased; the concentration of COX-1 was decreased; and concentrations of CXCL1, CXCL6, MCP-1, MCP-2, IL-8, TNF-α and ICAM-1 were not significantly different in the EHC group compared to the CON group (P ≤ .003). Lamellar concentrations of phosphorylated STAT proteins (P-STAT1 [S727], P-STAT1 [Y701], P-STAT3 [S727], and P-STAT3 [Y705]) were increased in the EHC group compared to the CON group, with phosphorylated STAT3 localizing to nuclei of lamellar basal epithelial cells. There was no change in the lamellar concentration of P-p38 MAPK (T180/Y182), but the concentration of total p38 MAPK was decreased in the EHC samples. There was no evidence of notable lamellar leukocyte emigration. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE:These results establish a role for lamellar inflammatory signaling under conditions associated with EMSAL.
Project description:The objectives of this study were to examine the clinical response, changes in ruminal bacterial microbiota, and inflammatory response in lamellar tissues during oligofructose-induced laminitis. Ten fistulated sheep were randomly assigned into a control group ( = 5) and a treatment group ( = 5). The treatment group was infused with oligofructose (21 g/kg BW) by rumen cannula, and the control group was sham-treated with saline. Results showed that all 5 sheep treated with oligofructose developed anorexia and diarrhea 8 to 12 h after the administration of oligofructose. By 12 to 24 h after treatment, the treatment group developed lameness and roach back. Compared with the control group, oligofructose administration decreased ( < 0.001) the rumen pH and concentrations of total VFA and increased ( < 0.001) the level of lactic acid in the rumen. Microbial data analysis revealed that oligofructose infusion increased the abundance of ( = 0.009) and ( = 0.008) and decreased the percentage of unclassified Christensenellaceae ( = 0.028), unclassified Ruminococcaceae ( = 0.009), ( = 0.016), unclassified Lachnospiraceae ( = 0.009), and ( = 0.009) compared with the control group. Oligofructose infusion decreased the ACE ( = 0.047) and Shannon ( = 0.009) indices compared with the control group. The histomorphology analysis revealed that oligofructose overload resulted in damage to the dermoepidermal junction in the lamellar tissue of sheep. Quantitative real-time PCR results showed that compared with the control group, the mRNA expression of membrane-type metalloproteinase-1 ( = 0.049) was downregulated whereas the expression of proinflammatory IL-6 ( = 0.004) and matrix metalloprotease-9 ( = 0.037) was upregulated in the lamellar tissues of the oligofructose treatment group. In general, the present study provides the foundation for a sheep model of oligofructose-overload-induced acute laminitis that could be used in later experiments. Our findings suggest that intraruminal infusion of oligofructose altered ruminal microbiota and resulted in acute laminitis and that the inflammatory damage to the lamellae tissue may be related to the upregulation of matrix metalloprotease-9. The information generated will provide more insight into the systemic effects of lameness caused by oligofructose overload in sheep.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Laminitis is often associated with endocrinopathies that cause hyperinsulinemia and is also induced experimentally by hyperinsulinemia, suggesting that insulin initiates laminitis pathogenesis. Hyperinsulinemia is expected to activate pro-growth and anabolic signaling pathways. We hypothesize that chronic over-stimulation of these pathways in lamellar tissue results in endoplasmic reticulum stress, contributing to tissue pathology, as it does in human metabolic diseases. We tested this hypothesis by asking whether lamellar tissue from horses with naturally-occurring endocrinopathic laminitis showed expression of protein markers of endoplasmic reticulum stress. RESULTS:Three markers of endoplasmic reticulum stress, spliced XBP1, Grp78/BiP and Grp94, were upregulated 2.5-9.5 fold in lamellar tissues of moderately to severely laminitic front limbs (n = 12) compared to levels in controls (n = 6-7) measured by immunoblotting and densitometry. Comparing expression levels between laminitic front limbs and less affected hind limbs from the same horses (paired samples from 7 to 8 individual horses) demonstrated significantly higher expression for both spliced XBP1 and Grp78/BiP in the laminitic front limbs, and a similar trend for Grp94. Expression levels of the 3 markers were minimal in all samples of the control (n = 6-7) or hind limb groups (n = 7-8). Immunofluorescent localizations were used to identify cell types expressing high levels of Grp78/BiP, as an indicator of endoplasmic reticulum stress. Grp78/BiP expression was highly elevated in suprabasal epidermal keratinocytes and only observed in laminitic front limbs (10/12 laminitic samples, compared to 0/7 in sections from the hind limbs and 0/5 of controls). CONCLUSIONS:These data demonstrate that the endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway is active in naturally occurring cases of laminitis and is most active within a subset of epidermal keratinocytes. These data provide the rationale for further study of endoplasmic reticulum stress in experimental models of laminitis and the links between laminitis and human diseases sharing activation of this stress pathway. Pharmacological options to manipulate the endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway under investigation for human disease could be applicable to laminitis treatment and prevention should this pathway prove to be a driver of disease progression.
Project description:Laminitis, the structural failure of interdigitated tissue that suspends the distal skeleton within the hoof capsule, is a devastating disease that is the second leading cause of both lameness and euthanasia in the horse. Current transcriptomic research focuses on the expression of known genes. However, as this tissue is quite unique and equine gene annotation is largely derived from computational predictions, there are likely yet uncharacterized transcripts that may be involved in the etiology of laminitis. In order to create a novel annotation resource, we performed whole transcriptome sequencing of sagittal lamellar sections from one control and two laminitis affected horses.Whole transcriptome sequencing of the three samples resulted in 113 million reads. Overall, 88 % of the reads mapped to the equCab2 reference genome, allowing for the identification of 119,430 SNPs. The de novo assembly generated around 75,000 transcripts, of which 36,000 corresponded to known annotations. Annotated transcript models are hosted in a public data repository and thus can be easily accessed or loaded into genome browsers. RT-PCR of 12 selected assemblies confirmed structure and expression in lamellar tissue.Transcriptome sequencing represents a powerful tool to expand on equine annotation and identify novel targets for further laminitis research.
Project description:This study aimed to characterize oligofructose-induced laminitis in zebu cattle and comparatively evaluate four different diagnostic methods for laminitis. A total of 29 rumen-cannulated Nelore heifers, weighing 474.5 ± 58.5 kg were used. Laminitis was experimentally induced by intraruminal administration of 0.765 g/kg oligofructose twice daily for three consecutive days, followed by a single dose of 10.71 g/kg oligofructose on the fourth day. The animals were evaluated before administration of the highest dose of oligofructose (basal) and every six hours for up to 24 hours (6, 12, 18, 24 hours) and thereafter, every 12 hours for up to 72 hours (36, 48, 60, 72 hours) post-induction. The following diagnostic methods were used: hoof pain sensitivity test (hoof-testing), locomotion scoring, hoof infrared thermography, and force platform. Diagnosis of laminitis was confirmed after two positive responses to hoof pressure testing. Using a receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve, we defined the appropriate cut-off for infrared thermography and force plate as 30 °C and < 24%, respectively. From the 29 heifers, 27 developed laminitis (93.1%) which occurred between 24 h to 72 h in the digits from two limbs, with more frequent sensitivity in the lateral digits. Locomotion analysis detected twenty-eight heifers with laminitis and showed that a greater (P = 0.006) number of animals had lameness in two limbs (n = 13; 56%). Using hoof-testing as gold standard for the diagnosis of laminitis the locomotion score displayed 100% sensitivity, 97% specificity and 98% accuracy; infrared thermography showed 96% sensitivity, 63% specificity, and 75% accuracy whilst force plate had 76% sensitivity, 82% specificity and 79% accuracy. This suggests that, for the diagnosis of laminitis in cattle, pain evaluation is more efficient. Considering the difficult to evaluate pain sensitivity in Nelore animals, filmed locomotion score, infrared thermography and force plate methods can be indicated for non-invasive lameness detection in beef farms.
Project description:Laminitis, a highly debilitating disease of the foot in ungulates, is characterized by pathological changes of the complex lamellar structures that maintain the appendicular skeleton within the hoof. Laminitis is a multifactorial disease that involves perturbation of the vascular, hematological, and inflammatory homeostasis of the foot. Interestingly, the pathogenesis of the disease resembles what is observed in metabolic syndromes and sepsis-induced organ failure in humans and animals. We hypothesized that local administration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) might contribute to establishing an anti-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic environment, and could stimulate the injured tissue in order to restore its functional integrity. According to this assumption, an experimental protocol based on the local intravenous administration of adipose tissue-derived MSCs (aMSCs) in combination with PRP was developed for the treatment of horses affected by chronic laminitis. Nine horses with severely compromised venograms (showing grade III and IV laminitis) that had been unsuccessfully treated with conventional therapies were enrolled. aMSCs and PRP (15 × 10? cells resuspended in 15 mL of PRP) were injected into the lateral or medial digital vein three times, at one-month intervals. The first administration was performed with allogeneic aMSCs, while for the following administrations, autologous aMSCs were used. There was no adverse short-term reaction to the intravenous injection of aMSCs. In the long term, venograms outlined, in all subjects, a progressive amelioration of the vascularization of the foot. An improvement in the structure and function of the hoof was also observed. No adverse events were reported during the follow-up, and the horses returned to a comfortable quality of life. Although the number of animals enrolled in the study is limited, both clinical observations and venography demonstrated an enhancement in the condition of all horses, suggesting that the regenerative therapies in chronic laminitis could be useful, and are worthy of further investigation.
Project description:Equine laminitis is a debilitating disease affecting the digital laminae that suspend the distal phalanx within the hoof. While the clinical progression of the disease has been well documented, the molecular events associated with its pathogenesis remain largely unknown. Using real time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), we have investigated the expression of genes coding for proteins containing a Disintegrin and Metalloprotease domain (ADAM), as well as genes encoding the natural inhibitors of these enzymes (tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease; TIMP) in horses with naturally-acquired (acute, chronic and aggravated chronic clinical cases) or experimentally-induced (black walnut extract (BWE) and starch gruel models) laminitis. Changes in expression of these enzymes and regulators may underlie the pathologic remodeling of lamellar tissue in laminitis. Genes encoding ADAMs involved in inflammation (ADAM-10 and ADAM-17), as well as those implicated in arthritis (ADAMTS-1, ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5) were cloned, and the sequences used to generate specific oligonucleotide primers for the RT-qPCR experiments. Our results show that genes encoding ADAM-10 and ADAM-17 were not induced in most laminitic animals, whereas ADAMTS-4 gene expression was strongly upregulated in nearly all horses with experimentally-induced and naturally-acquired laminitis. The expression of matrix metalloproteases (MMP)-9 and ADAMTS-5 was also increased in many of the laminitic horses. In addition, TIMP-2 gene expression was decreased in most laminitic horses, whereas expression of genes encoding other TIMPs, namely TIMP-1 and TIMP-3, was randomly increased or decreased in the various models. We conclude that increased expression of lamellar ADAMTS-4 is a common feature of laminitis consistent with a central role of the gene product in the pathophysiology of the disease.
Project description:Equine laminitis is a disease of the digital epidermal lamellae typified by epidermal cell proliferation and structural collapse. Most commonly the disease is caused by hyperinsulinemia, although the pathogenesis is incompletely understood. Insulin can activate the epidermal growth factor (EGF) system in other species and the present study tested the hypothesis that upregulation of EGF receptor (EGFR) signalling is a key factor in laminitis pathophysiology. First, we examined lamellar tissue from healthy Standardbred horses and those with induced hyperinsulinemia and laminitis for EGFR distribution and quantity using immunostaining and gene expression, respectively. Phosphorylation of EGFR was also quantified. Next, plasma EGF concentrations were compared in healthy and insulin-infused horses, and in healthy and insulin-dysregulated ponies before and after feeding. The EGFR were localised to the secondary epidermal lamellae, with stronger staining in parabasal, rather than basal, cells. No change in EGFR gene expression occurred with laminitis, although the receptor showed some phosphorylation. No difference was seen in EGF concentrations in horses, but in insulin-dysregulated ponies mean, post-prandial EGF concentrations were almost three times higher than in healthy ponies (274 ± 90 vs. 97.4 ± 20.9 pg/mL, P = 0.05). Although the EGFR does not appear to play a major pathogenic role in hyperinsulinemic laminitis, the significance of increased EGF in insulin-dysregulated ponies deserves further investigation.