Analysis of acquired mutations in transgenes arising in Ba/F3 transformation assays: findings and recommendations.
ABSTRACT: The identification and functional validation of potentially oncogenic mutations in leukemia is an essential step toward a future of personalized targeted therapy. To assess the oncogenic capacity of individual mutations, reliable and scalable in vitro experimental approaches are required. Since 1988, researchers have used the IL-3 dependent Ba/F3 transformation assay to validate the oncogenic potential of mutations to drive factor-independent growth. Here we report a previously unrecognized phenomenon whereby Ba/F3 cells, engineered to express weakly transforming mutations, present with additional acquired mutations in the expressed transgene following factor withdrawal. Using four mutations with known transformative capacity in three cytokine receptors (CSF2RB, CSF3R and IL7R), we demonstrate that the mutated receptors are highly susceptible to acquiring additional mutations. These acquired mutations of unknown functional significance are selected by factor withdrawal but appear to exist prior to the removal of growth factor. This anomaly has the potential to confound efforts to both validate and characterize oncogenic mutations in leukemia, particularly when it is not standard practice to sequence validate cDNAs from transformed Ba/F3 lines. We present specific recommendations to detect and mitigate this phenomenon in future research using Ba/F3 transformation assays, along with methods to make the Ba/F3 assay more quantitative.
Project description:Taking a series of oncogenic protein tyrosine kinases and constitutively expressing them in Ba/F3 cells, proteomic analysis was utilised in order to identify common protein changes.
Project description:Transcriptional profiling of transformed Ba/F3 cells by myeloproliferative neoplasm-associated JAK2 V617F mutant comparing control Ba/F3 cells expressing wild type JAK2. Two-condition experiment, WT cells vs. VF cells. One replicate per array.
Project description:Paxillin is a focal adhesion adaptor protein, heavily phosphorylated at multiple tyrosine residues, as well as at serine 273 (S273), and is known to be critical for cytoskeleton rearrangement and cell migration. We previously found that paxillin plays a regulatory role in IL-3-dependent survival of Ba/F3 cells, a mouse pro-B cell line. In this study, by using overexpressed His6 tagged-paxillin as a bait, we found that DDX42, a DEAD-box RNA helicase, interacted with paxillin, inhibited apoptosis, and promoted polarization of Ba/F3 cells. His6 tagged-paxillin was stably overexpressed in Ba/F3 cells, pulled-down from cell lysates with Ni+-NTA beads, and analyzed by one-dimensional SDS-PAGE followed by LC-MS. We found that DDX42 co-precipitated with paxillin, as demonstrated by western blotting analysis of His6 tagged-paxillin precipitates with anti-DDX42 antibodies and His6 tagged-DDX42 precipitates with anti-paxillin antibodies. In addition, we observed a preferential interaction of DDX42 with the paxillin mutant, S273A, compared to the S273D mutant. Furthermore, DDX42 overexpression in Ba/F3 cells delayed the apoptosis induced by IL-3 deprivation and promoted restoration of the elongated shape in Ba/F3 cells induced by IL-3 re-supply after a 6 h-deprivation. These results suggested that DDX42 interacts with paxillin and participates in IL-3-dependent cell survival, as well as in the cytoskeletal rearrangements underlying polarization of Ba/F3 cells.
Project description:The mouse pro-B cell line Ba/F3 has gained major interest as a model system to investigate oncogenic tyrosine kinases and to determine the efficacy of kinase inhibitors. While Ba/F3 cells are suitable to study oncogenic kinases derived from various cell types, the signaling networks in Ba/F3 cells are B-cell specific. We have established a mouse CD4+CD8+ double positive T-cell line (named MOHITO, for MOuse Hematopoietic Interleukin-dependent cell line of T-cell Origin) that has many features of human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Notch1 and Jak1 mutation, TCR rearrangement) and is dependent on interleukin-7. The MOHITO cell line can be transformed to cytokine independent proliferation by BCR-ABL1 or mutant JAK1. This mouse T-cell line is a novel model system to investigate protein signaling and inhibition in a T-cell specific context and is a valuable tool to study and verify oncogenic capacity of mutations in the kinome and phosphatome in T-cell malignancies.
Project description:Most patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring common epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations, such as deletions in exon 19 or the L858R mutation in exon 21, respond dramatically to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKI), and their sensitivities to various EGFR-TKI have been well characterized. Our previous article showed the in vitro sensitivities of EGFR exon 18 mutations to EGFR-TKI, but little information regarding the sensitivities of other uncommon EGFR mutations is available. First, stable transfectant Ba/F3 cell lines harboring EGFR L858R (Ba/F3-L858R), L861Q (Ba/F3-L861Q) or S768I (Ba/F3-S768I) mutations were created and their drug sensitivities to various EGFR-TKI were examined. Both the Ba/F3-L861Q and Ba/F3-S768I cell lines were less sensitive to erlotinib, compared with the Ba/F3-L858R cell line, but their sensitivities to afatinib were similar to that of the Ba/F3-L858R cell line. The Ba/F3-L861Q cell line was similarly sensitive and the Ba/F3-S768I cell line was less sensitive to osimertinib, compared with the Ba/F3-L858R cell line. The results of western blot analyses were consistent with these sensitivities. Next, similar experiments were also performed using the KYSE270 (L861Q) and KYSE 450 (S768I) cell lines, and their results were compatible with those of the transfectant Ba/F3 cell lines. Our findings suggest that NSCLC harboring the EGFR L861Q mutation might be sensitive to afatinib or osimertinib and that NSCLC harboring the EGFR S768I mutation might be sensitive to afatinib. Overall, afatinib might be the optimal EGFR-TKI against these uncommon EGFR mutations.
Project description:Lung cancer patients with mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) benefit from treatments targeting tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). However, both intrinsic and acquired resistance of tumors to TKIs are common, and EGFR variants have been identified that are resistant to multiple TKIs. In the present study, we characterized selected EGFR variants previously observed in lung cancer patients and expressed in a murine bone marrow pro-B Ba/F3 cell model. Among these EGFR variants, we report that an exon 20 deletion/insertion mutation S768insVGH is resistant to erlotinib (a first-generation TKI), but sensitive to osimertinib (a third-generation TKI). We also characterized a rare exon 21 germline variant, EGFR P848L, which transformed Ba/F3 cells and conferred resistance to multiple EGFR-targeting TKIs. Our analysis revealed that P848L (a) does not bind erlotinib; (b) is turned over less rapidly than L858R (a common tumor-derived EGFR mutation); (c) is not autophosphorylated at Tyr 1045 [the major docking site for Cbl proto-oncogene (c-Cbl) binding]; and (d) does not bind c-Cbl. Using viability assays including 300 clinically relevant targeted compounds, we observed that Ba/F3 cells transduced with EGFR P848L, S768insVGH, or L858R have very different drug-sensitivity profiles. In particular, EGFR P848L, but not L858R or S768insVGH, was sensitive to multiple Janus kinase 1/2 inhibitors. In contrast, cells driven by L858R, but not by P848L, were sensitive to multikinase MAPK/extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase and ERK inhibitors including EGFR-specific TKIs. These observations suggest that continued investigation of rare TKI-resistant EGFR variants is warranted to identify optimal treatments for cancer.
Project description:Gene expression profiles in Ba/F3 cells expressing ETV6-PDGFRB, FIP1L1-PDGFRA or a control vector, treated or not with imatinib (Glivec) Ba/F3 cells expressing FIP1L1-PDGFRA or ETV6-PDGFRB were cultured in the presence or absence of imatinib for 4 hours before RNA extraction followed by hybridization on Affymetrix microarrays. In a control condition Ba/F3 cells were cultured in the presence of IL3 in the absence or in the presence of imatinib for 4 hours before RNA extraction. 4 hours treatment with imatinib in Ba/F3 cells expressing ETV6-PDGFRB, FIP1L1-PDGFRA or a control vector
Project description:Gene expression profiles in Ba/F3 cells expressing ETV6-PDGFRB, FIP1L1-PDGFRA or a control vector, treated or not with imatinib (Glivec) Overall design: Ba/F3 cells expressing FIP1L1-PDGFRA or ETV6-PDGFRB were cultured in the presence or absence of imatinib for 4 hours before RNA extraction followed by hybridization on Affymetrix microarrays. In a control condition Ba/F3 cells were cultured in the presence of IL3 in the absence or in the presence of imatinib for 4 hours before RNA extraction. 4 hours treatment with imatinib in Ba/F3 cells expressing ETV6-PDGFRB, FIP1L1-PDGFRA or a control vector
Project description:RAS oncogenic mutations are common in human cancers, but RAS proteins have been difficult to target. We sought to identify pharmacological agents to block the RAS oncogenic signaling by a distinct mechanism. Since the biological activity of RAS proteins rely upon lipid modifications and RAS regulates lipid metabolisms in cancer cells, we screened a bioactive lipid library using a RAS specific cell viability assay. We report the discovery of a new class of inhibitors for RAS transformation. Compounds in the class represented by endocannabinoid N-arachidonoyl dopamine (NADA) can induce cell oncosis, independent of its ability to engage cannabinoid receptors. Further analyses show that NADA is more active in inhibiting the NRAS transformation and signaling than that of KRAS4B. Mechanistically, NADA blocks the plasma membrane translocation of NRAS, but not that of KRAS4B. In addition, NADA inhibits the plasma membrane translocation and neoplastic transformation of oncogenic KRAS4A. Interestingly, NADA also redistributes the cytoplasmic NRAS to the Golgi apparatus in a palmitoylation-dependent manner. The results indicate that NADA inhibits NRAS and KRAS4A plasma membrane translocation by targeting a novel molecular process. The new findings would help to develop novel targeted therapies for a broad range of human cancers. To confirm the oncogenic RAS pathway interference of NADA, we performed microarray assay to detail the gene expression pattern change in order to figure out the RAS pathway affection and further indicate the underlying mechnism of the compound function. Overall design: In the microarray assay, two groups were included, which are NRAS-G12D transformed Ba/F3 (Ba/F3-N ) cells treated with vehicle or 1 μM NADA for 12 hours, respectively. Each group contains three replicates. In each sample, 1×107 cells were harvested and for RNA extraction. After quality control, the samples were subjected to the Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430 2.0 Array according to the manufacturer’s instructions.
Project description:The aim of the study is to analyse whether the Sorafenib renders FLT3-ITD-positive acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells more immunogenic . We used Ba/F3-ITD cells as a model cell line to study the effect of Sorafenib on FLT3-ITD-positive AML cells. Ba/F3-ITD cells are murine pro-B cell lines with a stable FLT3-ITD expression. Ba/F3-ITD cells were treated with DMSO or 10nM sorafenib for 24 hours. Cells were harvested and total RNA was isolated