Copper transporters are responsible for copper isotopic fractionation in eukaryotic cells.
ABSTRACT: Copper isotopic composition is altered in cancerous compared to healthy tissues. However, the rationale for this difference is yet unknown. As a model of Cu isotopic fractionation, we monitored Cu uptake in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, whose Cu import is similar to human. Wild type cells are enriched in 63Cu relative to 65Cu. Likewise, 63Cu isotope enrichment in cells without high-affinity Cu transporters is of slightly lower magnitude. In cells with compromised Cu reductase activity, however, no isotope fractionation is observed and when Cu is provided solely in reduced form for this strain, copper is enriched in 63Cu like in the case of the wild type. Our results demonstrate that Cu isotope fractionation is generated by membrane importers and that its amplitude is modulated by Cu reduction. Based on ab initio calculations, we propose that the fractionation may be due to Cu binding with sulfur-rich amino acids: methionine and cysteine. In hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), lower expression of the STEAP3 copper reductase and heavy Cu isotope enrichment have been reported for the tumor mass, relative to the surrounding tissue. Our study suggests that copper isotope fractionation observed in HCC could be due to lower reductase activity in the tumor.
Project description:The widespread hypoxic conditions of the tumor microenvironment can impair the metabolism of bioessential elements such as copper and sulfur, notably by changing their redox state and, as a consequence, their ability to bind specific molecules. Because competing redox state is known to drive isotopic fractionation, we have used here the stable isotope compositions of copper ((65)Cu/(63)Cu) and sulfur ((34)S/(32)S) in the blood of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) as a tool to explore the cancer-driven copper and sulfur imbalances. We report that copper is (63)Cu-enriched by ?0.4‰ and sulfur is (32)S-enriched by ?1.5‰ in the blood of patients compared with that of control subjects. As expected, HCC patients have more copper in red blood cells and serum compared with control subjects. However, the isotopic signature of this blood extra copper burden is not in favor of a dietary origin but rather suggests a reallocation in the body of copper bound to cysteine-rich proteins such as metallothioneins. The magnitude of the sulfur isotope effect is similar in red blood cells and serum of HCC patients, implying that sulfur fractionation is systemic. The (32)S-enrichment of sulfur in the blood of HCC patients is compatible with the notion that sulfur partly originates from tumor-derived sulfides. The measurement of natural variations of stable isotope compositions, using techniques developed in the field of Earth sciences, can provide new means to detect and quantify cancer metabolic changes and provide insights into underlying mechanisms.
Project description:Copper is a critical enzyme cofactor in the body but also a potent cellular toxin when intracellularly unbound. Thus, there is a delicate balance of intracellular copper, maintained by a series of complex interactions between the metal and specific copper transport and binding proteins. The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is the primary site of copper entry into the body and there has been considerable progress in understanding the intricacies of copper metabolism in this region. The GI tract is also host to diverse bacterial populations, and their role in copper metabolism is not well understood. In this study, we compared the isotopic fractionation of copper in the GI tract of mice with intestinal microbiota significantly depleted by antibiotic treatment to that in mice not receiving such treatment. We demonstrated variability in copper isotopic composition along the length of the gut. A significant difference, ∼1.0‰, in copper isotope abundances was measured in the proximal colon of antibiotic-treated mice. The changes in copper isotopic composition in the colon are accompanied by changes in copper transporters. Both CTR1, a copper importer, and ATP7A, a copper transporter across membranes, were significantly down-regulated in the colon of antibiotic-treated mice. This study demonstrated that isotope abundance measurements of metals can be used as an indicator of changes in metabolic processes in vivo. These measurements revealed a host-microbial interaction in the GI tract involved in the regulation of copper transport.
Project description:Copper isotopes may prove to be a useful tool for investigating bacteria-metal interactions recorded in natural waters, soils, and rocks. However, experimental data which attempt to constrain Cu isotope fractionation in biologic systems are limited and unclear. In this study, we utilized Cu isotopes (?(65)Cu) to investigate Cu-bacteria interactions, including surface adsorption and intracellular incorporation. Experiments were conducted with individual representative species of Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria, as well as with wild-type consortia of microorganisms from several natural environments. Ph-dependent adsorption experiments were conducted with live and dead cells over the pH range 2.5-6. Surface adsorption experiments of Cu onto live bacterial cells resulted in apparent separation factors (?(65)Cu(solution-solid) = ?(65)Cu(solution) - ?(65)Cu(solid)) ranging from +0.3‰ to +1.4‰ for B. subtilis and +0.2‰ to +2.6‰ for E. coli. However, because heat-killed bacterial cells did not exhibit this behavior, the preference of the lighter Cu isotope by the cells is probably not related to reversible surface adsorption, but instead is a metabolically-driven phenomenon. Adsorption experiments with heat-killed cells yielded apparent separation factors ranging from +0.3‰ to -0.69‰ which likely reflects fractionation from complexation with organic acid surface functional group sites. For intracellular incorporation experiments the lab strains and natural consortia preferentially incorporated the lighter Cu isotope with an apparent ?(65)Cu(solution-solid) ranging from ~+1.0‰ to +4.4‰. Our results indicate that live bacterial cells preferentially sequester the lighter Cu isotope regardless of the experimental conditions. The fractionation mechanisms involved are likely related to active cellular transport and regulation, including the reduction of Cu(II) to Cu(I). Because similar intracellular Cu machinery is shared by fungi, plants, and higher organisms, the influence of biological processes on the ?(65)Cu of natural waters and soils is probably considerable.
Project description:The ISOLPHARM (ISOL technique for radioPHARMaceuticals) project is dedicated to the development of high purity radiopharmaceuticals exploiting the radionuclides producible with the future Selective Production of Exotic Species (SPES) Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) facility at the Legnaro National Laboratories of the Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN-LNL). At SPES, a proton beam (up to 70 MeV) extracted from a cyclotron will directly impinge a primary target, where the produced isotopes are released thanks to the high working temperatures (2000 °C), ionized, extracted and accelerated, and finally, after mass separation, only the desired nuclei are collected on a secondary target, free from isotopic contaminants that decrease their specific activity. A case study for such project is the evaluation of the feasibility of the ISOL production of <sup>64</sup>Cu and <sup>67</sup>Cu using a zirconium germanide target, currently under development. The producible activities of <sup>64</sup>Cu and <sup>67</sup>Cu were calculated by means of the Monte Carlo code FLUKA, whereas dedicated off-line tests with stable beams were performed at LNL to evaluate the capability to ionize and recover isotopically pure copper.
Project description:Alzheimer's disease is associated with the production of Cu rich aβ fibrils. Because monitoring the changes in Cu level of organs has been proposed to follow the evolution of the disease, we analyzed the copper isotopic composition of serum and brain of APPswe/PSEN1dE9 transgenic mice, a model of Alzheimer's disease, and wild-type (WT) controls. Serum composition of 3, 6, 9 and 12-month-old mice, as well as the composition of 9 brains of 12-month-old mice are reported. In WT mice, brains were ~1‰ isotopically heavier than serum, and the Cu isotopic composition of the serum was isotopically different between males and females. We propose that this effect of sex on the Cu isotopic budget of the serum may be related to a difference of Cu speciation and relative abundance of Cu carriers. Brains of APPswe/PSEN1dE9 mice were slightly lighter than brains of WT mice, while not statistically significant. This trend may reflect an increase of Cu(I) associated with the formation of Aβ fibrils. The Cu isotopic composition of the brains and serum were correlated, implying copper transport between these two reservoirs, in particular a transfer of Cu(I) from the brain to the serum. Altogether, these data suggest that Cu stable isotopic composition of body fluid may have the potential to be used as detection tools for the formation of Aβ fibrils in the brain, but further work has to be done.
Project description:A substantial oxidative N-debenzylation reaction along with PhCHO formation occurs from a hydroperoxo-copper(II) complex that has a dibenzylamino substrate (N(CH 2Ph) 2 appended as a substituent on one pyridyl group of its tripodal tetradentate TMPA (also TPA, (2-pyridylmethyl)amine)) ligand framework. During the course of the (L (N(CH 2 ) (Ph) 2 ))Cu (II)( (-)OOH) reactivity, the formation of a substrate and a (-)OOH-derived (an oxygen atom) alkoxo Cu (II)( (-)OR) complex occurs. The observation that the same Cu (II)( (-)OR) species occurs from Cu (Iota)/PhIO chemistry suggests the possibility that a copper-oxo (cupryl) reactive intermediate forms during the alkoxo species formation; new ESI-MS data provide further support for this high-valent intermediate. A net H atom abstraction chemistry is proposed on the basis of the kinetic isotope effect studies provided here and the previously published study for a closely related Cu (II)( (-)OOH) species incorporating dimethylamine (N(CH 3) 2) as the internal substrate; the Cu (Iota)/PhIO reactivity with similar isotope effect results provides further support. The reactivity of these chemical systems closely resembles the proposed oxidative N-dealkylation mechanisms that are effected by the copper monooxygenases, dopamine beta-monooxygenase (DbetaM) and peptidylglycine- alpha-hydroxylating monooxygenase (PHM).
Project description:Dissimilatory nitrite reductase was isolated from extracts of Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subsp. xylosoxidans (N.C.I.M.B. 11015), after activation of crude extracts by the addition of copper(II) sulphate. The enzyme was purified by a combination of (NH4)2SO4 fractionation and cationic-exchange chromatography to 93% homogeneity as judged by SDS/PAGE. SDS/PAGE and spray m.s. showed that the enzyme had a subunit M(r) of 36.5 kDa. The copper content was 3.5 +/- 0.8 Cu atoms/trimer of M(r) 109,500. E.p.r. spectroscopy of nitrite reductase as isolated showed that both type 1 (g parallel = 2.208, A parallel = 6.3 mT) and type 2 (g parallel = 2.298, A parallel = 14.2 mT) Cu centres were present, in contrast with published data [Masuko, Iwasaki, Sakurai, Suzuki and Nakahara (1984) J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 96, 447-454], where only type 1 copper centres were reported. Our preparations had a specific activity of 150-300 mumol of NO2- reduced/min per mg of protein, 6-12-fold higher than reported previously. As isolated, the oxidized form of our preparations of the enzyme showed absorption maxima in the visible region at 460, 593 and 770 nm. The ratio of the absorption bands at 460 nm and 593 nm resulted in this protein having a strong blue colour, in contrast with the green colour of other purified copper-containing nitrite reductases. We conclude that, in contrast with previous reports, this 'blue' nitrite reductase requires both type 1 and type 2 copper centres for optimal activity.
Project description:A method for reconstituting the blue copper protein stellacyanin with the stable copper isotopes 63Cu and 65Cu is reported. Small differences in the e.p.r. spectra of the two isotopic forms of stellacyanin have been used to monitor the electron self-exchange reaction of stellacyanin by rapid-freeze e.p.r. methods. The self-exchange rate constant (k11) for stellacyanin has been determined as 1.2 X 10(5) M-1 X S-1 at 20 degrees C. This value is in close agreement with values obtained from less-direct methods.
Project description:Redox-active metals are thought to be implicated in neurodegenerative diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). To address this point, we measured the concentrations of 12 elements and, for the first time, the stable isotope compositions of copper (redox-active) and zinc (redox-inactive) in human cerebrospinal fluids of 31 patients with ALS, 11 age-matched controls (CTRL), and 14 patients with Alzheimer disease. We first show that metal concentrations weakly discriminate patients with ALS from the two other groups. We then report that zinc isotopic compositions are similar in the three groups, but that patients with ALS have significantly 65copper-enriched isotopic compositions relative to CTRL and patients with AD. This result unambiguously demonstrates that copper is implicated in ALS. We suggest that this copper isotopic signature may result from abnormal protein aggregation in the brain parenchyma, and propose that isotopic analysis is a potential tool that may help unraveling the molecular mechanisms at work in ALS.
Project description:Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) have a unique ability to activate molecular oxygen for subsequent oxidative cleavage of glycosidic bonds. To provide insight into the mode of action of these industrially important enzymes, we have performed an integrated NMR/electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study into the detailed aspects of an AA10 LPMO-substrate interaction. Using NMR spectroscopy, we have elucidated the solution-phase structure of apo-BlLPMO10A from Bacillus licheniformis, along with solution-phase structural characterization of the Cu(I)-LPMO, showing that the presence of the metal has minimal effects on the overall protein structure. We have, moreover, used paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) to characterize Cu(II)-LPMO by NMR spectroscopy. In addition, a multifrequency continuous-wave (CW)-EPR and 15N-HYSCORE spectroscopy study on the uniformly isotope-labeled 63Cu(II)-bound 15N-BlLPMO10A along with its natural abundance isotopologue determined copper spin-Hamiltonian parameters for LPMOs to markedly improved accuracy. The data demonstrate that large changes in the Cu(II) spin-Hamiltonian parameters are induced upon binding of the substrate. These changes arise from a rearrangement of the copper coordination sphere from a five-coordinate distorted square pyramid to one which is four-coordinate near-square planar. There is also a small reduction in metal-ligand covalency and an attendant increase in the d(x2-y2) character/energy of the singly occupied molecular orbital (SOMO), which we propose from density functional theory (DFT) calculations predisposes the copper active site for the formation of a stable Cu-O2 intermediate. This switch in orbital character upon addition of chitin provides a basis for understanding the coupling of substrate binding with O2 activation in chitin-active AA10 LPMOs.