Cubic three-dimensional hybrid silica solids for nuclear hyperpolarization.
ABSTRACT: Hyperpolarization of metabolites by dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (D-DNP) for MRI applications often requires fast and efficient removal of the radicals (polarizing agents). Ordered mesoporous SBA-15 silica materials containing homogeneously dispersed radicals, referred to as HYperPolarizing SOlids (HYPSOs), enable high polarization - P(1H) = 50% at 1.2 K - and straightforward separation of the polarizing HYPSO material from the hyperpolarized solution by filtration. However, the one-dimensional tubular pores of SBA-15 type materials are not ideal for nuclear spin diffusion, which may limit efficient polarization. Here, we develop a generation of hyperpolarizing solids based on a SBA-16 structure with a network of pores interconnected in three dimensions, which allows a significant increase of polarization, i.e. P(1H) = 63% at 1.2 K. This result illustrates how one can improve materials by combining a control of the incorporation of radicals with a better design of the porous network structures.
Project description:Hyperpolarization of substrates for magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and imaging (MRI) by dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (D-DNP) usually involves saturating the ESR transitions of polarizing agents (PAs; e.g., persistent radicals embedded in frozen glassy matrices). This approach has shown enormous potential to achieve greatly enhanced nuclear spin polarization, but the presence of PAs and/or glassing agents in the sample after dissolution can raise concerns for in vivo MRI applications, such as perturbing molecular interactions, and may induce the erosion of hyperpolarization in spectroscopy and MRI. We show that D-DNP can be performed efficiently with hybrid polarizing solids (HYPSOs) with 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-piperidine-1-oxyl radicals incorporated in a mesostructured silica material and homogeneously distributed along its pore channels. The powder is wetted with a solution containing molecules of interest (for example, metabolites for MRS or MRI) to fill the pore channels (incipient wetness impregnation), and DNP is performed at low temperatures in a very efficient manner. This approach allows high polarization without the need for glass-forming agents and is applicable to a broad range of substrates, including peptides and metabolites. During dissolution, HYPSO is physically retained by simple filtration in the cryostat of the DNP polarizer, and a pure hyperpolarized solution is collected within a few seconds. The resulting solution contains the pure substrate, is free from any paramagnetic or other pollutants, and is ready for in vivo infusion.
Project description:Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) can improve nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) sensitivity by orders of magnitude. Polarizing agents containing unpaired electrons required for DNP can broaden nuclear resonances in the presence of appreciable hyperfine couplings. Here we present the first cross polarization experiments implemented with electron decoupling, which attenuates detrimental hyperfine couplings. We also demonstrate magic angle spinning (MAS) DNP experiments below 6?K, producing unprecedented nuclear spin polarization in rotating solids. 13C correlation spectra were collected with MAS DNP below 6?K for the first time. Polarization build-up times with MAS DNP (T1DNP, 1H) of urea in a frozen glassy matrix below 6?K were measured for both the solid effect and the cross effect. Trityl radicals exhibit a T1DNP (1H) of 18.7?s and the T1DNP (1H) of samples doped with 20?mM AMUPol is only 1.3?s. MAS below 6?K with DNP and electron decoupling is an effective strategy to increase NMR signal-to-noise ratios per transient while retaining short polarization periods.
Project description:Establishing mechanistic understanding of crystallization processes at the molecular level is challenging, as it requires both the detection of transient solid phases and monitoring the evolution of both liquid and solid phases as a function of time. Here, we demonstrate the application of dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) enhanced NMR spectroscopy to study crystallization under nanoscopic confinement, revealing a viable approach to interrogate different stages of crystallization processes. We focus on crystallization of glycine within the nanometric pores (7-8 nm) of a tailored mesoporous SBA-15 silica material with wall-embedded TEMPO radicals. The results show that the early stages of crystallization, characterized by the transition from the solution phase to the first crystalline phase, are straightforwardly observed using this experimental strategy. Importantly, the NMR sensitivity enhancement provided by DNP allows the detection of intermediate phases that would not be observable using standard solid-state NMR experiments. Our results also show that the metastable β polymorph of glycine, which has only transient existence under bulk crystallization conditions, remains trapped within the pores of the mesoporous SBA-15 silica material for more than 200 days.
Project description:Herein, we investigate a novel set of polarizing agents-mixed-valence compounds-by theoretical and experimental methods and demonstrate their performance in high-field dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) NMR experiments in the solid state. Mixed-valence compounds constitute a group of molecules in which molecular mobility persists even in solids. Consequently, such polarizing agents can be used to perform Overhauser-DNP experiments in the solid state, with favorable conditions for dynamic nuclear polarization formation at ultra-high magnetic fields.
Project description:Mesoporous SBA-15 silica material was prepared by the sol-gel method and functionalized with thermosensitive polyethylenimine polymers with different molecular weight (g·mol<sup>-1</sup>): 800 (SBA-15(C)-800), 1300 (SBA-15(C)-1300) and 2000 (SBA-15(C)-2000). The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) diclofenac sodium was selected as a model drug and encapsulated into the pores of prepared supports. Materials were characterized by the combination of infrared spectroscopy (IR), atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), photon cross-correlation spectroscopy (PCCS), nitrogen adsorption/desorption analysis, thermogravimetry (TG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and small-angle X-ray diffraction (SA-XRD) experiments. The drug release from prepared matrixes was realized in two model media differing in pH, namely small intestine environment/simulated body fluid (pH = 7.4) and simulated gastric fluid (pH = 2), and at different temperatures, namely normal body temperature (T = 37 °C) and inflammatory temperature (T = 42 °C). The process of drug loading into the pores of prepared materials from the diclofenac sodium salt solutions with different concentrations and subsequent quantitative determination of released drugs was analyzed by UV-VIS spectroscopy. Analysis of prepared SBA-15 materials modified with polyethylenimines in solution showed a high ability to store large amounts of the drug, up to 230 wt.%. Experimental results showed their high drug release into the solution at pH = 7.4 for both temperatures, which is related to the high solubility of diclofenac sodium in a slightly alkaline environment. At pH = 2, a difference in drug release rate was observed between both temperatures. Indeed, at a higher temperature, the release rates and the amount of released drug were 2-3 times higher than those observed at a lower temperature. Different kinetic models were used to fit the obtained drug release data to determine the drug release rate and its release mechanism. Moreover, the drug release properties of prepared compounds were compared to a commercially available medicament under the same experimental conditions.
Project description:Hyperpolarization by dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (dDNP) has enabled promising applications in spectroscopy and imaging, but remains poorly widespread due to experimental complexity. Broad democratization of dDNP could be realized by remote preparation and distribution of hyperpolarized samples from dedicated facilities. Here we show the synthesis of hyperpolarizing polymers (HYPOPs) that can generate radical- and contaminant-free hyperpolarized samples within minutes with lifetimes exceeding hours in the solid state. HYPOPs feature tunable macroporous porosity, with porous volumes up to 80% and concentration of nitroxide radicals grafted in the bulk matrix up to 285 μmol g<sup>-1</sup>. Analytes can be efficiently impregnated as aqueous/alcoholic solutions and hyperpolarized up to P(<sup>13</sup>C) = 25% within 8 min, through the combination of <sup>1</sup>H spin diffusion and <sup>1</sup>H → <sup>13</sup>C cross polarization. Solutions of <sup>13</sup>C-analytes of biological interest hyperpolarized in HYPOPs display a very long solid-state <sup>13</sup>C relaxation times of 5.7 h at 3.8 K, thus prefiguring transportation over long distances.
Project description:Dynamic Nuclear Polarization Surface Enhanced NMR Spectroscopy (DNP SENS) is an emerging technique that allows access to high-sensitivity NMR spectra from surfaces. However, DNP SENS usually requires the use of radicals as an exogenous source of polarization, which has so far limited applications for organometallic surface species to those that do not react with the radicals. Here we show that reactive surface species can be studied if they are immobilized inside porous materials with suitably small windows, and if bulky nitroxide bi-radicals (here TEKPol) are used as the polarization source and which cannot enter the pores. The method is demonstrated by obtaining significant DNP enhancements from highly reactive complelxes [( 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111111111111111 1111111111111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111111111111111 1111111111111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111111111111111 1111111111111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 Si-O-)W(Me)<sub>5</sub>] supported on MCM-41, and effects of pore size (6.0, 3.0 and 2.5 nm) on the performance are discussed.
Project description:Mesoporous titanium dioxide materials were prepared using a nanocasting technique involving silica SBA-15 as the hard-template. At an optimal loading of titanium precursor, the hexagonal periodic array of pores in SBA-15 was retained. The phases of titanium dioxide could be easily varied by the number of impregnation cycles and the nature of titanium alkoxide employed. Low number of impregnation cycles produced mixed phases of anatase and TiO₂(B). The mesoporous TiO₂ materials were tested for solar hydrogen production, and the material consisting of 98% anatase and 2% TiO₂(B) exhibited the highest yield of hydrogen from the photocatalytic splitting of water. The periodicity of the pores was an important factor that influenced the photocatalytic activity. This study indicates that mixed phases of titania containing ordered array of pores can be prepared by using the nanocasting strategy.
Project description:Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) hyperpolarization technique that mediates polarization transfer from unpaired electrons with large thermal polarization to NMR-active nuclei via microwave (mw) irradiation. The ability to generate arbitrarily shaped mw pulses using arbitrary waveform generators allows for remarkable improvement of the robustness and versatility of DNP. We present here novel design principles based on single-spin vector effective Hamiltonian theory to develop new broadband DNP pulse sequences, namely, an adiabatic version of XiX (X-inverse X)-DNP and a broadband excitation by amplitude modulation (BEAM)-DNP experiment. We demonstrate that the adiabatic BEAM-DNP pulse sequence may achieve a <sup>1</sup>H enhancement factor of ∼360, which is better than ramped-amplitude NOVEL (nuclear spin orientation via electron spin locking) at ∼0.35 T and 80 K in static solids doped with trityl radicals. In addition, the bandwidth of the BEAM-DNP experiments (~50 MHz) is about three times the <sup>1</sup>H Larmor frequency. The generality of our theoretical approach will be helpful in the development of new pulsed DNP sequences.
Project description:The Overhauser effect (OE), commonly observed in NMR spectra of liquids and conducting solids, was recently discovered in insulating solids doped with the radical 1,3-bisdiphenylene-2-phenylallyl (BDPA). However, the mechanism of polarization transfer in OE-DNP in insulators is yet to be established, but hyperfine coupling of the radical to protons in BDPA has been proposed. In this paper we present a study that addresses the role of hyperfine couplings via the EPR and DNP measurements on some selectively deuterated BDPA radicals synthesized for this purpose. Newly developed synthetic routes enable selective deuteration at orthogonal positions or perdeuteration of the fluorene moieties with <sup>2</sup>H incorporation of >93%. The fluorene moieties were subsequently used to synthesize two octadeuterated BDPA radicals, 1,3-[α,γ-<i>d</i><sub>8</sub>]-BDPA and 1,3-[β,δ-<i>d</i><sub>8</sub>]-BDPA, and a BDPA radical with perdeuterated fluorene moieties, 1,3-[α,β,γ,δ-<i>d</i><sub>16</sub>]-BDPA. In contrast to the strong positive OE enhancement observed in degassed samples of fully protonated <i>h</i><sub>21</sub>-BDPA (ε ∼ +70), perdeuteration of the fluorenes results in a negative enhancement (ε ∼ -13), while selective deuteration of α- and γ-positions (<i>a</i><sub>iso</sub> ∼ 5.4 MHz) in BDPA results in a weak negative OE enhancement (ε ∼ -1). Furthermore, deuteration of β- and δ-positions (<i>a</i><sub>iso</sub> ∼ 1.2 MHz) results in a positive OE enhancement (ε ∼ +36), albeit with a reduced magnitude relative to that observed in fully protonated BDPA. Our results clearly show the role of the hyperfine coupled α and γ <sup>1</sup>H spins in the BDPA radical in determining the dominance of the zero and double-quantum cross-relaxation pathways and the polarization-transfer mechanism to the bulk matrix.