Oncogenic microRNA-4534 regulates PTEN pathway in prostate cancer.
ABSTRACT: Prostate carcinogenesis involves alterations in several signaling pathways, the most prominent being the PI3K/AKT pathway. This pathway is constitutively active and drives prostate cancer (PCa) progression to advanced metastatic disease. PTEN, a critical tumor and metastasis suppressor gene negatively regulates cell survival, proliferation, migration and angiogenesis via the PI3K/Akt pathway. PTEN is mutated, downregulated/dysfunctional in many cancers and its dysregulation correlates with poor prognosis in PCa. Here, we demonstrate that microRNA-4534 (miR-4534) is overexpressed in PCa and show that miR-4534 is hypermethylated in normal tissues and cell lines compared to PCa tissues/cells. miR-4534 exerts its oncogenic effects partly by downregulating the tumor suppressor PTEN gene. Knockdown of miR-4534 impaired cell proliferation, migration/invasion and induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in PCa. Suppression of miR-4534 and its effects on tumor growth was confirmed in a xenograft mouse model. We performed parallel experiments in non-cancer RWPE1 cells by overexpessing miR-4534 followed by functional assays. Overexpression of miR-4534 induced pro-cancerous characteristics in this non-cancer cell line. Statistical analyses revealed that miR-4534 has potential to independently distinguish malignant from normal tissues and positively correlated with poor overall and PSA recurrence free survival. Taken together, our results show that depletion of miR-4534 in PCa induces a tumor suppressor phenotype partly through induction of PTEN. These results have important implications for identifying and defining the role of new PTEN regulators such as microRNAs in prostate tumorigenesis. Understanding aberrantly overexpressed miR-4534 and its downregulation of PTEN will provide mechanistic insight and therapeutic targets for PCa therapy.
Project description:Prostate cancer (PCa) is a significant cause of male morbidity in the United States. Despite recent advances in diagnosis and therapeutic interventions, significant fraction of cases still progress to an advanced stage. Various genetic/epigenetic elements that facilitate this progression are not yet completely known and the mechanism that favors advanced disease is an area of investigation. A characteristic feature associated with progressive disease is deletion of chromosome 8p (chr8p) region, that harbors tumor-suppressor <i>NKX3.1</i>. Previous studies from our group has shown that there are cluster of microRNAs (miRNAs) located within this region whose loss favors advanced, metastatic disease. miR-4287 is a novel miRNA located within this region that has not been studied before. In the present study, we analyzed the role of miR-4287 in PCa using clinical tissues and cell lines. We observed that miR-4287 is significantly downregulated in patient-derived tumor tissues. Receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis showed that miR-4287 distinguishes prostate cancer from normal with a specificity of 88.24% and with an Area under the curve (AUC) of 0.66. Further, we found that miR-4287 levels correlate inversely with patients' serum prostate-specific antigen levels. Ectopic over-expression of miR-4287 in PCa cell lines showed that miR-4287 plays a tumor suppressor role. miR-4287 led to an increase in G2/M phase of cell cycle in PCa cell lines. Further, ectopic miR-4287 inhibited PCa epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by directly repressing SLUG and stem cell marker CD44. Since miR-4287 specifically targets metastasis pathway mediators, miR-4287 has potential diagnostic and therapeutic significance in preventing advanced, metastatic disease.
Project description:Genistein has been shown to inhibit cancers both in vitro and in vivo, by altering the expression of several microRNAs (miRNAs). In this study, we focused on tumor suppressor miRNAs regulated by genistein and investigated their function in prostate cancer (PCa) and target pathways. Using miRNA microarray analysis and real-time RT-PCR we observed that miR-574-3p was significantly up-regulated in PCa cells treated with genistein compared with vehicle control. The expression of miR-574-3p was significantly lower in PCa cell lines and clinical PCa tissues compared with normal prostate cells (RWPE-1) and adjacent normal tissues. Low expression level of miR-574-3p was correlated with advanced tumor stage and higher Gleason score in PCa specimens. Re-expression of miR-574-3p in PCa cells significantly inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro and in vivo. miR-574-3p restoration induced apoptosis through reducing Bcl-xL and activating caspase-9 and caspase-3. Using GeneCodis software analysis, several pathways affected by miR-574-3p were identified, such as 'Pathways in cancer', 'Jak-STAT signaling pathway', and 'Wnt signaling pathway'. Luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that miR-574-3p directly binds to the 3' UTR of several target genes (such as RAC1, EGFR and EP300) that are components of 'Pathways in cancer'. Quantitative real-time PCR and Western analysis showed that the mRNA and protein expression levels of the three target genes in PCa cells were markedly down-regulated with miR-574-3p. Loss-of-function studies demonstrated that the three target genes significantly affect cell proliferation, migration and invasion in PCa cell lines. Our results show that genistein up-regulates tumor suppressor miR-574-3p expression targeting several cell signaling pathways. These findings enhance understanding of how genistein regulates with miRNA in PCa.
Project description:Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most prevalent cancer among men and the second leading cause of tumor-associated deaths worldwide, with increasing incidence rates over the last 10 years. Recently, miR-195 was reported to be hypermethylated at its promoter CpG island and down-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the function of miR-195 and the underlying mechanisms in PCa remain unknown. Here, we report that a significant down-regulation of microRNA-195 (miR-195) in PCa tissues and cell lines was associated with promoter methylation status. Overexpression of miR-195 significantly suppressed cell proliferation, migration, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (increased E-cadherin and decreased N-cadherin) in PCa cells. We further demonstrated that transfection with a miR-195 inhibitor reversed the inhibitory effect of the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-azacytidine on the proliferation, migration and invasion ability of PCa cells. In summary, our findings suggest that miR-195 may function as a crucial tumor suppressor in PCa.
Project description:Our previous study revealed that microRNA (miR) ?30c represents a potential tumor suppressor gene, the expression of which is associated with decreased oncogenic potential in prostate cancer (PCa) cell lines. However, the functional role and underlying mechanisms of miR?30c in PCa remain to be fully elucidated. Reverse transcription?quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical analysis were used to detect the expression levels of alternative splicing factor/splicing factor 2 (ASF/SF2) in PCa tissues. A luciferase reporter assay was used to investigate whether ASF/SF2 may be a direct target gene of miR?30c. In addition, the effects of miR?30c on the proliferation and apoptosis of PCa cell lines were examined, following transfection with miR?30c mimics. Furthermore, correlation analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between the expression of miR?30c and ASF/SF2 and various clinicopathological parameters of patients with PCa. The present results demonstrated that PCa tissues exhibited higher levels of alternative splicing factor/splicing factor 2 (ASF/SF2), compared with normal tissues. In addition, miR?30c was revealed to targete the 3'?untranslated region of the ASF/SF2 gene, causing a decrease in the mRNA and protein levels of ASF/SF2. Furthermore, miR?30c was reported to decrease cell proliferation, increase the percentage of cells in the G1 cell cycle phase, and promote apoptosis through the inhibition of ASF/SF2. Following correlation analysis using patient samples, the expression of ASF/SF2 was revealed to be tightly correlated with the pathological stage of PCa and biochemical recurrence (BCR). In addition, patients with PCa exhibiting low expression levels of miR?30c and high expression of ASF/SF2 had significantly lower rates of BCR?free survival. In conclusion, the present study suggested that the tumor suppressor miR?30c may be involved in PCa tumorigenesis, possibly via targeting ASF/SF2. The combined analysis of the expression of ASF/SF2 and miR?30c may be a valuable tool for early prediction of BCR in patients with PCa following radical prostatectomy.
Project description:Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second leading cause of cancer death in men. Its clinical and molecular heterogeneities and the lack of in vitro models outline the complexity of PCa in the clinical and research settings. We established an in vitro mouse PCa model based on organoid technology that takes into account the cell of origin and the order of events. Primary PCa with deletion of the tumor suppressor gene PTEN (PTEN-del) can be modeled through Pten-down-regulation in mouse organoids. We used this system to elucidate the contribution of TIP5 in PCa initiation, a chromatin regulator that is implicated in aggressive PCa. High TIP5 expression correlates with primary PTEN-del PCa and this combination strongly associates with reduced prostate-specific antigen (PSA) recurrence-free survival. TIP5 is critical for the initiation of PCa of luminal origin mediated by Pten-loss whereas it is dispensable once Pten-loss mediated transformation is established. Cross-species analyses revealed a PTEN gene signature that identified a group of aggressive primary PCas characterized by PTEN-del, high-TIP5 expression, and a TIP5-regulated gene expression profile. The results highlight the modeling of PCa with organoids as a powerful tool to elucidate the role of genetic alterations found in recent studies in their time orders and cells of origin, thereby providing further optimization for tumor stratification to improve the clinical management of PCa.
Project description:Previous studies report that miR-1-3p, a member of the microRNA-1 family (miR-1), and functions as a tumor suppressor in several different cancers. However, little is known regarding the biological role and intrinsic regulatory mechanisms of miR-1-3p in prostate cancer (PCa).In this study, the expression levels of miR-1-3p were first examined in PCa cell lines and tumor tissues by RT-qPCR and bioinformatics. The in vitro and in vivo functional effect of miR-1-3p was examined further. A luciferase reporter assay was conducted to confirm target associations.We found that miR-1-3p was significantly downregulated in advanced PCa tissues and cell lines. Low miR-1-3p levels were strongly associated with aggressive clinicopathological features and poor prognosis in PCa patients. Ectopic expression of miR-1-3p in 22RV1 and LncaP cells was sufficient to prevent tumor cell growth and cell cycle progression in vitro and in vivo. Further mechanistic studies revealed that miR-1-3p could directly target the mRNA 3'- untranslated region (3'- UTR) of two central cell cycle genes, E2F5 and PFTK1, and could suppress their mRNA and protein expression. In addition, knockdown of E2F5 and PFTK1 mimicked the tumor-suppressive effects of miR-1-3p overexpression on PCa progression. Conversely, concomitant knockdown of miR-1-3p and E2F5 and PFTK1 substantially reversed the inhibitory effects of either E2F5 or PFTK1 silencing alone.These data highlight an important role for miR-1-3p in the regulation of proliferation and cell cycle in the molecular etiology of PCa and indicate the potential for miR-1-3p in applications furthering PCa prognostics and therapeutics.
Project description:Aberrant expression of microRNAs, small non-coding RNA molecules that post-transcriptionally repress gene expression, seems to be causatively linked to the pathogenesis of cancer. In this context, miR-21 was found to be overexpressed in different human cancers (e.g. glioblastoma, breast cancer). In addition, it is thought to be endowed with oncogenic properties due to its ability to negatively modulate the expression of tumor-suppressor genes (e.g. PTEN) and to cause the reversion of malignant phenotype when knocked- down in several tumor models. On the basis of these findings, miR-21 has been proposed as a widely exploitable cancer-related target. However, scanty information is available concerning the relevance of miR-21 for prostate cancer. In the present study, we investigated the role of miR-21 and its potential as a therapeutic target in two prostate cancer cell lines, characterized by different miR-21 expression levels and PTEN gene status.We provide evidence that miR-21 knockdown in prostate cancer cells is not sufficient per se i) to affect the proliferative and invasive potential or the chemo- and radiosensitivity profiles or ii) to modulate the expression of the tumor-suppressors PTEN and Pdcd4, which in other tumor types were found to be regulated by miR-21. We also show that miR-21 is not differently expressed in carcinomas and matched normal tissues obtained from 36 untreated prostate cancer patients subjected to radical prostatectomy.Overall, our data suggest that miR-21 is not a central player in the onset of prostate cancer and that its single hitting is not a valuable therapeutic strategy in the disease. This supports the notion that the oncogenic properties of miR-21 could be cell and tissue dependent and that the potential role of a given miRNA as a therapeutic target should be contextualized with respect to the disease.
Project description:PTEN is the most commonly deleted tumor suppressor gene in primary prostate cancer (PCa) and its loss is associated with poor clinical outcomes and ERG gene rearrangement.We tested whether PTEN loss is associated with shorter recurrence-free survival (RFS) in surgically treated PCa patients with known ERG status.A genetically validated, automated PTEN immunohistochemistry (IHC) protocol was used for 1275 primary prostate tumors from the Canary Foundation retrospective PCa tissue microarray cohort to assess homogeneous (in all tumor tissue sampled) or heterogeneous (in a subset of tumor tissue sampled) PTEN loss. ERG status as determined by a genetically validated IHC assay was available for a subset of 938 tumors.Associations between PTEN and ERG status were assessed using Fisher's exact test. Kaplan-Meier and multivariate weighted Cox proportional models for RFS were constructed.When compared to intact PTEN, homogeneous (hazard ratio [HR] 1.66, p = 0.001) but not heterogeneous (HR 1.24, p = 0.14) PTEN loss was significantly associated with shorter RFS in multivariate models. Among ERG-positive tumors, homogeneous (HR 3.07, p < 0.0001) but not heterogeneous (HR 1.46, p = 0.10) PTEN loss was significantly associated with shorter RFS. Among ERG-negative tumors, PTEN did not reach significance for inclusion in the final multivariate models. The interaction term for PTEN and ERG status with respect to RFS did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.11) for the current sample size.These data suggest that PTEN is a useful prognostic biomarker and that there is no statistically significant interaction between PTEN and ERG status for RFS.We found that loss of the PTEN tumor suppressor gene in prostate tumors as assessed by tissue staining is correlated with shorter time to prostate cancer recurrence after radical prostatectomy.
Project description:Androgen deprivation therapy in prostate cancer (PCa) causes neuroendocrine differentiation (NED) of prostatic adenocarcinomas (PAC) cells, leading to recurrence of PCa. Androgen-responsive genes involved in PCa progression including NED remain largely unknown. Here we demonstrated the importance of androgen receptor (AR)-microRNA-204 (miR-204)-XRN1 axis in PCa cell lines and the rat ventral prostate. Androgens downregulate miR-204, resulting in induction of XRN1 (5'-3' exoribonuclease 1), which we identified as a miR-204 target. miR-204 acts as a tumor suppressor in two PAC cell lines (LNCaP and 22Rv1) and as an oncomiR in two neuroendocrine-like prostate cancer (NEPC) cell lines (PC-3 and CL1). Importantly, overexpression of miR-204 and knockdown of XRN1 inhibited AR expression in PCa cells. Repression of miR-34a, a known AR-targeting miRNA, contributes AR expression by XRN1. Thus we revealed the AR-miR-204-XRN1-miR-34a positive feedback loop and a dual function of miR-204/XRN1 axis in prostate cancer.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Studies have suggested that micro-RNAs (miRNAs) can function as an oncogene or a tumor suppressor in cancers. However, the role of MIR-138-5P (613394) in prostate cancer (PCa) remains unclear. METHODS:Expression level of MIR-138-5P in PCa cell lines and normal cell line was analyzed with the quantitative real-time PCR method. Cell counting kit-8 assay, colony formation assay, wound-healing assay, and transwell invasion assay were performed to analyze the biological functions of MIR-138-5P. RESULTS:We showed MIR-138-5P expression level was significantly decreased in PCa cell lines compared with the normal cell line. Overexpression of MIR-138-5P inhibits PCa cell proliferation, colony formation, cell migration, and cell invasion in vitro. Mechanistically, we showed Forkhead box C1 (FOXC1, 601090) was a direct target for MIR-138-5P in PCa. We confirmed that overexpression of FOXC1 partially reversed the effects of MIR-138-5P on PCa cell behaviors. CONCLUSIONS:Collectively, we showed that MIR-138-5P functions as a tumor suppressor gene in PCa via targeting FOXC1.