Lipid-coated iron oxide nanoparticles for dual-modal imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma.
ABSTRACT: The development of noninvasive imaging techniques for the accurate diagnosis of progressive hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is of great clinical significance and has always been desired. Herein, a hepatocellular carcinoma cell-targeting fluorescent magnetic nanoparticle (NP) was obtained by conjugating near-infrared fluorescence to the surface of Fe3O4 (NIRF-Fe3O4) NPs, followed by coating the lipids consisting of tumoral hepatocytes-targeting polymer (Gal-P123). This magnetic NP (GPC@NIRF-Fe3O4) with superparamagnetic behavior showed high stability and safety in physiological conditions. In addition, GPC@NIRF-Fe3O4 achieved more specific uptake of human liver cancer cells than free Fe3O4 NPs. Importantly, with superpara-magnetic iron oxide and strong NIR absorbance, GPC@NIRF-Fe3O4 NPs demonstrate prominent tumor-contrasted imaging performance both on fluorescent and T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging modalities in a living body. The relative MR signal enhancement of GPC@NIRF-Fe3O4 NPs achieved 5.4-fold improvement compared with NIR-Fe3O4 NPs. Therefore, GPC@ NIRF-Fe3O4 NPs may be potentially used as a candidate for dual-modal imaging of tumors with information covalidated and directly compared by combining fluorescence and MR imaging.
Project description:The ability to selectively destroy cancer cells while sparing normal tissue is highly desirable during the cancer therapy. Here, magnetic targeted photothermal therapy was demonstrated by the integration of MoS2 (MS) flakes and Fe3O4 (IO) nanoparticles (NPs), where MoS2 converted near-infrared (NIR) light into heat and Fe3O4 NPs served as target moiety directed by external magnetic field to tumor site. The MoS2/Fe3O4 composite (MSIOs) functionalized by biocompatible polyethylene glycol (PEG) were prepared by a simple two-step hydrothermal method. And the as-obtained MSIOs exhibit high stability in bio-fluids and low toxicity in vitro and in vivo. Specifically, the MSIOs can be applied as a dual-modal probe for T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) and photoacoustic tomography (PAT) imaging due to their superparamagnetic property and strong NIR absorption. Furthermore, we demonstrate an effective result for magnetically targeted photothermal ablation of cancer. All these results show a great potential for localized photothermal ablation of cancer spatially/timely guided by the magnetic field and indicated the promise of the multifunctional MSIOs for applications in cancer theranostics.
Project description:Inflammation is a very common disease worldwide. In severe cases, surgery is often the method of choice. Today, there is a general need for the implementation of image-based guidance methodologies for reliable target resection. We investigated new near infrared fluorescence (NIRF)-nanoparticles (NPs) as a simple but effective bimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and optical contrast agent for diagnosis and intraoperative imaging of inflammation. Physicochemical analysis revealed that these NPs were highly fluorescent with similar characteristics like unlabeled NPs (hydrodynamic diameter about 130?nm and zeta potential about -10?mV). NP-uptake and NIR-dye labeling was biocompatible to macrophages (no impact on cellular ATP and reactive oxygen species production). These cells could successfully be tracked with MRI and NIRF-optical imaging. I.v. injection of fluorescent NPs into mice led to highly specific T2-weighted signal of edema due to uptake by phagocytic cells and subsequent migration to the site of inflammation. NIRF signals of the edema region were well detectable for up to 4 weeks, underlining the potential of the NPs for systematic planning and flexible time scheduling in intraoperative applications. NPs were degraded over a time period of 12 weeks, which was not altered due to inflammation. Redistribution of iron might be primarily due to inflammation and not to the presence of NPs per se in a concentration suitable for imaging. Our findings highlight the potential of the NPs to be used as a suitable tool for pre- and intraoperative imaging of inflammation.
Project description:Plasmon-resonant gold nanostars (NSTs) with magnetic cores were synthesized by a multistep sequence from superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) and evaluated as optical contrast agents under magnetomotive (MM) imaging conditions. Core-shell Fe3O4@Au NPs were prepared in nonpolar organic solvents with nanometer control over shell thickness and with good epitaxy to the Fe3O4 surface. Anisotropic growth was performed in micellar solutions of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) under mildly reducing conditions, resulting in NSTs with physical features similar to those produced from colloidal gold seeds. NSTs could be produced below 100 nm from tip to tip, but seed size had a significant impact on growth habit, with larger seed particles producing submicrometer-sized "morning stars". Both NSTs and aggregated core-shell NPs are responsive to in-plane magnetic field gradients and can provide enhanced near-infrared (NIR) contrast under MM conditions, but do so by different mechanisms. NSTs can modulate polarized NIR scattering with minimal translational motion, giving the appearance of a periodic but stationary "blinking", whereas core-shell NP aggregates require lateral displacement for signal modulation. The polarization-sensitive MM imaging modality offers the dual advantage of enhanced signal quality and reduced background signal and can be applied toward the detection of magnetomotive NSTs in heterogeneous biological samples, as illustrated by their detection inside of granular cells such as macrophages.
Project description:To accomplish effective cancer imaging and integrated therapy, the multifunctional nanotheranostic Fe3O4-MTX@HBc core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) were designed. A straightforward method was demonstrated for efficient encapsulation of magnetic NPs into the engineered virus-like particles (VLPs) through the affinity of histidine tags for the methotrexate (MTX)-Ni2+ chelate. HBc144-His VLPs shell could protect Fe3O4-MTX NPs from the recognition by the reticuloendothelial system as well as could increase their cellular uptake efficiency. Through our well-designed tactic, the photothermal efficiency of Fe3O4 NPs were obviously improved in vitro and in vivo upon near-infrared (NIR) laser irradiation. Moreover, Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results showed that the Fe3O4-MTX@HBc core-shell NPs were reliable T2-type MRI contrast agents for tumor imaging. Hence the Fe3O4-MTX@HBc core-shell NPs may act as a promising theranostic platform for multimodal cancer treatment.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Engineered inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) are essential components in the development of nanotechnologies. For applications in nanomedicine, particles need to be functionalized to ensure a good dispersibility in biological fluids. In many cases however, functionalization is not sufficient: the particles become either coated by a corona of serum proteins or precipitate out of the solvent. We show that by changing the coating of magnetic iron oxide NPs using poly-L-lysine (PLL) polymer the colloidal stability of the dispersion is improved in aqueous solutions including water, phosphate buffered saline (PBS), PBS with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) and cell culture medium, and the internalization of the NPs toward living mammalian cells is profoundly affected. METHODS:A multifunctional magnetic NP is designed to perform a near-infrared (NIR)-responsive remote control photothermal ablation for the treatment of breast cancer. In contrast to the previously reported studies of gold (Au) magnetic (Fe3O4) core-shell NPs, a Janus-like nanostructure is synthesized with Fe3O4 NPs decorated with Au resulting in an approximate size of 60 nm mean diameter. The surface of trisoctahedral Au-Fe3O4 NPs was coated with a positively charged polymer, PLL to deliver the NPs inside cells. The PLL-Au-Fe3O4 NPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), XRD, FT-IR and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The unique properties of both Au surface plasmon resonance and superparamagnetic moment result in a multimodal platform for use as a nanothermal ablator and also as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent, respectively. Taking advantage of the photothermal therapy, PLL-Au-Fe3O4 NPs were incubated with BT-474 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, investigated for the cytotoxicity and intracellular uptake, and remotely triggered by a NIR laser of ~?808 nm (1 W/cm2 for 10 min). RESULTS:The PLL coating increased the colloidal stability and robustness of Au-Fe3O4 NPs (PLL-Au-Fe3O4) in biological media including cell culture medium, PBS and PBS with 10% fetal bovine serum. It is revealed that no significant (<?10%) cytotoxicity was induced by PLL-Au-Fe3O4 NPs itself in BT-474 and MDA-MB-231 cells at concentrations up to 100 ?g/ml. Brightfield microscopy, fluorescence microscopy and TEM showed significant uptake of PLL-Au-Fe3O4 NPs by BT-474 and MDA-MB-231 cells. The cells exhibited 40 and 60% inhibition in BT-474 and MDA-MB-231 cell growth, respectively following the internalized NPs were triggered by a photothermal laser using 100 ?g/ml PLL-Au-Fe3O4 NPs. The control cells treated with NPs but without laser showed <?10% cell death compared to no laser treatment control CONCLUSION: Combined together, the results demonstrate a new polymer gold superparamagnetic nanostructure that integrates both diagnostics function and photothermal ablation of tumors into a single multimodal nanoplatform exhibiting a significant cancer cell death.
Project description:Design of novel nanoplatforms with single imaging elements for dynamic and enhanced T 1/T 2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of diseases still remains significantly challenging. Here, a facile strategy to synthesize light-addressable ultrasmall Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) that can form nanoclusters (NCs) under laser irradiation for enhanced and dynamic T 1/T 2-weighted MR imaging of inflammatory arthritis is reported. Citric acid-stabilized ultrasmall Fe3O4 NPs synthesized via a solvothermal approach are linked with both the arthritis targeting ligand folic acid (FA) and light-addressable unit diazirine (DA) via polyethylene glycol (PEG) spacer. The formed ultrasmall Fe3O4-PEG-(DA)-FA NPs are cytocompatible, display FA-mediated targeting specificity to arthritis-associated macrophage cells, and can form NCs upon laser irradiation to have tunable r 1 and r 2 relaxivities by varying the laser irradiation duration. With these properties owned, the designed Fe3O4-PEG-(DA)-FA NPs can be used for T 1-weighted MR imaging of arthritis without lasers and enhanced dual-mode T 1/T 2-weighted MR imaging of arthritis under laser irradiation due to the formation of NCs that have extended accumulation within the arthritis region and limited intravasation back to the blood circulation. The designed light-addressable Fe3O4-PEG-(DA)-FA NPs may be used as a promising platform for dynamic and precision T 1/T 2-weighted MR imaging of other diseases.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown potential for treatment of different diseases. However, their working mechanism is still unknown. To elucidate this, the non-invasive and longitudinal tracking of MSCs would be beneficial. Both iron oxide-based nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and radiotracers for positron emission tomography (PET) have shown potential as in vivo cell imaging agents. However, they are limited by their negative contrast and lack of spatial information as well as short half-life, respectively. In this proof-of-principle study, we evaluated the potential of Fe3O4@Al(OH)3 NPs as dual PET/MRI contrast agents, as they allow stable binding of [18F]F- ions to the NPs and thus, NP visualization and quantification with both imaging modalities. RESULTS:18F-labeled Fe3O4@Al(OH)3 NPs (radiolabeled NPs) or mouse MSCs (mMSCs) labeled with these radiolabeled NPs were intravenously injected in healthy C57Bl/6 mice, and their biodistribution was studied using simultaneous PET/MRI acquisition. While liver uptake of radiolabeled NPs was seen with both PET and MRI, mMSCs uptake in the lungs could only be observed with PET. Even some initial loss of fluoride label did not impair NPs/mMSCs visualization. Furthermore, no negative effects on blood cell populations were seen after injection of either the NPs or mMSCs, indicating good biocompatibility. CONCLUSION:We present the application of novel 18F-labeled Fe3O4@Al(OH)3 NPs as safe cell tracking agents for simultaneous PET/MRI. Combining both modalities allows fast and easy NP and mMSC localization and quantification using PET at early time points, while MRI provides high-resolution, anatomic background information and long-term NP follow-up, hereby overcoming limitations of the individual imaging modalities.
Project description:Multimodal nanoparticulate materials are described, offering magnetic, radionuclide, and fluorescent imaging capabilities to exploit the complementary advantages of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography/single-photon emission commuted tomography (PET/SPECT), and optical imaging. They comprise Fe3O4@NaYF4 core/shell nanoparticles (NPs) with different cation dopants in the shell or core, including Co0.16Fe2.84O4@NaYF4(Yb, Er) and Fe3O4@NaYF4(Yb, Tm). These NPs are stabilized by bisphosphonate polyethylene glycol conjugates (BP-PEG), and then show a high transverse relaxivity (r2) up to 326 mM(-1) s(-1) at 3T, a high affinity to [(18)F]-fluoride or radiometal-bisphosphonate conjugates (e.g., (64)Cu and (99m)Tc), and fluorescent emissions from 500 to 800 nm under excitation at 980 nm. The biodistribution of intravenously administered particles determined by PET/MR imaging suggests that negatively charged Co0.16Fe2.84O4@NaYF4(Yb, Er)-BP-PEG (10K) NPs cleared from the blood pool more slowly than positively charged NPs Fe3O4@NaYF4(Yb, Tm)-BP-PEG (2K). Preliminary results in sentinel lymph node imaging in mice indicate the advantages of multimodal imaging.
Project description:Hypoxia-induced cancer stem cells have been known to be involved in tumour metastasis, resistance to chemo/radio therapy and tumour recurrence. Magnetic Resonance Imaging is a widely used imaging tool for cancers in clinics and research. To develop T1-positive and T2-negative dual mode MRI agents for more comprehensive and accurate diagnostic information under hypoxic conditions, a hypoxia-inducible factor-1? based aptamer and Mn(II)-modified nanoparticles D-Fe3O4@PMn were synthesized and characterized. In vitro and in vivo studies show that D-Fe3O4@PMn NPs are biocompatible and less cytotoxic and can produce significant contrast enhancement in T1- and T2-weighted MR imaging. Furthermore, the D-Fe3O4@PMn NPs enable targeted dual-contrast T1- and T2-weighted MR imaging of cancer cells expressing high levels of HIF-1? and cancer stem cell-related proteins under hypoxic condition. In conclusion, NPs with HIF-1? and Mn(II) are promising diagnostic agents for dual-mode T1 and T2 imaging by targeting cancer stem cells as they are non-toxic and biocompatible.
Project description:Rationale: Photothermal therapy (PTT) alone is easy to cause cancer recurrence and fail to completely resist metastasis, yet recurrence and metastasis are two major difficulties in cancer treatment. Titanium disulfide (TiS2) nanosheet anchored iron oxide nanoparticles (IO NPs) with strong absorption in the second near-infrared (NIR-II) window and excellent magnetic properties is developed as therapeutic agent for NIR-II photoacoustic (PA) imaging and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging guided NIR-II PTT triggered immunotherapy. Methods: The TiS2 nanosheets were prepared through a modified colloidal chemistry approach, and TSIO nanoagents were prepared by using a one pot self-assembly technique. The magnetic targeting capability of TSIO nanoagents were monitored by NIR-II PA, MR and thermal imaging in vivo. The NIR-II PTT combined with immunotherapy effect was investigated in mouse breast cancer tumor-bearing mice. Results: The TSIO nanoplatform showed enhanced tumor accumulation when a magnetic field was applied and had the ability to real time monitor the treatment process via dual NIR-II PA and MR imaging. In addition, the magnetic targeted NIR-II PA/MR imaging guided PTT provides an effective way to reverse the immunosuppression inside a tumor and to cooperate with immunotherapy to improve therapeutic outcome of the primary, distal and metastatic tumors.