PGC-1? or FNDC5 Is Involved in Modulating the Effects of A?1-42 Oligomers on Suppressing the Expression of BDNF, a Beneficial Factor for Inhibiting Neuronal Apoptosis, A? Deposition and Cognitive Decline of APP/PS1 Tg Mice.
ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is generally defined as the aberrant production of ?-amyloid protein (A?) and hyperphosphorylated tau protein, which are deposited in ?-amyloid plaques (APs) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), respectively. Decreased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) have been detected in patients with AD compared to control subjects. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms driving the downregulation of the BDNF remain unknown. Therefore, we explored the mechanisms underlying the regulation of BDNF in the neurons of APP/PS1 transgenic (Tg) mice, an AD experimental model. Using the APP/PS1 Tg mice, we found that BDNF expression was markedly downregualted at the age of 3- and 9-month-old. After cerebroventricular injection (i.c.v) of A?1-42 oligomers into the mice, BDNF was also found to be decreased, which demonstrated the critical roles of the A?1-42 oligomers in regulating the expression of BDNF. In neuronal culture, peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor ? coactivator 1? (PGC-1?) and fibronectin type III domain-containing 5 (FNDC5) were found to be downregulated by treatment with the A?1-42 oligomers. In addition, overexpression of either PGC-1? or FNDC5 reversed the suppressive effects of the A?1-42 oligomers on the expression of BDNF in neuroblastoma 2a (n2a) cells. More importantly, elevating the levels of PGC-1?, FNDC5 or BDNF in the n2a cells counteracted the effects of the A?1-42 oligomers on neuronal apoptosis. Additionally, intranasal administration BDNF in the APP/PS1 Tg mice decreased the A? deposition and reduced the cognitive decline of the mice.
Project description:Neurotrophins, activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, control neuronal survival and plasticity. Alterations in NGF, BDNF, IGF-1, or insulin signaling are implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease. We have previously characterized a bigenic PS1×APP transgenic mouse displaying early hippocampal Aβ deposition (3 to 4 months) but late (17 to 18 months) neurodegeneration of pyramidal cells, paralleled to the accumulation of soluble Aβ oligomers. We hypothesized that PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β signaling pathway could be involved in this apparent age-dependent neuroprotective/neurodegenerative status. In fact, our data demonstrated that, as compared with age-matched nontransgenic controls, the Ser-9 phosphorylation of GSK-3β was increased in the 6-month PS1×APP hippocampus, whereas in aged PS1×APP animals (18 months), GSK-3β phosphorylation levels displayed a marked decrease. Using N2a and primary neuronal cell cultures, we demonstrated that soluble amyloid precursor protein-α (sAPPα), the predominant APP-derived fragment in young PS1×APP mice, acting through IGF-1 and/or insulin receptors, activated the PI3K/Akt pathway, phosphorylated the GSK-3β activity, and in consequence, exerted a neuroprotective action. On the contrary, several oligomeric Aβ forms, present in the soluble fractions of aged PS1×APP mice, inhibited the induced phosphorylation of Akt/GSK-3β and decreased the neuronal survival. Furthermore, synthetic Aβ oligomers blocked the effect mediated by different neurotrophins (NGF, BDNF, insulin, and IGF-1) and sAPPα, displaying high selectivity for NGF. In conclusion, the age-dependent appearance of APP-derived soluble factors modulated the PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β signaling pathway through the major neurotrophin receptors. sAPPα stimulated and Aβ oligomers blocked the prosurvival signaling. Our data might provide insights into the selective vulnerability of specific neuronal groups in Alzheimer disease.
Project description:Exercise can improve cognitive function and has been linked to the increased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). However, the underlying molecular mechanisms driving the elevation of this neurotrophin remain unknown. Here we show that FNDC5, a previously identified muscle protein that is induced in exercise and is cleaved and secreted as irisin, is also elevated by endurance exercise in the hippocampus of mice. Neuronal Fndc5 gene expression is regulated by PGC-1?, and Pgc1a(-/-) mice show reduced Fndc5 expression in the brain. Forced expression of FNDC5 in primary cortical neurons increases Bdnf expression, whereas RNAi-mediated knockdown of FNDC5 reduces Bdnf. Importantly, peripheral delivery of FNDC5 to the liver via adenoviral vectors, resulting in elevated blood irisin, induces expression of Bdnf and other neuroprotective genes in the hippocampus. Taken together, our findings link endurance exercise and the important metabolic mediators, PGC-1? and FNDC5, with BDNF expression in the brain.
Project description:Transgenic (Tg) mice overexpressing human amyloid precursor protein (APP) mutants reproduce features of early Alzheimer's disease (AD) including memory deficit, presence of ?-amyloid (A?) oligomers, and age-associated formation of amyloid deposits. In this study we used hippocampal microdialysis to characterize the signaling of N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptors (NMDA-Rs) in awake and behaving AD Tg mice. The NMDA-R signaling is central to hippocampal synaptic plasticity underlying memory formation and several lines of evidence implicate the role of A? oligomers in effecting NMDA-R dysfunction. CA1 NMDA-Rs were stimulated by NMDA infused through reverse microdialysis while changes in the cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) concentration in the brain interstitial fluid (ISF) were used to determine NMDA-Rs responsiveness. While 4 months old wild type C57BL/6 mice mounted robust cGMP response to the NMDA challenge, the same stimulus failed to significantly change the cGMP level in 4 and 15 months old APP(SW) and 4 months old APP(SW)/PS1(L166P) Tg mice, which were all on C57BL/6 background. Lack of response to NMDA in AD Tg mice occurred in the absence of changes in expression levels of several synaptic proteins including synaptophysin, NR1 NMDA-R subunit and postsynaptic density protein 95, which indicates lack of profound synaptic degeneration. A? oligomers were detected in all three AD Tg mice groups and their concentration in the hippocampus ranged from 40.5±3.6ng/g in 4 months old APP(SW) mice to 60.8±15.9ng/g in 4 months old APP(SW)/PS1(L166P) mice. Four months old APP(SW) mice had no A? amyloid plaques, while the other two AD Tg mice groups showed evidence of incipient A? amyloid plaque formation. Our studies describes a novel approach useful to study the function of NMDA-Rs in awake and behaving AD Tg mice and demonstrate impairment of NMDA-R response in the presence of endogenously formed A? oligomers but predating onset of A? amyloidosis.
Project description:Cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by ?- and ?-secretase generates amyloid-? (A?) and APP intracellular domain (AICD) peptides. Presenilin (PS) 1 or 2 is the catalytic component of the ?-secretase complex. Mitochondrial dysfunction is an established phenomenon in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the causes and role of PS1, APP, and APP's cleavage products in this process are largely unknown. We studied the effect of these AD-associated molecules on mitochondrial features. Using cells deficient in PSs expression, expressing human wild-type PS1, or PS1 familial AD (FAD) mutants, we found that PS1 affects mitochondrial energy metabolism (ATP levels and oxygen consumption) and expression of mitochondrial proteins. These effects were associated with enhanced expression of the mitochondrial master transcriptional coactivator PGC-1? and its target genes. Importantly, PS1-FAD mutations decreased PS1's ability to enhance PGC-1? mRNA levels. Analyzing the effect of APP and its ?-secretase-derived cleavage products A? and AICD on PGC-1? expression showed that APP and AICD increase PGC-1? expression. Accordingly, PGC-1? mRNA levels in cells deficient in APP/APLP2 or expressing APP lacking its last 15 amino acids were lower than in control cells, and treatment with AICD, but not with A?, enhanced PGC-1? mRNA levels in these and PSs-deficient cells. In addition, knockdown of the AICD-binding partner Fe65 reduced PGC-1? mRNA levels. Importantly, APP/AICD increases PGC-1? expression also in the mice brain. Our results therefore suggest that APP processing regulates mitochondrial function and that impairments in the newly discovered PS1/APP/AICD/PGC-1? pathway may lead to mitochondrial dysfunction and neurodegeneration.
Project description:Background:Targeted proteinopathy is involved in creating pharmacological agents that protect against Alzheimer disease (AD). Cornel iridoid glycoside (CIG) is an effective component derived from Cornus officinalis. The present study aimed to determine the effects of CIG on ?-amyloid (A?) and tau pathology and the underlying mechanisms in APP/PS1/tau triple transgenic (3×Tg) model mice. Methods:We intragastrically administered 16-month-old 3×Tg mice with CIG (100 and 200 mg/kg) daily for two months. Learning and memory abilities were determined using the Morris water maze (MWM) and object recognition tests (ORT). Amyloid plaques and A?40/42 and the expression of related proteins in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of mice was determined by western blotting. Results:CIG improved learning and memory impairment in 3×Tg model mice, decreased amyloid plaque deposition, A?40/42 and the expression of full-length amyloid precursor protein, and increased levels of ADAM-10 (?-secretase), neprilysin (NEP), and insulin degrading enzyme (IDE) in the brains of the model mice. CIG also reduced tau hyperphosphorylation, and elevated phosphorylation level of GSK-3? at Ser9 and methylation of PP2A catalytic subunit C in the model mice. Moreover, CIG increased the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and phosphorylated cAMP-responsive element binding protein (p-CREB) in the brain of 3×Tg mice. Conclusions:CIG ameliorated learning and memory deficit via reducing A? content and, tau hyperphosphorylation and increasing neurotrophic factors in the brain of 3×Tg mice. These results suggest that CIG may be beneficial for AD therapy.
Project description:Mutations of the presenilin 1 (PS1) gene are the most common cause of early onset familial Alzheimer disease (FAD). PS1 mutations alter the activity of the gamma-secretase on the beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP), leading to selective overproduction of beta-amyloid (Abeta) 42 peptides, the species that forms oligomers that may exert toxic effects on neurons. Here we show that PS1 mutations, expressed both transiently and stably, in non-neuronal and neuronal cell lines increase the expression and the activity of the beta-secretase (BACE1), the rate-limiting step of Abeta production. Also, BACE1 expression and activity are elevated in brains of PS1 mutant knock-in mice compared with wild type littermates as well as in cerebral cortex of FAD cases bearing various PS1 mutations compared with in sporadic AD cases and controls. The up-regulation of BACE1 by PS1 mutations requires the gamma-secretase cleavage of APP and is proportional to the amount of secreted Abeta42. Abeta42, and not AICD (APP intracellular domain), is indeed the APP derivative that mediates the overexpression of BACE1. The effect of PS1 mutations on BACE1 may contribute to determine the wide clinical and pathological phenotype of early onset FAD.
Project description:MicroRNA alterations have been reported in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and AD mouse models. We now report that miR-206 is upregulated in the hippocampal tissue, cerebrospinal fluid, and plasma of embryonic APP/PS1 transgenic mice. The increased miR-206 downregulates the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). BDNF is neuroprotective against cell death after various insults, but in embryonic and newborn APP/PS1 mice it is decreased. Thus, a specific microRNA alteration may contribute to AD pathology by downregulating BDNF.
Project description:Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by A?-induced pathology and progressive cognitive decline. The incidence of AD is growing globally, yet a prompt and effective remedy is not available. Aging is the greatest risk factor for AD. Brain aging proceeds with reduced vascularization, which can cause low oxygen (O2 ) availability. Accordingly, the question may be raised whether O2 availability in the brain affects AD pathology. We found that Tg-APP/PS1 mice treated with 100% O2 at increased atmospheric pressure in a chamber exhibited markedly reduced A? accumulation and hippocampal neuritic atrophy, increased hippocampal neurogenesis, and profoundly improved the cognitive deficits on the multiple behavioral test paradigms. Hyperoxygenation treatment increased the expression of BDNF, NT3, and NT4/5 through the upregulation of MeCP2/p-CREB activity in HT22 cells in vitro and in the hippocampus of mice. In contrast, siRNA-mediated inhibition of MeCP2 or TrkB neurotrophin receptors in the hippocampal subregion, which suppresses neurotrophin expression and neurotrophin action, respectively, blocked the therapeutic effects of hyperoxygenation on the cognitive impairments of Tg-APP/PS1 mice. Our results highlight the importance of the O2 -related mechanisms in AD pathology, which can be revitalized by hyperoxygenation treatment, and the therapeutic potential of hyperoxygenation for AD.
Project description:To date there is no effective therapy for Alzheimer disease (AD). High levels of circulating high density lipoprotein (HDL) and its main protein, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Clinical studies show that plasma HDL cholesterol and apoA-I levels are low in patients with AD. To investigate if increasing plasma apoA-I/HDL levels ameliorates AD-like memory deficits and amyloid-? (A?) deposition, we generated a line of triple transgenic (Tg) mice overexpressing mutant forms of amyloid-? precursor protein (APP) and presenilin 1 (PS1) as well as human apoA-I (AI). Here we show that APP/PS1/AI triple Tg mice have a 2-fold increase of plasma HDL cholesterol levels. When tested in the Morris water maze for spatial orientation abilities, whereas APP/PS1 mice develop age-related learning and memory deficits, APP/PS1/AI mice continue to perform normally during aging. Interestingly, no significant differences were found in the total level and deposition of A? in the brains of APP/PS1 and APP/PS1/AI mice, but cerebral amyloid angiopathy was reduced in APP/PS1/AI mice. Also, consistent with the anti-inflammatory properties of apoA-I/HDL, glial activation was reduced in the brain of APP/PS1/AI mice. In addition, A?-induced production of proinflammatory chemokines/cytokines was decreased in mouse organotypic hippocampal slice cultures expressing human apoA-I. Therefore, we conclude that overexpression of human apoA-I in the circulation prevents learning and memory deficits in APP/PS1 mice, partly by attenuating neuroinflammation and cerebral amyloid angiopathy. These findings suggest that elevating plasma apoA-I/HDL levels may be an effective approach to preserve cognitive function in patients with AD.
Project description:The lemon essential oil (LEO), extracted from the fruit of lemon, has been used to treat multiple pathological diseases, such as diabetes, inflammation, cardiovascular diseases, depression and hepatobiliary dysfunction. The study was designed to study the effects of LEO on cognitive dysfunction induced by Alzheimer's disease (AD). We used APP/PS1 double transgene (APP/PS1) AD mice in the experiment; these mice exhibit significant deficits in synaptic density and hippocampal-dependent spatial related memory. The effects of LEO on learning and memory were examined using the Morris Water Maze (MWM) test, Novel object recognition test, and correlative indicators, including a neurotransmitter (acetylcholinesterase, AChE), a nerve growth factor (brain-derived neurotrophic factor, BDNF), a postsynaptic marker (PSD95), and presynaptic markers (synapsin-1, and synaptophysin), in APP/PS1 mice. Histopathology was performed to estimate the effects of LEO on AD mice. A significantly lowered brain AChE depression in APP/PS1 and wild-type C57BL/6L (WT) mice. PSD95/ Synaptophysin, the index of synaptic density, was noticeably improved in histopathologic changes. Hence, it can be summarized that memory-enhancing activity might be associated with a reduction in the AChE levels and is elevated by BDNF, PSD95, and synaptophysin through enhancing synaptic plasticity.