Low hemagglutinin antigen dose influenza vaccines adjuvanted with AS03 alter the long-term immune responses in BALB/c mice.
ABSTRACT: We investigated the long-term immune profiles of dose-sparing, AS03-adjuvanted vaccines compared to a traditional high-dose, unadjuvated influenza vaccine formulation. BALB/c mice received 2 IM injections of influenza A/Uruguay/716/2007 (H3N2) split vaccine antigen: high-dose (HD) (3 µg hemagglutinin (HA)/dose) or low-dose (LD) formulations (0.03 µg or 0.003 µg HA) with AS03 and were followed to 34 weeks post-boost (pb). We examined serologic responses, spleen and bone marrow (BM) HA-specific antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) by ELISpot, influenza-specific cytokine/chemokine production in re-stimulated splenocytes by multiplex ELISA, and antigen-specific CD4+ T cells that express cytokines (IL-2, IFN?, TNF? and IL-5) by flow cytometry. All formulations elicited robust serum antibody titers that persisted for at least 34 weeks. The number of antigen-specific ASCs in the spleen and BM were higher in the 2 LD +AS03 groups, but despite having fewer ASCs, the average spot size in the HD-unadjuvanted group was larger at later time-points, suggesting greater antibody production per cell. Striking differences in the long-term profiles induced by the different vaccine formulations may contribute to these different ASC profiles. The HD-unadjuvanted vaccine elicited strong Th2 cytokines during the first 6 weeks pb but LD+AS03 groups generated broader, more durable responses at later timepoints. Finally, the 0.03 µg HA+AS03 group generated the greatest number of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells and the highest percentage of poly-functional cells that expressed 2 or more cytokines. Although all of the tested vaccines induced durable antibody responses, we show that different vaccine formulations (dose-sparing, adjuvant) generate distinct long-term immune profiles. Furthermore, our data suggest that the different profiles may be generated through unique mechanisms.
Project description:Adjuvanted vaccines have the potential to improve influenza pandemic response. AS03 adjuvant has been shown to enhance the immune response to inactivated influenza vaccines.This trial was designed to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of an inactivated 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine at varying dosages of hemagglutinin with and without extemporaneously mixed AS03 adjuvant system in adults ? 18 years of age. Adults were randomized to receive 2 doses of 1 of 5 vaccine formulations (3.75 µg, 7.5 µg, or 15 µg with AS03 or 7.5 µg or 15 µg without adjuvant).The study population included 544 persons <65 years of age and 245 persons ? 65 years of age. Local adverse events tended to be more frequent in the adjuvanted vaccine groups, but severe reactions were uncommon. In both age groups, hemagglutination inhibition antibody geometric mean titers after dose one were higher in the adjuvanted groups, compared with the 15 µg unadjuvanted group, and this difference was statistically significant for the comparison of the 15 µg adjuvanted group with the 15 µg unadjuvanted group.AS03 adjuvant system improves the immune response to inactivated 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine in both younger and older adults and is generally well tolerated. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00963157.
Project description:An effective vaccine is urgently needed against the H7N9 avian influenza virus. We evaluated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a split-virion H7N9 vaccine with or without the oil-in-water adjuvants in ferrets.Ferrets were vaccinated with 2 doses of unadjuvanted, MF59 or AS03-adjuvanted A/Shanghai/2/2013 (H7N9) vaccine, and the induction of antibodies to hemagglutinin (HA) or neuraminidase proteins was evaluated. Ferrets were then challenged with wild-type H7N9 virus to assess the vaccine's protective efficacy. The vaccine composition and integrity was also evaluated in vitro.Adjuvanted vaccines stimulated robust serum antibody titers against HA and neuraminidase compared with the unadjuvanted vaccines. Although there was a difference in adjuvanticity between AS03 and MF59 at a lower dose (3.75 µg of HA), both adjuvants induced comparable antibody responses after 2 doses of 15 µg. On challenge, ferrets that received adjuvanted vaccines showed lower viral burden than the control or unadjuvanted vaccine group. In vitro examinations revealed that the vaccine contained visible split-virus particles and retained the native conformation of HA recognizable by polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies.The adjuvanted H7N9 vaccines demonstrated superior immunogenicity and protective efficacy against H7N9 infection in ferrets and hold potential as a vaccination regimen.
Project description:Cell-culture-derived (CC) influenza vaccine production methods could provide benefits over classical embryonated-egg technology, including a higher production capacity and the faster creation of a supply that meets demand.A CC-inactivated split-virus influenza A/Indonesia/5/2005(H5N1) vaccine derived from the EB66 cell line (hereafter, "CC-H5N1") was investigated in a phase 1 randomized, blinded study. Healthy adults (n = 521) received 2 vaccine doses (days 0 and 21) of either investigational CC-H5N1 vaccine (1.9 µg or 3.75 µg of hemagglutinin antigen [HA] with the AS03 adjuvant system or 15 µg of plain HA), embryonated-egg-derived vaccines (3.75 µg of HA with AS03 or 15 µg of plain HA), or placebo. Assessment of the adjuvant effect and immunogenicity was performed using Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research acceptability criteria 21 days after dose 2. Safety was assessed until month 12.AS03-adjuvanted CC-H5N1 elicited a homologous hemagglutination inhibition antibody response that satisfied immunogenicity criteria 21 days after dose 2 and persisted at month 12. Adjuvant effect and immune response against a drift-variant strain were demonstrated. No vaccine-related serious adverse events were reported. The immunogenicity and safety of the CC-H5N1 formulation containing 3.75 µg of HA and AS03 appeared to be similar to those for the licensed egg-derived AS03-adjuvanted control vaccine.The feasibility of the EB66 cell line to produce an immunogenic influenza vaccine with acceptable safety profile was demonstrated. Antigen sparing was achieved through combination with AS03 adjuvant. This CC-H5N1 might contribute to the rapid access of vaccine in the event of an influenza A(H5N1) pandemic.NCT01236040.
Project description:During the 2009-2010 influenza pandemic, an adjuvanted, dose-sparing vaccine was recommended for most Canadians. We hypothesize that differences exist in the responses to AS03-adjuvanted, low antigen (Ag) dose versus unadjuvanted, full-dose vaccines. We investigated the relationship between Ag dose and the oil-in-water emulsion Adjuvant System AS03. BALB/c mice received two IM doses of AS03A or AS03B with exaggerated dilutions of A/Uruguay/716/2007 H3N2 split virion vaccine Ag. Immune responses were assessed 3?weeks after the booster. Unadjuvanted "high" (3??g) and low-dose (0.03-0.003??g) vaccines generated similar serum antibody titers and cytokine secretion patterns in restimulated splenocytes. Compared to unadjuvanted "high-dose" vaccination, both AS03A and AS03B-adjuvanted low-dose vaccines tended to elicit higher serum antibody titers, broader induction of cytokine secretion and generated more influenza-specific antibody secreting cells and cytokine-secreting CD4 and CD8 T cells in splenocytes. We show that varying Ag and/or AS03 dose in this influenza vaccination mouse model can strongly influence both the magnitude and pattern of the immune response elicited. These findings are highly relevant given the likelihood of expanded use of adjuvanted, dose-sparing vaccines and raise questions about the use of "standard" doses of vaccines in pre-clinical vaccine studies.
Project description:Immune responses to inactivated vaccines against avian influenza are poor due in part to lack of immune memory. Adjuvants significantly increased virus neutralizing titers. We performed comprehensive analyses of polyclonal antibody responses following FDA-approved adjuvanted H5N1-A/Indonesia vaccine, administered in presence or absence of AS03. Using Whole Genome Fragment Phage Display Libraries, we observed that AS03 induced antibody epitope diversity to viral hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase compared with unadjuvanted vaccine. Furthermore, AS03 promoted significant antibody affinity maturation to properly folded H5-HA1 (but not to HA2) domain, which correlated with neutralization titers against both vaccine and heterologous H5N1 strains. However, no increase in heterosubtypic cross-neutralization of Group1-H1N1 seasonal strains was observed. AS03-H5N1 vaccine also induced higher neuraminidase inhibition antibody titers. This study provides insight into the differential impacts of AS03 adjuvant on H5N1 vaccine-induced antibody responses that may help optimize vaccine platforms for future vaccines with improved protection against seasonal and pandemic influenza strains.
Project description:This study assessed the immunogenicity, long-term persistence of immune response and safety of a single dose of an A/California/07/2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine adjuvanted with AS03 (?-tocopherol and squalene based oil-in-water emulsion Adjuvant System) in subjects ? 65 y of age (NCT01114620).At Day 21, the HI immune response met all three European guidance criteria [seroconversion rate (SCR): 60.0%; seroprotection rate (SPR): 64.0%; geometric mean fold rise (GMFR): 10.2] and the US guidance criterion for SCR. At month 6, the HI immune response against the A/California/07/2009 H1N1 strain persisted but at levels lower than that observed at Day 21 (SCR: 38.8%; SPR: 42.9%; HI antibody geometric mean titer: 27.6); the European regulatory guidance criteria for SCR and GMFR were still met. Overall, the vaccine was well-tolerated.In this open-label, single group study, 50 subjects received one dose of the 3.75 µg hemagglutinin (HA) AS03-adjuvanted H1N1 2009 vaccine. Immunogenicity assessments were made before vaccination, 21 days and six months after vaccination using hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and microneutralization assays. Immunogenicity end points were based on US and European regulatory criteria.A single dose of the 3.75 µg HA AS03-adjuvanted H1N1 2009 pandemic vaccine induced immune responses against the vaccine strain that met the European regulatory guidance criteria at day 21 in the elderly Japanese population; the immune response persisted at lower levels at month 6. No safety concerns were identified. These results suggest that two vaccine doses might be useful for the elderly population to improve antibody induction and persistence.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Pre-pandemic development of an inactivated, split-virion avian influenza vaccine is challenged by the lack of pre-existing immunity and the reduced immunogenicity of some H5 hemagglutinins compared to that of seasonal influenza vaccines. Identification of an acceptable effective adjuvant is needed to improve immunogenicity of a split-virion avian influenza vaccine.<h4>Methods and findings</h4>Ferrets (N?=?118) were vaccinated twice with a split-virion vaccine preparation of A/Vietnam/1203/2004 or saline either 21 days apart (unadjuvanted: 1.9 µg, 7.5 µg, 30 µg, or saline), or 28 days apart (unadjuvanted: 22.5 µg, or alum-adjuvanted: 22.5 or 7.5 µg). Vaccinated animals were challenged intranasally 21 or 28 days later with 10(6) EID(50) of the homologous strain. Immunogenicity was measured by hemagglutination inhibition and neutralization assays. Morbidity was assessed by observed behavior, weight loss, temperature, cytopenias, histopathology, and viral load. No serum antibodies were detected after vaccination with unadjuvanted vaccine, whereas alum-adjuvanted vaccination induced a robust antibody response. Survival after unadjuvanted dose regimens of 30 µg, 7.5 µg and 1.9 µg (21-day intervals) was 64%, 43%, and 43%, respectively, yet survivors experienced weight loss, fever and thrombocytopenia. Survival after unadjuvanted dose regimen of 22.5 µg (28-day intervals) was 0%, suggesting important differences in intervals in this model. In contrast to unadjuvanted survivors, either dose of alum-adjuvanted vaccine resulted in 93% survival with minimal morbidity and without fever or weight loss. The rarity of brain inflammation in alum-adjuvanted survivors, compared to high levels in unadjuvanted vaccine survivors, suggested that improved protection associated with the alum adjuvant was due to markedly reduced early viral invasion of the ferret brain.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Alum adjuvant significantly improves efficacy of an H5N1 split-virion vaccine in the ferret model as measured by immunogenicity, mortality, morbidity, and brain invasion.
Project description:Improved influenza vaccines are needed to reduce influenza-associated complications in older adults. The aim of this study was to identify the optimal formulation of adjuvanted seasonal influenza vaccine for use in elderly people.This observer-blind, randomized study assessed the optimal formulation of adjuvanted seasonal influenza vaccine based on immunogenicity and safety in participants aged ≥65 years. Participants were randomized (~200 per group) to receive one dose of non-adjuvanted vaccine or one of eight formulations of vaccine formulated with a squalene and tocopherol oil-in-water emulsion-based Adjuvant System (AS03(C), AS03(B) or AS03(A), with 2.97, 5.93 and 11.86 mg tocopherol, respectively) together with the immunostimulant monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL, doses of 0, 25 or 50 mg). Hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) antibody responses and T-cell responses were assessed on Day 0 and 21 days post-vaccination. The ratio of HI-based geometric mean titers in adjuvanted versus non-adjuvanted vaccine groups were calculated and the lower limit of the 90% confidence interval was transformed into a desirability index (a value between 0 and 1) in an experimental domain for each vaccine strain, and plotted in relation to the AS03 and MPL dose combination in the formulation. This model was used to assess the optimal formulation based on HI antibody titers. Reactogenicity and safety were also assessed. The immunogenicity and safety analyses were used to evaluate the optimal formulation of adjuvanted vaccine.In the HI antibody-based model, an AS03 dose-response was evident; responses against the A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 strains were higher for all adjuvanted formulations versus non-adjuvanted vaccine, and for the AS03(A)-MPL25, AS03(B)-MPL25 and AS03(B)-MPL50 formulations against the B strain. Modelling using more stringent criteria (post hoc) showed a clear dose-range effect for the AS03 component against all strains, whereas MPL showed a limited effect. Higher T-cell responses for adjuvanted versus non-adjuvanted vaccine were observed for all except two formulations (AS03(C) and AS03(B)-MPL25). Reactogenicity increased with increasing AS03 dosage, and with MPL. No safety concerns were raised.Five formulations containing AS03(A) or AS03(B) were identified as potential candidates to improve immune responses to influenza vaccination; AS03(B) without MPL showed the best balance between improved immunogenicity and acceptable reactogenicity.This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00540592.
Project description:The influence of AS03(A), a tocopherol oil-in-water emulsion-based adjuvant system, on humoral and cell-mediated responses to A/California/7/2009 H1N1 pandemic vaccine was investigated. In two observer-blind studies, a total of 261 healthy adults aged 18 to 60 years were randomized to receive either AS03(A)-adjuvanted H1N1 vaccine containing 3.75 ?g hemagglutinin (HA) or nonadjuvanted H1N1 vaccine containing 15 or 3.75 ?g HA on days 0 and 21. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody and T-cell responses were analyzed up to day 42. A first dose of AS03(A)-adjuvanted vaccine (3.75 ?g HA) or nonadjuvanted vaccine (15 ?g HA) induced HI responses of similar magnitudes that exceeded licensure criteria (e.g., 94 to 100% with titers of ? 40). A lower response following 3.75 ?g HA without adjuvant was observed (73% with titers of ? 40). Following a second dose, geometric mean HI titers at day 42 were higher for AS03(A)-adjuvanted vaccine (636 and 637) relative to nonadjuvanted vaccine (341 for 15 ?g HA and 150 for 3.75 ?g HA). Over the 42-day period, the increase in frequency of A/H1N1/2009-specific CD4? T cells was significantly higher in the adjuvanted group than in the nonadjuvanted group. There was no evidence of correlation between baseline CD4? T-cell frequencies and day 21 HI antibody titers, while there was some correlation (R = 0.35) between day 21 CD4? T-cell frequencies and day 42 HI titers. AS03(A) adjuvant enhanced the humoral and CD4? T-cell-mediated responses to A/H1N1/2009 vaccine. Baseline A/H1N1/2009-specific CD4? T-cell frequencies did not predict post-dose 1 antibody responses, but there was some correlation between post-dose 1 CD4? T-cell frequencies and post-dose 2 antibody responses.
Project description:Conventional inactivated avian influenza vaccines have performed poorly in past vaccine trials, leading to the hypothesis that they are less immunogenic than seasonal influenza vaccines. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the immunogenicity of the H5N1 and H7N9 vaccines (avian influenza vaccines) to a seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in naïve ferrets, administered with or without the adjuvants MF59 or AS03. Vaccine immunogenicity was assessed by measuring neutralizing antibody titers against hemagglutinin and neuraminidase and by hemagglutinin -specific IgG levels. Two doses of unadjuvanted vaccines induced low or no HA-specific IgG responses and hemagglutination-inhibiting titers. Adjuvanted vaccines induced comparable IgG-titers, but poorer neutralizing antibody titers for the H5 vaccine. All adjuvanted vaccines elicited detectable anti- neuraminidase -antibodies with the exception of the H5N1 vaccine, likely due to the low amounts of neuraminidase in the vaccine. Overall, the H5N1 vaccine had poorer capacity to induce neutralizing antibodies, but not HA-specific IgG, compared to H7N9 or trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine.