Regulation of Glucose Uptake and Enteroendocrine Function by the Intestinal Epithelial Insulin Receptor.
ABSTRACT: Insulin receptors (IRs) and IGF-I receptors (IGF-IR) are major regulators of metabolism and cell growth throughout the body; however, their roles in the intestine remain controversial. Here we show that genetic ablation of the IR or IGF-IR in intestinal epithelial cells of mice does not impair intestinal growth or development or the composition of the gut microbiome. However, the loss of IRs alters intestinal epithelial gene expression, especially in pathways related to glucose uptake and metabolism. More importantly, the loss of IRs reduces intestinal glucose uptake. As a result, mice lacking the IR in intestinal epithelium retain normal glucose tolerance during aging compared with controls, which show an age-dependent decline in glucose tolerance. Loss of the IR also results in a reduction of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) expression from enteroendocrine K-cells and decreased GIP release in vivo after glucose ingestion but has no effect on glucagon-like peptide 1 expression or secretion. Thus, the IR in the intestinal epithelium plays important roles in intestinal gene expression, glucose uptake, and GIP production, which may contribute to pathophysiological changes in individuals with diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and other insulin-resistant states.
Project description:Enteroendocrine cells (EECs) are a minor cell population in the intestine yet they play a major role in digestion, satiety and nutrient homeostasis. Recently developed human intestinal organoid models include EECs, but their rarity makes it difficult to study their formation and function. Here, we used the EEC-inducing property of the transcription factor NEUROG3 in human pluripotent stem cell-derived human intestinal organoids and colonic organoids to promote EEC development in vitro An 8-h pulse of NEUROG3 expression induced expression of known target transcription factors and after 7 days organoids contained up to 25% EECs in the epithelium. EECs expressed a broad array of human hormones at the mRNA and/or protein level, including motilin, somatostatin, neurotensin, secretin, substance P, serotonin, vasoactive intestinal peptide, oxyntomodulin, GLP-1 and INSL5. EECs secreted several hormones including gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), ghrelin, GLP-1 and oxyntomodulin. Injection of glucose into the lumen of organoids caused an increase in both GIP secretion and K-cell number. Lastly, we observed formation of all known small intestinal EEC subtypes following transplantation and growth of human intestinal organoids in mice.
Project description:Vascular smooth muscle cells maintained in normal (5.6 mm) glucose respond to insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) with increased protein synthesis but do not proliferate. In contrast, hyperglycemia alters responsiveness to IGF-I, resulting in increased SHPS-1 phosphorylation and assembly of a signaling complex that enhances MAPK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathways. Hyperglycemia also reduces the basal IRS-1 concentration and IGF-I-stimulated IRS-1-linked signaling. To determine if failure to down-regulate IRS-1 alters vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) responses to IGF-I, we overexpressed IRS-1 in VSMCs maintained in high glucose. These cultures showed reduced SHPS-1 phosphorylation, transfer of SHP-2 to SHPS-1, and impaired Shc and MAPK phosphorylation and cell proliferation in response to IGF-I. In vitro studies demonstrated that SHPS-1 was a substrate for type I IGF receptor (IGF-IR) and that IRS-1 competitively inhibited SHPS-1 phosphorylation. Exposure of VSMC cultures to a peptide that inhibited IRS-1/IGF-IR interaction showed that IRS-1 binding to IGF-IR impairs SHPS-1 phosphorylation in vivo. IRS-1 also sequestered SHP-2. Expression of an IRS-1 mutant (Y1179F/Y1229F) reduced IRS-1/SHP-2 association, and exposure of cells expressing the mutant to the inhibitory peptide enhanced SHPS-1 phosphorylation and SHP-2 transfer. This result was confirmed by expressing an IRS-1 mutant that had both impaired binding to IGF-IR and to SHP-2 IGF-I increased SHPS-1 phosphorylation, SHP-2 association with SHPS-1, Shc MAPK phosphorylation, and proliferation in cells expressing the mutant. We conclude that IRS-1 is an important factor for maintaining VSMCs in the non-proliferative state and that its down-regulation is a component of the VSMC response to hyperglycemic stress that results in an enhanced response to IGF-I.
Project description:The expression of a number of genes encoding key players in insulin signalling and action, including insulin, insulin receptor (IR), downstream signalling molecules such as insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and IRS-2, glucose transporters (GLUT4, GLUT2) and important metabolic enzymes such as glucokinase, has now been altered in transgenic or knockout mice. Such mice presented with phenotypes ranging from mild defects, revealing complementarity between key molecules or pathways, to severe diabetes with ketoacidosis and early postnatal death. Insulin action could also be improved by overproduction of proteins acting at regulatory steps. The development of diabetes by combining mutations, which alone do not lead to major metabolic alterations, validated the 'diabetogenes' concept of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Genes encoding insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I and IGF-II) and their type I receptor (IGF-IR) have also been disrupted. It appears that although IR and IGF-IR are both capable of metabolic and mitogenic signalling, they are not fully redundant. However, IR could replace IGF-IR if efficiently activated by IGF-II. Studies with cell lines lacking IR or IGF-IR lend support to such conclusions. Concerning the issues of specificity and redundancy, studies with cell lines derived from IRS-1-deficient mice showed that IRS-1 and IRS-2 are also not completely interchangeable.
Project description:Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has evolved as a major metabolic regulator, the pharmacological administration of which causes weight loss, insulin sensitivity and glucose control in rodents and humans. To understand the molecular mechanisms by which FGF21 exerts its metabolic effects, we developed a human in vitro model of adipocytes to examine crosstalk between FGF21 and insulin signaling. Human adipose stem cell-derived (hASC) adipocytes were acutely treated with FGF21 alone, insulin alone, or in combination. Insulin signaling under these conditions was assessed by measuring tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor (InsR), insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), and serine 473 phosphorylation of Akt, followed by a functional assay using 14C-2-deoxyglucose [14C]-2DG to measure glucose uptake in these cells. FGF21 alone caused a modest increase of glucose uptake, but treatment with FGF21 in combination with insulin had a synergistic effect on glucose uptake in these cells. The presence of FGF21 also effectively lowered the insulin concentration required to achieve the same level of glucose uptake compared to the absence of FGF21 by 10-fold. This acute effect of FGF21 on insulin signaling was not due to IR, IGF-1R, or IRS-1 activation. Moreover, we observed a substantial increase in basal S473-Akt phosphorylation by FGF21 alone, in contrast to the minimal shift in basal glucose uptake. Taken together, our data demonstrate that acute co-treatment of hASC-adipocytes with FGF21 and insulin can result in a synergistic improvement in glucose uptake. These effects were shown to occur at or downstream of Akt, or separate from the canonical insulin signaling pathway.
Project description:Ganglioside GM3 mediates adipocyte insulin resistance, but the role of GM3 in diabetic wound healing, a major cause of morbidity, is unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine whether GM3 depletion promotes diabetic wound healing and directly activates keratinocyte (KC) insulin pathway signaling. GM3 synthase (GM3S) expression is increased in human diabetic foot skin, ob/ob and diet-induced obese diabetic mouse skin, and in mouse KCs exposed to increased glucose. GM3S knockout in diet-induced obese mice prevents the diabetic wound-healing defect. KC proliferation, migration, and activation of insulin receptor (IR) and insulin growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) are suppressed by excess glucose in wild-type cells, but increased in GM3S (-/-) KCs with supplemental glucose. Co-immunoprecipitation of IR, IR substrate 1 (IRS-1), and IGF-1R, and increased IRS-1 and Akt phosphorylation accompany receptor activation. GM3 supplementation or inhibition of IGF-1R or PI3K reverses the increased migration of GM3S(-/-) KCs, whereas IR knockdown only partially suppresses migration.
Project description:Insulin-like growth factors (IGF) stimulate cell growth in part by increasing amino acid uptake. xCT (SLC7A11) encodes the functional subunit of the cell surface transport system xC(-), which mediates cystine uptake, a pivotal step in glutathione synthesis and cellular redox control. In this study, we show that IGF-I regulates cystine uptake and cellular redox status by activating the expression and function of xCT in estrogen receptor-positive (ER(+)) breast cancer cells by a mechanism that relies on the IGF receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1). Breast cancer cell proliferation mediated by IGF-I was suppressed by attenuating xCT expression or blocking xCT activity with the pharmacologic inhibitor sulfasalazine (SASP). Notably, SASP sensitized breast cancer cells to inhibitors of the type I IGF receptor (IGF-IR) in a manner reversed by the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Thus, IGF-I promoted the proliferation of ER(+) breast cancer cells by regulating xC(-) transporter function to protect cancer cells from ROS in an IRS-1-dependent manner. Our findings suggest that inhibiting xC(-) transporter function may synergize with modalities that target the IGF-IR to heighten their therapeutic effects.
Project description:Insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) preferentially regulates the long-term IGF activities including growth and metabolism. Kinetics of ligand-dependent IGF-IR endocytosis determines how IGF induces such downstream signaling outputs. Here, we find that the insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 modulates how long ligand-activated IGF-IR remains at the cell surface before undergoing endocytosis in mammalian cells. IRS-1 interacts with the clathrin adaptor complex AP2. IRS-1, but not an AP2-binding-deficient mutant, delays AP2-mediated IGF-IR endocytosis after the ligand stimulation. Mechanistically, IRS-1 inhibits the recruitment of IGF-IR into clathrin-coated structures; for this reason, IGF-IR avoids rapid endocytosis and prolongs its activity on the cell surface. Accelerating IGF-IR endocytosis via IRS-1 depletion induces the shift from sustained to transient Akt activation and augments FoxO-mediated transcription. Our study establishes a new role for IRS-1 as an endocytic regulator of IGF-IR that ensures sustained IGF bioactivity, independent of its classic role as an adaptor in IGF-IR signaling.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Galanin is a widely expressed neuropeptide, which in the gut is thought to modulate gastrointestinal motility and secretion. We aimed to elucidate the poorly characterised mechanisms underlying the inhibitory effect of galanin and the potential involvement of G-protein coupled inwardly rectifying potassium, Kir 3, (GIRK) channels in glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) secretion. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:Purified murine L and K cells were analysed for expression of galanin receptors and GIRK subunits. Hormone secretion was measured from primary murine intestinal cultures. Intracellular cAMP was monitored in primary L cells derived from mice expressing the Epac2camps sensor under the control of the proglucagon promoter. KEY RESULTS:Galanin receptor 1 (GAL1, Galr1) and GIRK channel 1 (Kir 3.1, Kcnj3) and 4 (Kir 3.4, Kcnj5) mRNA expression was highly enriched in K and L cells. Galanin and a selective GAL1 receptor agonist (M617) potently inhibited GLP-1 and GIP secretion from primary small intestinal cultures. In L cells, galanin significantly inhibited the forskolin-induced cAMP response. The GIRK1/4 activator ML297 significantly reduced glucose-stimulated and IBMX-stimulated GLP-1 secretion but had no effect on GIP. The GIRK blocker tertiapin-Q did not impair galanin-mediated GLP-1 inhibition. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:Galanin, acting via the GAL1 receptor and Gi -coupled signalling in L and K cells, is a potent inhibitor of GLP-1 and GIP secretion. Although GIRK1/4 channels are expressed in these cells, their activation does not appear to play a major role in galanin-mediated inhibition of incretin secretion.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: Recently we reported that insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), classically an adaptor protein for the insulin-like growth factor type I receptor (IGF-IR), associates with the epidermal growth factor receptor in oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive (ER+) tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells. In this study, we examined whether IRS-1 also associates with another erbB receptor family member, erbB3, and what impact this might have on IGF-IR signalling in three ER+ breast cancer cell lines. METHODS: Immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis were utilised to examine the potential association between erbB3 and IRS-1 in MCF-7, T47D and BT-474 cells in the absence and presence of the erbB3/4 ligand heregulin ?1 (HRG?1). Subsequently, the impact of a selective IGF-IR/IR inhibitor 4-anilino-5-bromo-2-[4-(2-hydroxy-3-(N, N-dimethylamino)propoxy)anilino]pyrimidine on this association and HRG?1 signalling was assessed in these cell lines. Immunohistochemical analysis of a small cohort of ER+ breast cancer patient samples was also performed to determine the potential clinical relevance of this novel interaction. RESULTS: Immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis revealed an interaction between erbB3 and IRS-1 in MCF-7, T47D and BT-474 cells, with HRG?1 significantly enhancing this recruitment and promoting IRS-1 phosphorylation at Y612. IRS-1 participates in erbB3 signalling in MCF-7 and T47D cells as IRS-1 knockdown impaired HRG?1 signalling. Importantly, recruitment of IRS-1 by erbB3 reduced IRS-1 association with IGF-IR in MCF-7 and T47D cells, whilst blockade of IGF-IR-enhanced erbB3-IRS-1 interaction and sensitised both cell lines to HRG?1, allowing HRG?1 to override IGF-IR blockade. Consequently, suppression of IRS-1 signalling enhanced the effects of IGF-IR inhibition in these cells. This novel interaction may have clinical relevance, as immunohistochemical analysis of a small ER+ breast tumour series revealed significant positive correlations between phosphorylated IRS-1 Y612 expression and total erbB3, phosphorylated Akt and Ki-67 expression. CONCLUSIONS: IRS-1 can be recruited to IGF-IR and erbB3 in ER+ breast cancer cells, and this provides an adaptive resistance mechanism when these receptors are targeted individually. Consequently, cotargeting IGF-IR and either erbB3 or IRS-1 should prove to be a more effective strategy for the treatment of ER+ breast cancer.
Project description:Mutations in the HNF4A gene cause MODY1 and are associated with an increased risk of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. On the other hand, incretins are hormones that potentiate reductions in blood glucose levels. Given the established role of incretin-based therapy to treat diabetes and metabolic disorders, we investigated a possible regulatory link between intestinal epithelial HNF4α and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), an incretin that is specifically produced by gut enteroendocrine cells. Conditional deletion of HNF4α in the whole intestinal epithelium was achieved by crossing Villin-Cre and Hnf4αloxP/loxP C57BL/6 mouse models. GIP expression was measured by qPCR, immunofluorescence and ELISA. Gene transcription was assessed by luciferase and electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Metabolic parameters were analyzed by indirect calorimetry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. HNF4α specific deletion in the intestine led to a reduction in GIP. HNF4α was able to positively control Gip transcriptional activity in collaboration with GATA-4 transcription factor. Glucose homeostasis and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion remained unchanged in HNF4α deficient mice. Changes in GIP production in these mice did not impact nutrition or energy metabolism under normal physiology but led to a reduction of bone area and mineral content, a well described physiological consequence of GIP deficiency. Our findings point to a novel regulatory role between intestinal HNF4α and GIP with possible functional impact on bone density.