Dependence of Glomerulonephritis Induction on Novel Intraglomerular Alternatively Activated Bone Marrow-Derived Macrophages and Mac-1 and PD-L1 in Lupus-Prone NZM2328 Mice.
ABSTRACT: Glomerular damage mediated by glomerulus-infiltrating myeloid-derived cells is a key pathogenic event in lupus nephritis (LN), but the process is poorly understood. Confocal microscopy of kidney sections and flow cytometry analysis of glomerular cells from magnetic bead-purified glomeruli have identified glomerulus-infiltrating leukocyte populations in NZM2328 (NZM) lupus-prone mice with spontaneous chronic glomerulonephritis (GN) and anti-glomerular basement membrane-induced nephritis. The occurrence of a major glomerulus-infiltrating CD11b+F4/80-I-A- macrophage population exhibiting the markers programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1), Mac-2, and macrophage mannose receptor (CD206) and producing Klf4, Il10, Retnla, Tnf, and Il6 mRNA, which are known to be expressed by alternatively activated (M2b) macrophages, correlated with proteinuria status. In NZM mice with spontaneous LN, glomerular macrophage infiltration is predominant. CD11b+F4/80-I-A- intraglomerular macrophages and polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) are important in inducing GN, as anti-CD11b and -ICAM-1 mAb inhibited both proteinuria and macrophage and PMN infiltration. The predominant and high expression of PD-L1 by CD11b+F4/80-I-A- glomerular macrophages in kidneys of mice with GN and the inhibition of proteinuria by anti-PD-L1 mAb supported the pathogenic role of these macrophages but not the PD-L1- PMN in GN development and in inducing podocyte damage. In NZM mice with spontaneous chronic GN and severe proteinuria, few glomerulus-infiltrating PMN were found, leaving macrophages and, to a less extent, dendritic cells as the major infiltrating leukocytes. Taken together, these data support the important pathogenic effect of CD11b+F4/80-I-A- M2b-like glomerulus-infiltrating macrophages in LN and reinforce macrophages as a promising target for GN treatment.
Project description:Systemic lupus erythematosus is clinically characterized by episodes of flare and remission. In patients, cutaneous exposure to ultraviolet light has been proposed as a flare trigger. However, induction of flare secondary to cutaneous exposure has been difficult to emulate in many murine lupus models. Here, we describe a system in which epidermal injury is able to trigger the development of a lupus nephritis flare in New Zealand Mixed (NZM) 2328 mice. 20-week old NZM2328 female mice underwent removal of the stratum corneum via duct tape, which resulted in rapid onset of proteinuria and death when compared to sham-stripped littermate control NZM2328 mice. This was coupled with a drop in serum C3 concentrations and dsDNA antibody levels and enhanced immune complex deposition in the glomeruli. Recruitment of CD11b(+)CD11c(+)F4/80(high) macrophages and CD11b(+)CD11c(+)F4/80(low) dendritic cells was noted prior to the onset of proteinuria in injured mice. Transcriptional changes within the kidney suggest a burst of type I IFN-mediated and inflammatory signaling which is followed by upregulation of CXCL13 following epidermal injury. Thus, we propose that tape stripping of lupus-prone NZM2328 mice is a novel model of lupus flare induction that will allow for the study of the role of cutaneous inflammation in lupus development and how crosstalk between dermal and systemic immune systems can lead to lupus flare.
Project description:Myeloid cells and TLR4 play a critical role in acute kidney injury. This study investigated the regulatory role and mechanisms of myeloid TLR4 in experimental anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) glomerulonephritis (GN). Anti-GBM GN was induced in tlr4<sup>flox/flox</sup> and tlr4<sup>flox/flox-lysM-cre</sup> mice by intravenous injection of the sheep anti-mouse GBM antibody. Compared to control mice, conditional disruption of tlr4 from myeloid cells, largely macrophages (> 85%), suppressed glomerular crescent formation and attenuated progressive renal injury by lowering serum creatinine and 24-h urine protein excretion while improving creatinine clearance. Mechanistically, deletion of myeloid tlr4 markedly inhibited renal infiltration of macrophages and T cells and resulted in a shift of infiltrating macrophages from F4/80<sup>+</sup>iNOS<sup>+</sup> M1 to F4/80<sup>+</sup>CD206<sup>+</sup> M2 phenotype and inhibited the upregulation of renal proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and MCP-1. Importantly, deletion of myeloid tlr4 suppressed T cell-mediated immune injury by shifting Th1 (CD4<sup>+</sup>IFNγ<sup>+</sup>) and Th17 (CD4<sup>+</sup>IL-17a<sup>+</sup>) to Treg (CD4<sup>+</sup>CD25<sup>+</sup>FoxP3<sup>+</sup>) immune responses. Transcriptome analysis also revealed that disrupted myeloid TLR4 largely downregulated genes involving immune and cytokine-related pathways. Thus, myeloid TLR4 plays a pivotal role in anti-GBM GN by immunological switching from M1 to M2 and from Th1/Th17 to Treg and targeting myeloid TLR4 may be a novel therapeutic strategy for immune-mediated kidney diseases.
Project description:In many kidney diseases, the original insult primarily involves the glomerulus and may then pass onto the tubulointerstitium. Several hypotheses link glomerular disease to tubular injury; perhaps the foremost hypothesis involves chronic tubular hypoxia. The reported effects of hypoxia and consecutive stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), however, are controversial. Hypoxia induces interstitial fibrosis but also has beneficial effects on renal disease progression when HIF is activated pharmacologically. To analyze the impact of HIF on tubulointerstitial disease development in primary glomerular disease, transgenic von Hippel Lindau (VHL)-knockout mice were generated and null expression was induced before the onset of autoimmune IgG-mediated anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis (GN). Tubular VHL knockout and, thus, local HIF-? stabilization increased renal production of vascular endothelial growth factor, tumor growth factor-?(1), and platelet-derived growth factor-B, resulting in augmented formation of capillaries and interstitial matrix, and conversion of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts. Within the glomerular disease, VHL knockout reduced the glomerular damage and attenuated tubulointerstitial injury. Likewise, proteinuria, plasma urea concentration, and tubulointerstitial matrix were decreased in VHL knockout with GN. These findings shown that tubular HIF-? stabilization in glomerular disease is beneficial for disease outcome. In comparison with VHL knockout alone, GN is a much stronger activator of fibrosis such that stimuli other than hypoxia may be considered important for renal disease progression.
Project description:Reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. ROS generation by infiltrating macrophages involves multiple mechanisms, including Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated NADPH oxidase (NOX) activation. Here, we show that palmitate-stimulated CD11b+F4/80low hepatic infiltrating macrophages, but not CD11b+F4/80high Kupffer cells, generate ROS via dynamin-mediated endocytosis of TLR4 and NOX2, independently from MyD88 and TRIF. We demonstrate that differently from LPS-mediated dimerization of the TLR4-MD2 complex, palmitate binds a monomeric TLR4-MD2 complex that triggers endocytosis, ROS generation and increases pro-interleukin-1? expression in macrophages. Palmitate-induced ROS generation in human CD68lowCD14high macrophages is strongly suppressed by inhibition of dynamin. Furthermore, Nox2-deficient mice are protected against high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance. Therefore, endocytosis of TLR4 and NOX2 into macrophages might be a novel therapeutic target for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.
Project description:Endogenously released adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) is a key regulator of physiological function and inflammatory responses in the kidney. Genetic or pharmacological inhibition of purinergic receptors has been linked to attenuation of inflammatory disorders and hence constitutes promising new avenues for halting and reverting inflammatory renal diseases. However, the involvement of purinergic receptors in glomerulonephritis (GN) has only been incompletely mapped. Here, we demonstrate that induction of GN in an experimental antibody-mediated GN model results in a significant increase of urinary ATP-levels and an upregulation of P2Y2R expression in resident kidney cells as well as infiltrating leukocytes pointing toward a possible role of the ATP/P2Y2R-axis in glomerular disease initiation. In agreement, decreasing extracellular ATP-levels or inhibition of P2R during induction of antibody-mediated GN leads to a reduction in all cardinal features of GN such as proteinuria, glomerulosclerosis, and renal failure. The specific involvement of P2Y2R could be further substantiated by demonstrating the protective effect of the lack of P2Y2R in antibody-mediated GN. To systematically differentiate between the function of P2Y2R on resident renal cells versus infiltrating leukocytes, we performed bone marrow-chimera experiments revealing that P2Y2R on hematopoietic cells is the main driver of the ATP/P2Y2R-mediated disease progression in antibody-mediated GN. Thus, these data unravel an important pro-inflammatory role for P2Y2R in the pathogenesis of GN.
Project description:Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) represent prominent components in cancer progression. We previously showed that inhibition of the VEGFR-3 pathway by SAR131675 leads to reduction of TAM infiltration and tumor growth. Here, we found that treatment with SAR131675 prevents the accumulation of immunosuppressive blood and splenic MDSCs which express VEGFR-3, in 4T1 tumor bearing mice. Moreover we showed that soluble factors secreted by tumor cells promote MDSCs proliferation and differentiation into M2 polarized F4/80+ macrophages. In addition, cell sorting and transcriptomic analysis of tumor infiltrating myeloid cells revealed the presence of a heterogeneous population that could be divided into 3 subpopulations: (i) immature cells with a MDSC phenotype (GR1+/CD11b+/F4/80-); (ii) "immuno-incompetent" macrophages (F4/80high/CD86neg/MHCIILow) strongly expressing M2 markers such as Legumain, CD206 and Mgl1/2 and (iii) "immuno-competent"-M1 like macrophages (F4/80Low/CD86+/MHCIIHigh). SAR131675 treatment reduced MDSCs in lymphoid organs as well as F4/80High populations in tumors. Interestingly, in the tumor SAR131675 was able to increase the immunocompetent M1 like population (F4/80low). Altogether these results demonstrate that the specific VEGFR-3 inhibitor SAR131675 exerts its anti tumoral activity by acting on different players that orchestrate immunosuppression and cancer progression in a tumoral context: MDSCs in peripheral lymphoid organs and TAMs infiltrating the tumor.
Project description:Inflammation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis (LN) and inflammatory cytokines within the glomeruli are critical in this process. However, little information is available for the identities of the cell types that are primarily responsible for the production and function of the various cytokines. We have devised a novel method to visualize cytokine signals in the kidney by confocal microscopy and found that cytokine production within the glomerulus is cell type-specific and under translational control. In the lupus-prone NZM2328 mice with chronic glomerulonephritis, IL-6, IL-1?, and TNF-? in the glomerulus were produced predominantly by mesangial cells, podocytes, and glomerulus-infiltrating blood-derived macrophages, respectively. Microarray and RNASeq analyses showed that these cells expressed the receptors for these cytokines. Together the 3?cell types form a cytokine circuit in amplifying cytokine responses in LN. The intrinsic cells and infiltrating macrophages also produced other cytokines including M-CSF, SCF, and IL-34 that constituted within the enclosed glomerular space the soluble effector milieu which may mediate cellular damage and proliferation, and cytokine transcriptional and translation regulation. IL-10 and IL-1? were translationally regulated in the glomeruli in the intact kidney in a cell type-specific manner. The production of these 2 cytokines by infiltrating macrophages was undetectable in a visualization system for in situ protein accumulation despite high mRNA expression levels. However, these macrophages in isolated glomeruli which are released from Bowman's capsules produced large amounts of IL-10 and IL-1?. These data reveal the complexity of cytokine regulation, production, and function in the glomerulus and provide a model in which cytokine blocking may be beneficial in LN treatment.
Project description:Clinical and experimental studies have shown that mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists substantially reduce kidney injury. However, the specific cellular targets and mechanisms by which MR antagonists protect against kidney injury must be identified. We used conditional gene deletion of MR signaling in myeloid cells (MR(flox/flox) LysM(Cre) mice; MyMRKO) or podocytes (MR(flox/flox) Pod(Cre) mice; PodMRKO) to establish the role of MR in these cell types in the development of mouse GN. Accelerated anti-glomerular basement membrane GN was examined in groups of mice: MyMRKO, PodMRKO, wild-type (WT) littermates, and WT mice receiving eplerenone (100 mg/kg twice a day; EPL-treated). At day 15 of disease, WT mice had glomerular crescents (37%±5%), severe proteinuria, and a 6-fold increase in serum cystatin-C. MyMRKO, PodMRKO, and EPL-treated mice with GN displayed proteinuria similar to that in these disease controls. However, MyMRKO and EPL-treated groups had a 35% reduction in serum cystatin-C levels and reduced crescent numbers compared with WT mice, whereas PodMRKO mice were not protected. The protection observed in MyMRKO mice appeared to result predominantly from reduced recruitment of macrophages and neutrophils into the inflamed kidney. Suppression of kidney leukocyte accumulation in MyMRKO mice correlated with reductions in gene expression of proinflammatory molecules (TNF-?, inducible nitric oxide synthase, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2, matrix metalloproteinase-12), tubular damage, and renal fibrosis and was similar in EPL-treated mice. In conclusion, MR signaling in myeloid cells, but not podocytes, contributes to the progression of renal injury in mouse GN, and myeloid deficiency of MR provides protection similar to eplerenone in this disease.
Project description:Endocapillary proliferation occurs in various types of glomerulonephritis (GN), with varying prognoses. We examined 42 renal biopsy samples representing endocapillary proliferative lesions from post-streptococcal acute GN (PSAGN), Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis (HSPN), and lupus nephritis (LN). In PSAGN, the glomerular capillary network was maintained, although severe lesions displayed dots or short, curved lines, indicating CD34-positive capillaries and suggesting capillary obstruction. Conversely, patients with LN and HSPN displayed obstruction of CD34-positive capillaries with dissociation from the glomerular basement membrane even in mild lesions. According to computer-assisted morphologic analysis, the cell density did not differ between the diseases. However, in PSAGN, the number of capillary loops was significantly increased, with a larger glomerular capillary luminal area than in the other groups. In addition, the number and frequency of CD163-positive cells (M2 macrophages) tended to be higher in PSAGN, while there were no significant differences in the number of CD68-positive (total) macrophages. These results indicate that in PSAGN, endothelial cell damage is less severe, and angiogenesis may be promoted. The severity of endothelial cell injury in each disease may be associated with differences in infiltrating inflammatory cell phenotypes.
Project description:Dendritic cells (DCs) can be sub-divided into various subsets that play specialized roles in priming of adaptive immune responses. Atherosclerosis is regarded as a chronic inflammatory disease of the vessel wall and DCs can be found in non-inflamed and diseased arteries. We here performed a systematic analyses of DCs subsets during atherogenesis. Our data indicate that distinct DC subsets can be localized in the vessel wall. In C57BL/6 and low density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (Ldlr (-/-)) mice, CD11c(+) MHCII(+) DCs could be discriminated into CD103(-) CD11b(+)F4/80(+), CD11b(+)F4/80(-) and CD11b(-)F4/80(-) DCs and CD103(+) CD11b(-)F4/80(-) DCs. Except for CD103(-) CD11b(-) F4/80(-) DCs, these subsets expanded in high fat diet-fed Ldlr (-/-) mice. Signal-regulatory protein (Sirp)-? was detected on aortic macrophages, CD11b(+) DCs, and partially on CD103(-) CD11b(-) F4/80(-) but not on CD103(+) DCs. Notably, in FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3-ligand-deficient (Flt3l (-/-)) mice, a specific loss of CD103(+) DCs but also CD103(-) CD11b(+) F4/80(-) DCs was evidenced. Aortic CD103(+) and CD11b(+) F4/80(-) CD103(-) DCs may thus belong to conventional rather than monocyte-derived DCs, given their dependence on Flt3L-signalling. CD64, postulated to distinguish macrophages from DCs, could not be detected on DC subsets under physiological conditions, but appeared in a fraction of CD103(-) CD11b(+) F4/80(-) and CD11b(+) F4/80(+) cells in atherosclerotic Ldlr (-/-) mice. The emergence of CD64 expression in atherosclerosis may indicate that CD11b(+) F4/80(-) DCs similar to CD11b(+) F4/80(+) DCs are at least in part derived from immigrated monocytes during atherosclerotic lesion formation. Our data advance our knowledge about the presence of distinct DC subsets and their accumulation characteristics in atherosclerosis, and may help to assist in future studies aiming at specific DC-based therapeutic strategies for the treatment of chronic vascular inflammation.