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Immature Lymphocytes Inhibit Rag1 and Rag2 Transcription and V(D)J Recombination in Response to DNA Double-Strand Breaks.

ABSTRACT: Mammalian cells have evolved a common DNA damage response (DDR) that sustains cellular function, maintains genomic integrity, and suppresses malignant transformation. In pre-B cells, DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced at Ig? loci by the Rag1/Rag2 (RAG) endonuclease engage this DDR to modulate transcription of genes that regulate lymphocyte-specific processes. We previously reported that RAG DSBs induced at one Ig? allele signal through the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase to feedback-inhibit RAG expression and RAG cleavage of the other Ig? allele. In this article, we show that DSBs induced by ionizing radiation, etoposide, or bleomycin suppress Rag1 and Rag2 mRNA levels in primary pre-B cells, pro-B cells, and pro-T cells, indicating that inhibition of Rag1 and Rag2 expression is a prevalent DSB response among immature lymphocytes. DSBs induced in pre-B cells signal rapid transcriptional repression of Rag1 and Rag2, causing downregulation of both Rag1 and Rag2 mRNA, but only Rag1 protein. This transcriptional inhibition requires the ATM kinase and the NF-?B essential modulator protein, implicating a role for ATM-mediated activation of canonical NF-?B transcription factors. Finally, we demonstrate that DSBs induced in pre-B cells by etoposide or bleomycin inhibit recombination of Ig? loci and a chromosomally integrated substrate. Our data indicate that immature lymphocytes exploit a common DDR signaling pathway to limit DSBs at multiple genomic locations within developmental stages wherein monoallelic Ag receptor locus recombination is enforced. We discuss the implications of our findings for mechanisms that orchestrate the differentiation of monospecific lymphocytes while suppressing oncogenic Ag receptor locus translocations.


PROVIDER: S-EPMC5360515 | BioStudies | 2017-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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