Hybrid Core-Shell (HyCoS) Nanoparticles produced by Complex Coacervation for Multimodal Applications.
ABSTRACT: Multimodal imaging probes can provide diagnostic information combining different imaging modalities. Nanoparticles (NPs) can contain two or more imaging tracers that allow several diagnostic techniques to be used simultaneously. In this work, a complex coacervation process to produce core-shell completely biocompatible polymeric nanoparticles (HyCoS) for multimodal imaging applications is described. Innovations on the traditional coacervation process are found in the control of the reaction temperature, allowing a speeding up of the reaction itself, and the production of a double-crosslinked system to improve the stability of the nanostructures in the presence of a clinically relevant contrast agent for MRI (Gd-DTPA). Through the control of the crosslinking behavior, an increase up to 6 times of the relaxometric properties of the Gd-DTPA is achieved. Furthermore, HyCoS can be loaded with a high amount of dye such as ATTO 633 or conjugated with a model dye such as FITC for in vivo optical imaging. The results show stable core-shell polymeric nanoparticles that can be used both for MRI and for optical applications allowing detection free from harmful radiation. Additionally, preliminary results about the possibility to trigger the release of a drug through a pH effect are reported.
Project description:The combination of different imaging modalities can allow obtaining simultaneously morphological and functional information providing a more accurate diagnosis. This advancement can be reached through the use of multimodal tracers, and nanotechnology-based solutions allow the simultaneous delivery of different diagnostic compounds moving a step towards their safe administration for multimodal imaging acquisition. Among different processes, nanoprecipitation is a consolidate method for the production of nanoparticles and its implementation in microfluidics can further improve the control over final product features accelerating its potential clinical translation. A Hydrodynamic Flow Focusing (HFF) approach is proposed to produce through a ONE-STEP process Multimodal Pegylated crosslinked Hyaluronic Acid NanoParticles (PEG-cHANPs). A monodisperse population of NPs with an average size of 140?nm is produced and Gd-DTPA and ATTO488 compounds are co-encapsulated, simultaneously. The results showed that the obtained multimodal nanoparticle could work as MRI/Optical imaging probe. Furthermore, under the Hydrodenticity effect, a boosting of the T1 values with respect to free Gd-DTPA is preserved.
Project description:There is much interest in the development of a nanoscale drug delivery system with MRI visibility to optimize the delivery efficiency and therapeutic efficacy under image guidance. Here we report on the successful fabrication of nanoscale micelles based on biodegradable poly( L-glutamic acid)- b-polylactide (PG- b-PLA) block copolymer with paramagnetic Gd3+ ions chelated to their shell. PG- b-PLA was synthesized by sequential polymerization reactions: anionic polymerization of L-lactide followed by ring-opening polymerization of benzyl glutamate N-carboxylic anhydride. The metal chelator p-aminobenzyldiethylenetriaminepenta(acetic acid) (DTPA) was readily conjugated to the side chain carboxylic acids of poly( L-glutamic acid). The resulting copolymer formed spherical micelles in aqueous solution with an average diameter of 230 nm at pH 7.4. The size of PG(DTPA)- b-PLA micelles decreased with increasing pH value. DTPA-Gd chelated to the shell layer of the micelles exhibited significantly higher spin-lattice relaxivity (r1) than a small-molecular-weight MRI contrast agent, indicating that water molecules could readily access the Gd ions in the micelles. Because of the presence of multiple carboxylic acid functional groups in the shell layer, polymeric micelles based on biodegradable PG(DTPA-Gd)- b-PLA may be a suitable platform for the development of MRI-visible, targeted nanoscale drug delivery systems.
Project description:Ultrasound is the most commonly used clinical imaging modality. However, in applications requiring cell-labeling, the large size and short active lifetime of ultrasound contrast agents limit their longitudinal use. Here, 100 nm radius, clinically applicable, polymeric nanoparticles containing a liquid perfluorocarbon, which enhance ultrasound contrast during repeated ultrasound imaging over the course of at least 48 h, are described. The perfluorocarbon enables monitoring the nanoparticles with quantitative 19F magnetic resonance imaging, making these particles effective multimodal imaging agents. Unlike typical core-shell perfluorocarbon-based ultrasound contrast agents, these nanoparticles have an atypical fractal internal structure. The nonvaporizing highly hydrophobic perfluorocarbon forms multiple cores within the polymeric matrix and is, surprisingly, hydrated with water, as determined from small-angle neutron scattering and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Finally, the nanoparticles are used to image therapeutic dendritic cells with ultrasound in vivo, as well as with 19F MRI and fluorescence imaging, demonstrating their potential for long-term in vivo multimodal imaging.
Project description:Recent advancements in imaging diagnostics have focused on the use of nanostructures that entrap Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Contrast Agents (CAs), without the need to chemically modify the clinically approved compounds. Nevertheless, the exploitation of microfluidic platforms for their controlled and continuous production is still missing. Here, a microfluidic platform is used to synthesize crosslinked Hyaluronic Acid NanoParticles (cHANPs) in which a clinically relevant MRI-CAs, gadolinium diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid (Gd-DTPA), is entrapped. This microfluidic process facilitates a high degree of control over particle synthesis, enabling the production of monodisperse particles as small as 35?nm. Furthermore, the interference of Gd-DTPA during polymer precipitation is overcome by finely tuning process parameters and leveraging the use of hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) of surfactants and pH conditions. For both production strategies proposed to design Gd-loaded cHANPs, a boosting of the relaxation rate T1 is observed since a T1 of 1562 is achieved with a 10??M of Gd-loaded cHANPs while a similar value is reached with 100??M of the relevant clinical Gd-DTPA in solution. The advanced microfluidic platform to synthesize intravascularly-injectable and completely biocompatible hydrogel nanoparticles entrapping clinically approved CAs enables the implementation of straightforward and scalable strategies in diagnostics and therapy applications.
Project description:To assess the dependence of neovascular molecular magnetic resonance (MR) imaging on relaxivity (r1) of ?v?3-targeted paramagnetic perfluorocarbon (PFC) nanoparticles and to delineate the temporal-spatial consistency of angiogenesis assessments for individual animals.Animal protocols were approved by the Washington University Animal Studies Committee. Proton longitudinal and transverse relaxation rates of ?v?3-targeted and nontargeted PFC nanoparticles incorporating gadolinium diethylenetrianime pentaacedic acid (Gd-DTPA) bisoleate (BOA) or gadolinium tetraazacyclododecane tetraacetic acid (Gd-DOTA) phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) into the surfactant were measured at 3.0 T. These paramagnetic nanoparticles were compared in 30 New Zealand White rabbits (four to six rabbits per group) 14 days after implantation of a Vx2 tumor. Subsequently, serial MR (3.0 T) neovascular maps were developed 8, 14, and 16 days after tumor implantation by using ?v?3-targeted Gd-DOTA-PE nanoparticles (n = 4) or nontargeted Gd-DOTA-PE nanoparticles (n = 4). Data were analyzed with analysis of variance and nonparametric statistics.At 3.0 T, Gd-DTPA-BOA nanoparticles had an ionic r1 of 10.3 L · mmol(-1) · sec(-1) and a particulate r1 of 927000 L · mmol(-1) · sec(-1). Gd-DOTA-PE nanoparticles had an ionic r1 of 13.3 L · mmol(-1) · sec(-1) and a particulate r1 of 1?197000 L · mmol(-1) · sec(-1). Neovascular contrast enhancement in Vx2 tumors (at 14 days) was 5.4% ± 1.06 of the surface volume with ?v?3-targeted Gd-DOTA-PE nanoparticles and 3.0% ± 0.3 with ?v?3-targeted Gd-DTPA-BOA nanoparticles (P = .03). MR neovascular contrast maps of tumors 8, 14, and 16 days after implantation revealed temporally consistent and progressive surface enhancement (1.0% ± 0.3, 4.5% ± 0.9, and 9.3% ± 1.4, respectively; P = .0008), with similar time-dependent changes observed among individual animals.Temporal-spatial patterns of angiogenesis for individual animals were followed to monitor longitudinal tumor progression. Neovasculature enhancement was dependent on the relaxivity of the targeted agent.
Project description:Many polycation-based gene delivery vehicles have limited in vivo transfection efficiency because of their excessive exterior positive charges and/or PEGylation, both of which could result in premature dissociation and poor cellular uptake and trafficking. Here, we reported novel hybrid PEGylated nanoparticles (HNPs) that are composed of (a) poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(aspartate)-adamantane (PEG-P(asp)-Ad) constituting the outer PEG layer to provide colloidal stability; (b) poly(ethylenimine)10K (PEI10K) forming complex coacervate with P(asp) as the cross-linked cage preventing premature dissociation; (c) cyclodextrin-decorated PEI10K (PEI10K-CD) forming the core with reporter plasmid DNA (pDNA). These HNPs exhibited an increased stability and higher in vitro transfection efficiency compared to traditional PEGylated nanoparticles (PEG-NP). Intratumoral injections further demonstrated that HNPs were able to successfully deliver pDNAs into tumors, while PEG-NP and PEI25K had only negligible delivery efficiencies. Moreover, HNPs' in vivo stability and pDNA delivery capability post intravenous injection were also confirmed by live animal bioluminescence and fluorescence image analysis. It is likely that the coacervation integration at the interface of PEI10K-CD/pDNA core and the PEG shell attributed to the significantly improved in vivo transfection efficiency of HNPs over PEG-NP and PEI25K. This study suggests that the HNP has the potential for in vivo gene delivery applications with significantly improved gene transfection efficiency.
Project description:Ultrasound-triggered phase transition sensitive nanodroplets with multimodal imaging functionality were prepared via premix Shirasu porous glass (SPG) membrane emulsification method. The nanodroplets with fluorescence dye DiR and SPIO nanoparticles (DiR-SPIO-NDs) had a polymer shell and a liquid perfluoropentane (PFP) core. The as-formed DiR-SPIO-NDs have a uniform size of 385 ± 5.0 nm with PDI of 0.169 ± 0.011. The TEM and microscopy imaging showed that the DiR-SPIO-NDs existed as core-shell spheres, and DiR and SPIO nanoparticles dispersed in the shell or core. The MTT and hemolysis studies demonstrated that the nanodroplets were biocompatible and safe. Moreover, the proposed nanodroplets exhibited significant ultrasound-triggered phase transition property under clinical diagnostic ultrasound irradiation due to the vaporization of PFP inside. Meanwhile, the high stability and R2 relaxivity of the DiR-SPIO-NDs suggested its applicability in MRI. The in vivo T2-weighted images of MRI and fluorescence images both showed that the image contrast in liver and spleen of rats and mice model were enhanced after the intravenous injection of DiR-SPIO-NDs. Furthermore, the ultrasound imaging (US) in mice tumor as well as MRI and fluorescence imaging in liver of rats and mice showed that the DiR-SPIO-NDs had long-lasting contrast ability in vivo. These in vitro and in vivo findings suggested that DiR-SPIO-NDs could potentially be a great MRI/US/fluorescence multimodal imaging contrast agent in the diagnosis of liver tissue diseases.
Project description:Limited data exists in China on the comparative cost of gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine magnetic resonance imaging (Gd-EOB-DTPA-MRI) with other imaging techniques. This study compared the total cost of Gd-EOB-DTPA-MRI with multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and extracellular contrast media-enhanced MRI (ECCM-MRI) as initial imaging procedures in patients with suspected hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We developed a decision-tree model on the basis of the Chinese clinical guidelines for HCC, which was validated by clinical experts from China. The model compared the diagnostic accuracy and costs of alternative initial imaging procedures. Compared with MDCT and ECCM-MRI, Gd-EOB-DTPA-MRI imaging was associated with higher rates of diagnostic accuracy, i.e. higher proportions of true positives (TP) and true negatives (TN) with lower false positives (FP). Total diagnosis and treatment cost per patient after the initial Gd-EOB-DTPA-MRI evaluation was similar to MDCT (¥30,360 vs. ¥30,803) and lower than that reported with ECCM-MRI (¥30,360 vs. ¥31,465). Lower treatment cost after initial Gd-EOB-DTPA-MRI was driven by reduced utilization of confirmatory diagnostic procedures and unnecessary treatments. The findings reported that Gd-EOB-DTPA-MRI offered higher diagnostic accuracy compared with MDCT and ECCM-MRI at a comparable cost, which indicates Gd-EOB-DTPA-MRI could be the preferred initial imaging procedure for the diagnosis of HCC in China.
Project description:To assess the costs of diagnostic workup and surgery of three strategies for patients with colorectal cancer liver-metastases (CRCLM): gadoxetic-acid-enhanced MRI (Gd-EOB-DTPA-MRI), MRI with extracellular contrast-media (ECCM-MRI) or contrast-enhanced MDCT (CE-MDCT).The within-trial cost evaluation was modelled as a decision-tree to calculate the cost of diagnosis and surgery. The model used clinical outcomes and resource utilization data from a prospective randomized multicentre study. Analyses were performed for the 354-patient safety population from eight participating countries.The diagnostic workup cost using Gd-EOB-DTPA-MRI upfront resulted in savings compared to ECCM-MRI in all countries except Thailand (difference <2 %). Compared to CE-MDCT, initial imaging with Gd-EOB-DTPA-MRI was less costly in all countries except Korea and Spain (differences 4 and 8 %, respectively). Significantly more patients in the Gd-EOB-DTPA-MRI group were eligible for surgery (39.3 % (48/122) vs. 31.0 % (36/116) and 26.7 % (31/116) for ECCM-MRI and CE-MDCT, respectively), allowing more patients to undergo potentially curative surgery, but resulting in higher treatment costs for the strategy starting with Gd-EOB-DTPA-MRI.The benefits of Gd-EOB-DTPA-MRI due to less additional imaging and similar diagnostic workup costs in the three groups suggest that Gd-EOB-DTPA-MRI should be the preferred initial imaging procedure to evaluate hepatic resectability in patients with CRCLM.• Diagnostic imaging cost to evaluate resectability was similar among the groups • Cost for imaging was rather small compared to the cost of surgery • Significantly more patients in the Gd-EOB-DTPA-MRI arm were eligible for surgery • Gd-EOB-DTPA-MRI is recommended for evaluating hepatic resectability in patients with CRCLM.
Project description:Highlights•Unique gadolinium-hyaluronic acid (Gd-HA) nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared via a facile freeze-drying method.•Gd-HA NPs exhibited a greater r1 value as compared with those of bulk Gd-DTPA-HA and clinically used Gd-DTPA.•Gd-HA NPs significantly enhanced MR images of cartilage injured site after intra-articular injection in vivo.•Gd-HA NPs would not cause side effects in vivo and could be excreted from the body with urine.