Downregulation of miR-33a-5p in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Possible Mechanism for Chemotherapy Resistance.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND Multi-drug resistance is one of the major problems limiting the efficacy of cisplatin (CDDP) in treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and abnormal microRNA (miRNA) expression in drug-resistant cell lines plays an important role in liver cancer chemotherapy resistance. MATERIAL AND METHODS We established stable Hep3B and 97L HCC cell strains resistant to CDDP, both in vitro and in vivo. A combination of microRNA microarray and RT-qPCR experiments were used to screen differentially expressed miRNAs in HCC cell strains. A CCK-8 assay was carried out to detect and calculate the survival rates and relative inhibitory rates. Oligonucleotide transfection was used to confirm the regulatory function of the miRNA in HCC drug resistance. RESULTS The IC50 of Hep3B/CDDP(v), 97L/CDDP(v), Hep3B/CDDP(s), and 97L/CDDP(s) were significantly higher than that of their parental cells. Moreover, the doubling time of drug-resistant cells increased compared with their parent cells. MiRCURYTM LNA Array (v 16.0) high-throughput tests of resistant cell models and their parent cells showed that there were 5 downregulated microRNAs in the 4 drug-resistant cell lines, and we chose hsa-miR-33a-5p as our target for further study. Oligonucleotide transfection showed that miR-33a-5p overexpression increased the cisplatin sensitivity of Hep3B/CDDP(v) and 97L/CDDP(v) drug-resistant cells and reduced their resistance. Additionally, inhibition of miR-33a-5p expression reduced cisplatin sensitivity in Hep3B and 97L and increased their drug resistance. CONCLUSIONS This study confirmed that the most downregulated microRNA, miR-33a-5p, can mediate the cisplatin resistance of HCC cells, providing a new and feasible direction for research into combatting liver cancer chemotherapy resistance.
Project description:Recent studies have shown that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the biological action and potential mechanism of liver cancer cell drug resistance have not been clearly clarified. In this study, lncRNAs were screened and differentially expressed in parental and cisplatin-resistant cell lines (HepG2 and HepG2/CDDP). A novel lncRNA, termed NRAL (Nrf2 regulation-associated lncRNA), was identified, and the initial results indicated that it was highly expressed in HepG2 cisplatin resistant cell lines compared to their parental counterparts. Functionally, NRAL depletion significantly enhanced CDDP-mediated cytotoxicity and apoptosis in two cisplatin-resistant HCC cell lines. Mechanistically, the results indicated that NRAL regulates Nrf2 expression through miR-340-5p serving as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA), thus influencing the CDDP-induced phenotype in HCC. Collectively, the present investigation suggest that the NRAL/miR-340-5p/Nrf2 axis mediates cisplatin resistance in HCC, which may provide novel targets for overcoming cisplatin resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Project description:Colon cancer is one of the most prevalent malignancies that lead to high occurrence of cancer-related deaths. Currently, chemotherapies and radiotherapies remain the primary treatments for advanced colon cancer. Despite the initial effectiveness, a fraction of colon cancer patients developed cisplatin resistance, resulting in therapeutic failure. The long non-coding RNA differentiation antagonizing non-coding RNA (DANCR) has been shown to be upregulated in multiple cancers, indicating an oncogenic role of DANCR. This study aims to elucidate the roles of DANCR in regulating cisplatin (CDDP) resistance of colon cancer. We found DANCR was significantly upregulated in colon cancer tissues and cells compared with normal colon tissues and cells. DANCR was upregulated in cisplatin-resistant colon cancer cells. Moreover, overexpression of DANCR significantly desensitized colon cancer cells to cisplatin. On the other way, silencing DANCR dramatically overrode CDDP resistance of colon cancer cells. Bioinformatics prediction revealed DANCR could bind to seeding region of miR-125b-5p as a competitive endogenous RNA. This interference was further validated by luciferase assay. Moreover, we detected a negative correlation between DANCR and miR-125b-5p in colon cancer patient tissues: miR-125b-5p was clearly downregulated in colon cancer tissues and cells. Overexpression of miR-125b-5p significantly sensitized cisplatin-resistant cells. Interestingly, we observed the cisplatin-resistant cells were associated with a significantly increased glycolysis rate. We further identified glycolysis enzyme, hexokinase 2 (HK2), as a direct target of miR-125b-5p in colon cancer cells. Rescue experiments showed overexpression of miR-125b-5p suppressed cellular glycolysis rate and increased cisplatin sensitivity through direct targeting the 3' UTR of HK2. Importantly, silencing endogenous DANCR significantly induced the miR-125b-5p/HK2 axis, resulting in suppression of the glycolysis rate and increase in cisplatin sensitivity of colon cancer cell. Expectedly, these processes could be further rescued by inhibiting miR-125b-5p in the DANCR-silenced cells. Finally, we validated the DANCR-promoted cisplatin resistance via the miR-125b-5p/HK2 axis from an in vivo xenograft mice model. In summary, our study reveals a new mechanism of the DANCR-promoted cisplatin resistance, presenting the lncRNA-DANCR-miR-125b-5p/HK2 axis as a potential target for treating chemoresistant colon cancer.
Project description:Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a primary malignancy of the liver and is a major cause of cancer related deaths worldwide. Only 10 to 20% of HCC can be surgically excised. Therefore, chemotherapeutic intervention and treatment is essential for achieving favorable prognosis. However, therapeutic outcome of chemotherapy is generally poor owing to inherent resistance of cancer cells to the treatment or due to development of acquired resistance. To differentiate and delineate the molecular events, we developed drug resistant Hep3B cells (DRC) by treating cells with the increasing concentration of paclitaxel. We also developed a unique single cell clone of Hep3B cells (SCC) by selecting single cell colonies and screening them for resistant phenotype. Interestingly, both DRC and SCC were resistant to paclitaxel in comparison to parental Hep3B cells. We analyzed the contributory factors that may be involved in the development of resistance. As expected, level of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was elevated in DRC. In addition, Caveolin-1 (Cav-1), Fatty acid synthase (FASN) and Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) protein levels were elevated in DRC whereas in SCC, FASN and CYP450 levels were elevated. Downregulation of these molecules by respective siRNAs and/or by specific pharmacological inhibitors resensitized cells to paclitaxel. Interestingly, these drug resistant cells were also less sensitive to vinblastine, doxorubicin and methotrexate with the exception of cisplatin. Our results suggested that differential levels of P-gp, Cav-1 and FASN play a major role in acquired resistant phenotype whereas FASN level was associated with the presentation of inherent resistant phenotype in HCC.
Project description:Acquisition of resistance to anti-cancer drugs is a significant obstacle to effective cancer treatment. Although several efforts have been made to overcome drug resistance in cancer cells, the detailed mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Here, we investigated whether microRNAs (miRNAs) function as pivotal regulators in the acquisition of anti-cancer drug resistance to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). A survey using a lentivirus library containing 572 precursor miRNAs revealed that five miRNAs promoted cell survival after 5-FU treatment in human hepatocellular carcinoma Hep3B cells. Among the five different clones, the clone expressing miR-200a-3p (Hep3B-miR-200a-3p) was further characterized as a 5-FU-resistant cell line. The cell viability and growth rate of Hep3B-miR-200a-3p cells were higher than those of control cells after 5-FU treatment. Ectopic expression of a miR-200a-3p mimic increased, while inhibition of miR-200a-3p downregulated, cell viability in response to 5-FU, doxorubicin, and CDDP (cisplatin). We also showed that dual-specificity phosphatase 6 (DUSP6) is a novel target of miR-200a-3p and regulates resistance to 5-FU. Ectopic expression of DUSP6 mitigated the pro-survival effects of miR-200a-3p. Taken together, these results lead us to propose that miR-200a-3p enhances anti-cancer drug resistance by decreasing DUSP6 expression.
Project description:CD44v9 is expressed in cancer stem cells (CSC) and stabilizes the glutamate-cystine transporter xCT on the cytoplasmic membrane, thereby decreasing intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This mechanism confers ROS resistance to CSC and CD44v9-expressing cancer cells. The aims of the present study were to assess: (i) expression status of CD44v9 and xCT in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues, including those derived from patients treated with hepatic arterial infusion chemoembolization (HAIC) therapy with cisplatin (CDDP); and (ii) whether combination of CDDP with sulfasalazine (SASP), an inhibitor of xCT, was more effective on tumor cells than CDDP alone by inducing ROS-mediated apoptosis. Twenty non-pretreated HCC tissues and 7 HCC tissues administered HAIC therapy with CDDP before surgical resection were subjected to immunohistochemistry analysis of CD44v9 and xCT expression. Human HCC cell lines HAK-1A and HAK-1B were used in this study; the latter was also used for xenograft experiments in nude mice to assess in vivo efficacy of combination treatment. CD44v9 positivity was significantly higher in HAIC-treated tissues (5/7) than in non-pretreated tissues (2/30), suggesting the involvement of CD44v9 in the resistance to HAIC. xCT was significantly expressed in poorly differentiated HCC tissues. Combination treatment effectively killed the CD44v9-harboring HAK-1B cells through ROS-mediated apoptosis and significantly decreased xenografted tumor growth. In conclusion, the xCT inhibitor SASP augmented ROS-mediated apoptosis in CDDP-treated HCC cells, in which the CD44v9-xCT system functioned. As CD44v9 is typically expressed in HAIC-resistant HCC cells, combination treatment with SASP with CDDP may overcome such drug resistance.
Project description:BackgroundLong noncoding RNA taurine upregulated 1 (TUG1) has been reported to play an important role in human cancers. However, little is known about the role of TUG1 in drug resistance and its mechanism in tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC).MethodsTwenty-one cisplatin-sensitive or resistant TSCC patients were enrolled in this study. Cisplatin-resistant cells (SCC25/CDDP and CAL27/CDDP) were used for experiments in vitro. Transfection was performed using Lipofectamine 2000 transfection reagent. The levels of TUG1, microRNA-133b (miR-133b) and cysteine-X-cysteine chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction or western blot. The cisplatin resistance was investigated by cell viability, transwell invasion and apoptosis assays. The interactions among TUG1, miR-133b and CXCR4 were evaluated by luciferase reporter assay and RNA immunoprecipitation. Murine xenograft model was established using the stably transfected CAL27/CDDP cells.ResultsTUG1 expression was elevated in cisplatin-resistant TSCC tissues and cells compared with that in sensitive group and its knockdown inhibited cisplatin resistance to SCC25/CDDP and CAL27/CDDP cells. miR-133b was targeted via TUG1 and its overexpression suppressed cisplatin resistance. Moreover, CXCR4 was a target of miR-133b. CXCR4 silence repressed cisplatin resistance, which was reversed by miR-133b knockdown. The level of CXCR4 protein was decreased by inhibition of TUG1 and recuperated by miR-133b knockdown. Besides, interference of TUG1 attenuated tumor growth by regulating miR-133b and CXCR4 in vivo.ConclusionDownregulation of TUG1 impeded cisplatin resistance in TSCC-resistant cells by mediating miR-133b and CXCR4, indicating TUG1 as a promising target for TSCC chemotherapy.
Project description:CD24, which is upregulated in several human malignancies, is related to Epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) and has characteristics of cancer stem-like cells, especially in cisplatin-resistant ovarian carcinoma cells. Drug delivery systems represent a promising therapeutic approach for diseases with treatment resistance, and the present study investigated a novel CD24-targeted drug delivery system for advanced ovarian carcinoma. We produced liposomal cisplatin with a red fluorescent substance - cyanine 5.5 (GL-CDDP-Cy5.5). In order to target CD24-positive cells, an anti-CD24 monoclonal antibody was modified to the above drug (CD24-GL-CDDP-Cy5.5). Specific uptake of CD24-GL-CDDP-Cy5.5 was confirmed using a therapeutically resistant ovarian cancer cell line, Caov-3 cells. Antitumor effects of CD24-GL-CDDP-Cy5.5 were then evaluated in Caov-3 ×enograft mice. CD24-GL-CDDP-Cy5.5 showed more specific uptake by flow cytometry than GL-CDDP-Cy5.5. In xenograft mice, GL-CDDP-Cy5.5 and CD24-GL-CDDP-Cy5.5 treatment had significantly higher platinum concentration in disseminated tumor cells than cisplatin (P<0.05). Moreover, CD24-GL-CDDP-Cy5.5 suppressed tumor growth and prolonged survival time compared with other treatments. Median survival times of the control, cisplatin, GL-CDDP-Cy5.5 and CD24-GL-CDDP-Cy5.5 groups were 37, 36, 46 and 54 days after inoculation, respectively. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that CD24-GL-CDDP-Cy5.5 treatment, compared with GL-CDDP-Cy5.5, decreased the number of CD24-positive cells and suppressed the EMT phenomenon significantly (P<0.05). The present study demonstrated that CD24-GL-CDDP-Cy5.5, compared with other treatments, improved therapeutic efficacy. The present results suggested the potential for targeting anticancer therapeutics for CD24-positive cells to prevent disease progression.
Project description:Gastric cancer (GC) is a significant cancer-related cause of death worldwide. The most used chemotherapeutic regimen in GC is based on platinum drugs such as cisplatin (CDDP). However, CDDP resistance reduces advanced GC survival. In vitro drug-resistant cell model would help in the understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying this drug-resistance phenomenon. The aim of this study was to characterize new models of CDDP-resistant GC cell lines (AGS R-CDDP and MKN-28 R-CDDP) obtained through a stepwise increasing drug doses method, in order to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying chemoresistance as well as identify new therapeutic targets for the treatment of GC. Cell viability assays, cell death assays and the expression of resistance molecular markers confirmed that AGS R-CDDP and MKN-28 R-CDDP are reliable CDDP-resistant models. RNA-seq and bioinformatics analyses identified a total of 189 DEGs, including 178 up-regulated genes and 11 down-regulated genes, associated mainly to molecular functions involved in CDDP-resistance. DEGs were enriched in 23 metabolic pathways, among which the most enriched was the inflammation mediated by chemokine and cytokine signaling pathway. Finally, the higher mRNA expression of SERPINA1, BTC and CCL5, three up-regulated DEGs associated to CDDP resistance found by RNA-seq analysis was confirmed. In summary, this study showed that AGS R-CDDP and MKN-28 R-CDDP are reliable models of CDDP resistance because resemble many of resistant phenotype in GC, being also useful to assess potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of gastric cancers resistant to CDDP. In addition, we identified several DEGs associated with molecular functions such as binding, catalytic activity, transcription regulator activity and transporter activity, as well as signaling pathways associated with inflammation process, which could be involved in the development of CDDP resistance in GC. Further studies are necessary to clarify the role of inflammatory processes in GC resistant to CDDP and these models could be useful for these purposes.
Project description:Growing evidence has revealed high expression levels of stanniocalcin-1 (STC1) in different types of human cancers. Numerous experimental studies using cancer cell lines demonstrated the involvement of STC1 in inflammatory and apoptotic processes; however the role of STC1 in carcinogenesis remains elusive. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) an exemplified model of inflammation-related cancer, represents a paradigm of studying the association between STC1 and tumor development. Therefore, we conducted a statistical analysis on the expression levels of STC1 using clinicopathological data from 216 HCC patients. We found that STC1 was upregulated in the tumor tissues and its expression levels was positively correlated with the levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8. Intriguingly tumors with greater expression levels of STC1 (tumor/normal ≥ 2) were significantly smaller than the lower level (tumor/normal<2) samples (p = 0.008). A pharmacological approach was implemented to reveal the functional correlation between STC1 and the ILs in the HCC cell-lines. IL-6 and IL-8 treatment of Hep3B cells induced STC1 expression. Lentiviral-based STC1 overexpression in Hep3B and MHCC-97L cells however showed inhibitory action on the pro-migratory effects of IL-6 and IL-8 and reduced size of tumor spheroids. The inhibitory effect of STC1 on tumor growth was confirmed in vivo using the stable STC1-overexpressing 97L cells on a mouse xenograft model. Genetic analysis of the xenografts derived from the STC1-overexpressing 97L cells, showed upregulation of the pro-apoptotic genes interleukin-12 and NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain-containing 3. Collectively, the anti-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic functions of STC1 were suggested to relate its inhibitory effect on the growth of HCC cells. This study supports the notion that STC1 may be a potential therapeutic target for inflammatory tumors in HCC patients.
Project description:Platinum-based antitumor agents are widely used in cancer chemotherapy. Drug resistance is a major obstacle to the successful use of these agents because once drug resistance develops, other effective treatment options are limited. Recently, we conducted a clinical trial using a copper-lowering agent to overcome platinum drug resistance in ovarian cancer patients and the preliminary results are encouraging. In supporting this clinical study, using three pairs of cisplatin (cDDP)-resistant cell lines and two ovarian cancer cell lines derived from patients who had failed in platinum-based chemotherapy, we showed that cDDP resistance associated with reduced expression of the high-affinity copper transporter (hCtr1), which is also a cDDP transporter, can be preferentially resensitized by copper-lowering agents because of enhanced hCtr1 expression, as compared with their drug-sensitive counterparts. Such a preferential induction of hCtr1 expression in cDDP-resistant variants by copper chelation can be explained by the mammalian copper homeostasis regulatory mechanism. Enhanced cell-killing efficacy by a copper-lowering agent was also observed in animal xenografts bearing cDDP-resistant cells. Finally, by analyzing a public gene expression dataset, we found that ovarian cancer patients with elevated levels of hCtr1 in their tumors, but not ATP7A and ATP7B, had more favorable outcomes after platinum drug treatment than those expressing low hCtr1 levels. This study reveals the mechanistic basis for using copper chelation to overcome cDDP resistance in clinical investigations.