Effects of icotinib with and without radiation therapy on patients with EGFR mutant non-small cell lung cancer and brain metastases.
ABSTRACT: EGFR-TKIs and radiation therapy (RT) are the principal treatment for patients with brain metastases (BM) and EGFR mutant NSCLC. However, the optimal use of brain RT for patients with asymptomatic BM remains undefined. A total of 152 patients were identified. 58 patients were excluded. Of the remaining 97 patients, 56 patients received upfront RT followed by icotinib, including WBRT or SRS. 41 patients received icotinib therapy alone. The mOS from diagnosis of BM was 27.0 months for the whole cohort (95% CI, 23.9-30.1 months). There was no difference in OS between the RT followed by icotinib group and the icotinib alone group (31.9 vs. 27.9 months, P = 0.237), and similar results were found in the SRS subgroup (35.5 vs. 27.9 months, P = 0.12). Patients with the EGFR Del19 mutation had a longer OS than patients with the exon 21 L858R mutation (32.7 vs. 27.4, P = 0.037). Intracranial progression-free survival (PFS) was improved in the patients who received RT followed by icotinib compared to those receiving icotinib alone (22.4 vs. 13.9 months, P = 0.043). Patients with EGFR-mutant adenocarcinoma and BM treated with icotinib exhibited prolonged survival. A longer duration of intracranial control was observed with brain RT.
Project description:Importance:Palliative radiotherapy (RT) is generally recommended for older patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) with poor prognosis. A new combination treatment is therefore needed. Objective:To assess the efficacy and toxicity of RT plus icotinib vs RT alone in older patients with ESCC. Design, Setting, and Participants:This randomized, multicenter, open-label, phase II clinical trial was conducted in China, with enrollment between January 1, 2015, and October 31, 2016. Patients aged 70 years or older with clinical stage T2 to T4, N0/1, M0/1a unresectable (because of comorbidities, T4 disease, unresectable lymph node, or refused surgery) ESCC were randomized 1:1 to receive RT plus icotinib or RT alone. Radiation was prescribed at 60 Gy in 30 fractions in both groups, and icotinib was administered at a dosage of 125 mg 3 times a day in the RT plus icotinib group. The last follow-up was completed on June 30, 2019, and data were analyzed from July 1 to September 30, 2019. Interventions:Patients were randomized to either RT plus icotinib or RT alone. Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary end point was overall survival (OS). Treatment-related toxic effects were evaluated. Immunohistochemistry was performed to analyze epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression if available. Results:A total of 127 patients (median age, 76 years [range, 70-91 years]; 76 men [59.8%]) were enrolled and were eligible for survival analysis. Median OS was 24.0 (95% CI, 22.2-25.8) months in the RT plus icotinib group vs 16.3 (95% CI, 13.8-18.8) months in the RT group (hazard ratio, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.33-0.87; P?=?.008). No difference was observed in grades 3 or 4 adverse events. Patients with EGFR overexpression had a significantly better median overall survival (not reached vs 16.3 months [range, 2.6-45.1 months]; P?=?.03) in the RT plus icotinib group. Conclusions and Relevance:In this randomized clinical trial, icotinib plus RT was well tolerated and improved OS in older patients with ESCC relative to RT alone. Patients with EGFR overexpression benefitted more from icotinib with RT. Trial Registration:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02375581.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The treatment strategy for brain metastasis (BM) in patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) -mutant lung adenocarcinoma (LAC) remains controversial. In the present study, we compared the efficacy of brain radiotherapy (RT) in combination with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and TKIs alone for advanced LAC patients with EGFR mutations and BM. METHODS:We retrospectively studied 78 patients diagnosed with EGFR-mutant LAC who developed BM. These patients were divided into two groups: 49 patients in the combination treatment group who received brain RT in combination with EGFR-TKIs (including 23 patients with asymptomatic BM before RT); 29 patients in the TKI group who received EGFR-TKI targeted therapy alone (including 22 patients with asymptomatic BM before TKI treatment). RESULTS:The median intracranial progression-free survival (iPFS) of the combination treatment group was longer than that of the TKI alone group (21.5 vs. 15?months; P?=?0.036). However, there were no significant differences in median progression-free survival (PFS, 12 vs. 13?months; P?=?0.242) and median overall survival (mOS, 36 vs. 23?months; P?=?0.363) between the two groups. Further analysis of asymptomatic BM showed that both the median iPFS and the mOS of the combination treatment group were significantly longer than for the TKI alone group (iPFS, 21.5 vs. 14.8?months, P?=?0.026; mOS, 36 vs. 23?months, P?=?0.041). Cox multivariate regression analysis found no independent adverse predictors of iPFS in all patients. CONCLUSIONS:The synchronous combination of brain RT and TKIs was superior to EGFR-TKIs alone for EGFR-mutant LAC patients with BM. The combination treatment group exhibited longer iPFS, while the PFS and OS were not significantly different between the two groups. In addition, the combination treatment could result in better iPFS and OS in those with asymptomatic BM. Therefore, addition of brain RT was useful for intracranial metastatic lesions.
Project description:Radiation therapy (RT) is the principal modality in the treatment of patients with brain metastases (BM). However, given the activity of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors in the central nervous system, it is uncertain whether upfront brain RT is necessary for patients with EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma with BM.Patients with EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma and newly diagnosed BM were identified.222 patients were identified. Exclusion criteria included prior erlotinib use, presence of a de novo erlotinib resistance mutation, or incomplete data. Of the remaining 110 patients, 63 were treated with erlotinib, 32 with whole brain RT (WBRT), and 15 with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). The median overall survival (OS) for the whole cohort was 33 months. There was no significant difference in OS between the WBRT and erlotinib groups (median, 35 vs 26 months; P=.62), whereas patients treated with SRS had a longer OS than did those in the erlotinib group (median, 64 months; P=.004). The median time to intracranial progression was 17 months. There was a longer time to intracranial progression in patients who received WBRT than in those who received erlotinib upfront (median, 24 vs 16 months, P=.04). Patients in the erlotinib or SRS group were more likely to experience intracranial failure as a component of first failure, whereas WBRT patients were more likely to experience failure outside the brain (P=.004).The survival of patients with EGFR-mutant adenocarcinoma with BM is notably long, whether they receive upfront erlotinib or brain RT. We observed longer intracranial control with WBRT, even though the WBRT patients had a higher burden of intracranial disease. Despite the equivalent survival between the WBRT and erlotinib group, this study underscores the role of WBRT in producing durable intracranial control in comparison with a targeted biologic agent with known central nervous system activity.
Project description:Epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) has intracranial activity in EGFR-mutant Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC). The optimal timing of brain radiotherapy (RT) and appropriate patients who need early brain RT remains undetermined. This is a retrospective study of EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients with newly diagnosed brain metastases (BMs) before EGFR-TKI initiation. Intra-cranial progression free survival (IC-PFS) and overall survival (OS) were measured from the date of EGFR-TKI treatment. A total of 113 patients were eligible, 49 received concurrent early brain RT with EGFR-TKI and 64 were treated with EGFR-TKI alone as initial therapy, including 27 with salvage RT upon BM progression. The patients with early brain RT had superior IC-PFS than those without early brain RT (21.4 vs 15.0 months, P=0.001), which remained significant in multivariate analysis (HR 0.30, P<0.001). The median overall survival (OS) for early RT, EGFR-TKI alone and salvage RT groups was 28.1, 24.5, and 24.6 months, respectively (P=0.604). Similar IC-PFS (23.6 vs 21.4 months, P=0.253) and OS (24.6 vs 28.1 months, P=0.385) were observed between salvage RT and early RT groups. For patients with Diagnosis-Specific Graded Prognostic Assessment (DS-GPA) score of 0 to 2, early brain RT was the independent factor for improved OS (HR 0.33, P=0.025). In conclusion, concurrent early brain RT with EGFR-TKI may improve intracranial disease control in EGFR-mutant NSCLC with BM and have survival benefit in patients with low DS-GPA score. Salvage brain RT upon BM progression may be acceptable in some patients.
Project description:Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations occur in up to 50% of Asian patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Treatment of advanced NSCLC patients with EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) confers a significant survival benefit. This study assessed the efficacy and safety of chemotherapy with or without icotinib in patients undergoing resection of stage IB to ?A EGFR-mutated NSCLC.Patients with surgically resected stage IB (with high risk factors) to ?A EGFR-mutated NSCLC were randomly assigned (1:1) to one of two treatment plans. One group received four cycles of platinum-based doublet chemotherapy every three weeks, and the other group received platinum-based chemotherapy supplemented with consolidation therapy of orally administered icotinib (125 mg thrice daily) two weeks after chemotherapy. The icotinib treatment continued for four to eight months, or until the occurrence of disease relapse, metastasis or unacceptable icotinib or chemotherapy toxicity. The primary endpoint was disease-free survival (DFS).41 patients were enrolled between Feb 9, 2011 and Dec 17, 2012. 21 patients were assigned to the combined chemotherapy plus icotinib treatment group, while 20 patients received chemotherapy only. DFS at 12 months was 100% for icotinib-treated patients and 88.9% for chemotherapy-only patients (p = 0. 122). At 18 months DFS for icotinib-treated vs. chemotherapy-only patients was 95.2% vs. 83.3% (p = 0. 225), respectively, and at 24 months DFS was 90.5% vs. 66.7% (p = 0. 066). The adverse chemotherapy effects predominantly presented as gastrointestinal reactions and marrow suppression, and there was no significant difference between the two treatment groups. Patients in the chemotherapy plus icotinib treatment group showed favorable tolerance to oral icotinib.The results suggest that chemotherapy plus orally icotinib displayed better DFS compared with chemotherapy only, yet the difference in DFS was not significant. We would think the preliminary result here was promising, and further trials with larger sample sizes might confirm the efficiency of adjuvant TKI in selected patients.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02430974.
Project description:Whether bisphosphonates could enhance the effect of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with EGFR mutation and bone metastases (BM) remains unknown. EGFR mutation status were collected from 1560 patients with NSCLC and BM. 356 NSCLC patients with EGFR mutation and BM were identified. Among them, 91 patients received EGFR-TKIs alone and 105 patients received EGFR-TKIs plus bisphosphonates as first-line therapy. Comparing to TKIs alone, EGFR-TKIs plus bisphosphonates had a statistically significant longer progression-free survival (PFS: 11.6 vs. 9.3 months; HR?=?0.68, P?=?0.009), while a similar overall survival (OS: 20.5 vs. 19.5 months; HR?=?0.95, P?=?0.743) in patients with EGFR-mutant NSCLC and BM. The incidence of skeletal-related events in combined group was numerically lower than that in EGFR-TKIs alone group (29.7% vs. 39.4%, P?=?0.147). In multivariate analysis, EGFR mutation was found to be a significant independent prognostic factor for OS in NSCLC patients with BM (HR?=?0.710, P?=?0.021). In conclusion, EGFR mutation was the significant independent prognostic factor for OS and the addition of bisphosphonates to EGFR-TKIs could enhance the antitumor effect of EGFR-TKIs in patients with EGFR-mutant NSCLC and BM.
Project description:We proposed to compare the outcomes of first-line epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) alone with EGFR-TKI plus whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) for the treatment of brain metastases (BM) in patients with EGFR-mutated lung adenocarcinoma. A total of 1665 patients were screened from 2008 to 2014, and 132 were enrolled in our study. Among the 132 patients, 72 (54.5%) harbored a deletion in exon 19, 97 (73.5%) showed multiple intracranial lesions, and 67 (50.8%) had asymptomatic BM. Seventy-nine patients (59.8%) were treated with EGFR-TKI alone, 53 with concomitant WBRT. The intracranial objective response rate was significantly higher in the EGFR-TKI plus WBRT treatment group (67.9%) compared with the EGFR-TKI alone group (39.2%) (P = 0.001). After a median follow-up of 36.2 months, 62.1% of patients were still alive. The median intracranial TTP was 24.7 months (95% CI, 19.5-29.9) in patients who received WBRT, which was significantly longer than in those who received EGFR-TKI alone, with the median intracranial TTP of 18.2 months (95% CI, 12.5-23.9) (P = 0.004). There was no significant difference in overall survival between WBRT and EGFR-TKI alone groups, (median, 48.0 vs 41.1 months; P = 0.740). The overall survival is significantly prolonged in patients who had an intracranial TTP exceeding 22 months compared to those who developed intracranial progression <22 months after treatment, (median, 58.0 vs 28.0 months; P = 0.001). For EGFR-mutated lung adenocarcinoma patients with BM, treatment with concomitant WBRT achieved a higher response rate of BM and significant improvement in intracranial progression-free survival compared with EGFR-TKI alone.
Project description:Brain metastasis (BM) has been universally recognized as a poor prognostic factor in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have shown efficacy in treating BM with an EGFR mutation. This paper reports a case of BM patient with EGFR-mutated NSCLC. According to the findings, a complete remission (CR) of the BM was achieved by icotinib treatment without conducting a radiotherapy, which was followed by a resection of the primary lung cancer lesion and lymph nodes. After one-year follow-up, the disease progressed to liver metastasis and liver lesion biopsy showed a T790M mutation. The patient responded well to the combination treatment of AZD9291 and icotinib after the failure of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). This case report suggests that icotinib has a sustainable anticancer response to BM and the combination with icotinib and AZD9291 is effective for liver metastasis with T790M.
Project description:Although cranial radiotherapy is considered the standard treatment for brain metastasis (BM), EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have shown promising activity in EGFR mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with BM. However, the efficacy of sequential cranial radiotherapy in patients with EGFR mutant NSCLC who are treated with EGFR TKIs remains to be determined. Patients with NSCLC who harbored an EGFR mutation and whose BM had been treated with EGFR TKIs were retrospectively reviewed. The clinical outcomes of patients treated with EGFR TKIs alone and those treated with cranial radiotherapy followed by EGFR TKIs (additive therapy) were compared. Of the 573 patients with NSCLC with BM who harbored an EGFR mutation and had received EGFR TKIs, 121 (21.1 %) had BM at the time of initial diagnosis. Fifty-nine (49 %) patients were treated with additive therapy, whereas 62 (51 %) patients were treated only with EGFR TKIs. No significant differences were observed between the additive therapy group and the EGFR TKI alone group regarding intracranial progression-free survival (PFS) (16.6 vs 21.0 months, p = 0.492) or extracranial PFS (12.9 vs 15.0 months, p = 0.770). The 3-year survival rates were similar in both groups (71.9 vs 68.2 %, p = 0.675). Additive therapy consisting of cranial radiotherapy followed by EGFR TKI treatment did not improve OS or intracranial PFS compared with EGFR TKI treatment alone in EGFR mutant NSCLC patients with BM. Further prospective studies are needed to determine the precise benefits of sequential cranial radiotherapy in EGFR mutant NSCLC treated with EGFR TKIs.
Project description:Introduction: Following the resection of brain metastases (BM), whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) is a long-established standard of care. Its position was recently challenged by the less toxic single-session radiosurgery (SRS) or fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) of the resection cavity, reducing dose exposure of the healthy brain. Patients and Methods: We analyzed 101 patients treated with either SRS/FSRT (n = 50) or WBRT (n = 51) following BM resection over a 5-year period. Propensity score adjustment was done for age, total number of BM, timepoint of BM diagnosis, controlled primary and extracranial metastases. A Cox Proportional Hazards model with univariate and multivariate analysis was fitted for overall survival (OS), local control (LC) and distant brain control (DBC). Results: Median patient age was 61 (interquartile range, IQR: 56-67) years and the most common histology was non-small cell lung cancer, followed by breast cancer. 38% of the patients had additional unresected BM. Twenty-four patients received SRS, 26 patients received FSRT and 51 patients received WBRT. Median OS in the SRS/FSRT subgroup was not reached (IQR NA-16.7 months) vs. 12.6 months (IQR 21.3-4.4) in the WBRT subgroup (hazard ratio, HR 3.3, 95%-CI: [1.5; 7.2] p < 0.002). Twelve-months LC-probability was 94.9% (95%-CI: [88.3; 100.0]) in the SRS subgroup vs. 81.7% (95%-CI: [66.6; 100.0]) in the WBRT subgroup (HR 0.2, 95%-CI: [0.01; 0.9] p = 0.037). Twelve-months DBC-probabilities were 65.0% (95%-CI: [50.8; 83.0]) and 58.8% (95%-CI: [42.9; 80.7]), respectively (HR 1.4, 95%-CI: [0.7; 2.7] p = 0.401). In propensity score-adjusted multivariate analysis, incomplete resection negatively impacted OS (HR 3.9, 95%-CI: [2.0;7.4], p < 0.001) and LC (HR 5.4, 95%-CI: [1.3; 21.9], p = 0.018). Excellent clinical performance (HR 0.4, 95%-CI: [0.2; 0.9], p = 0.030) and better graded prognostic assessment (GPA) score (HR 0.4, 95%-CI: [0.2; 1.0], p = 0.040) were prognostic of superior OS. A higher number of BM was associated with a greater risk of developing new distant BM (HR 5.6, 95%-CI: [1.0; 30.4], p = 0.048). In subgroup analysis, larger cavity volume (HR 1.1, 95%-CI: [1.0; 1.3], p = 0.033) and incomplete resection (HR 12.0, 95%-CI: [1.2; 118.3], p = 0.033) were associated with inferior LC following SRS/FSRT. Conclusion: This is the first propensity score-adjusted direct comparison of SRS/FSRT and WBRT following the resection of BM. Patients receiving SRS/FSRT showed longer OS and LC compared to WBRT. Future analyses will address the optimal choice of safety margin, dose and fractionation for postoperative stereotactic RT of the resection cavity.