Distinct role of heme oxygenase-1 in early- and late-stage intracerebral hemorrhage in 12-month-old mice.
ABSTRACT: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating form of stroke with high morbidity and mortality. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the key enzyme in heme degradation, is highly expressed after ICH, but its role is still unclear. In this study, we used an HO-1 inducer and inhibitor to test the role of HO-1 in different stages of ICH in vivo and in vitro. In the early stage of ICH, high HO-1 expression worsened the outcomes of mice subjected to the collagenase-induced ICH model. HO-1 increased brain edema, white matter damage, neuronal death, and neurobehavioral deficits. Furthermore, elevated HO-1 increased inflammation, oxidative stress, matrix metalloproteinase-9/2 activity, and iron deposition. In the later stage of ICH, long-term induction of HO-1 increased hematoma absorption, angiogenesis, and recovery of neurologic function. We conclude that HO-1 activation mediates early brain damage after ICH but promotes neurologic function recovery in the later stage of ICH.
Project description:Following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), extracellular heme precipitates secondary brain injury, which results in irreversible brain damage and enduring neurological deficits. Hemopexin (Hpx) is an endogenous protein responsible for scavenging heme, thereby modulating its intrinsic proxidant/proinflammatory properties. Although Hpx is present in the brain, the endogenous levels are insufficient to combat the massive heme overload following ICH. We hypothesized that increasing brain Hpx levels would improve ICH outcomes. Unique recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors were designed to specifically overexpress Hpx within the mouse brain. Western blotting, ELISA, and immunohistochemistry of brain homogenates/sections, CSF, and serum were performed. As compared to controls, Hpx mice have increased Hpx protein levels in all three types of biospecimens evaluated, which results in 45.6?±?6.9% smaller lesions and improved functional recovery after ICH (n=14-19/group, p?<?0.05). Local mechanistic analyses show significantly less tissue injury, trends toward smaller hematoma volumes, unchanged heme oxygenase 1 and iron levels, and significantly increased microgliosis and decreased astrogliosis and lipid peroxidation. Peripheral levels of heme-related markers indicate a positive modulation of iron-binding capacity. These findings reveal that high local Hpx levels improve ICH outcomes, likely through both central and peripheral clearance mechanisms, and establish the potential for therapeutically administering clinical-grade Hpx for ICH.
Project description:Replenishment of NAD+ has been shown to protect against brain disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and ischemic stroke. However, whether this intervention has therapeutic effects in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is unknown. In this study, we sought to determine the potential therapeutic value of replenishment of NAD+ in ICH. In a collagenase-induced ICH (cICH) mouse model, nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), a key intermediate of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) biosynthesis, was administrated at 30?minutes post cICH from tail vein to replenish NAD+. NMN treatment did not decrease hematoma volume and hemoglobin content. However, NMN treatment significantly reduced brain edema, brain cell death, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression, microglia activation and neutrophil infiltration in brain hemorrhagic area. Mechanistically, NMN enhanced the expression of two cytoprotective proteins: heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and nuclear factor-like 2 (Nrf2). Moreover, NMN increased the nuclear translocation of Nrf2 for its activation. Finally, a prolonged NMN treatment for 7 days markedly promoted the recovery of body weight and neurological function. These results demonstrate that NMN treats brain injury in ICH by suppressing neuroinflammation/oxidative stress. The activation of Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway may contribute to the neuroprotection of NMN in ICH.
Project description:Reducing excessive inflammation is beneficial for the recovery from intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Here, the roles and mechanisms of A20 (TNFAIP3), an important endogenous anti-inflammatory factor, are examined in ICH. A20 expression in the PBMCs of ICH patients and an ICH mouse model was detected, and the correlation between A20 expression and neurologic deficits was analyzed. A20 expression was increased in PBMCs and was negatively related to the modified Rankin Scale score. A20 expression was also increased in mouse perihematomal tissues. A20-/- and A20-overexpressing mice were generated to further analyze A20 function. Compared with wild-type (WT) mice, A20-/- and A20-overexpressing mice showed significant increases and decreases, respectively, in hematoma volume, neurologic deficit score, mortality, neuronal degeneration, and proinflammatory factors. Moreover, WT-A20-/- parabiosis was established to explore the role of A20 in peripheral blood in ICH injury. ICH-induced damage, including brain edema, neurologic deficit score, proinflammatory factors, and neuronal apoptosis, was reduced in A20-/- parabionts compared with A20-/- mice. Finally, the interactions between TRAF6 and Ubc13 and UbcH5c were increased in A20-/- mice compared with WT mice; the opposite occurred in A20-overexpressing mice. Enhanced I?B? degradation and NF-?B activation were observed in A20-/- mice, but the results were reversed in A20-overexpressing mice. These results suggested that A20 is involved in regulating ICH-induced inflammatory injury in both the central and peripheral system and that A20 reduces ICH-induced inflammation by regulating TRAF6 polyubiquitination. Targeting A20 may thus be a promising therapeutic strategy for ICH.
Project description:Hematoma clearance occurs in the days after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and has not been well studied. In the current study, we examined changes in the hematoma in a piglet ICH model. The effect of deferoxamine on hematoma was also examined.The ICH model was induced by an injection of autologous blood into the right frontal lobe of piglets. First, a natural time course of hematoma changes ?7 days was determined. Second, the effect of deferoxamine on hematoma changes was examined. Hemoglobin and membrane attack complex levels in the hematoma were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting were used to examine CD47 (a regulator of erythrophagocytosis), CD163 (a hemoglobin scavenger receptor), and heme oxygenase-1 (a heme degradation enzyme) in the clot.After ICH, there was a reduction in red blood cell diameter within the clot with time. This was accompanied by membrane attack complex accumulation and decreased hemoglobin levels. Erythrophagocytosis occurred in the hematoma, and this was associated with reduced clot CD47 levels. Activated macrophages/microglia were CD163 and hemeoxygenase-1 positive, and these accumulated in the clot with time. Deferoxamine treatment attenuated the process of hematoma resolution by reducing member attack complex formation and inhibiting CD47 loss in the clot.These results indicate that membrane attack complex and erythrophagocytosis contribute to hematoma clearance after ICH, which can be altered by deferoxamine treatment.
Project description:To determine the association of ultraearly hematoma growth (uHG) with the CT angiography (CTA) spot sign, hematoma expansion, and clinical outcomes in patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH).We analyzed data from 231 patients enrolled in the multicenter Predicting Haematoma Growth and Outcome in Intracerebral Haemorrhage Using Contrast Bolus CT study. uHG was defined as baseline ICH volume/onset-to-CT time (mL/h). The spot sign was used as marker of active hemorrhage. Outcome parameters included significant hematoma expansion (>33% or >6 mL, primary outcome), rate of hematoma expansion, early neurologic deterioration, 90-day mortality, and poor outcome.uHG was higher in spot sign patients (p < 0.001) and in patients scanned earlier (p < 0.001). Both uHG >4.7 mL/h (p = 0.002) and the CTA spot sign (p = 0.030) showed effects on rate of hematoma expansion but not its interaction (2-way analysis of variance, p = 0.477). uHG >4.7 mL/h improved the sensitivity of the spot sign in the prediction of significant hematoma expansion (73.9% vs 46.4%), early neurologic deterioration (67.6% vs 35.3%), 90-day mortality (81.6% vs 44.9%), and poor outcome (72.8% vs 29.8%), respectively. uHG was independently related to significant hematoma expansion (odds ratio 1.06, 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.10) and clinical outcomes.uHG is a useful predictor of hematoma expansion and poor clinical outcomes in patients with acute ICH. The combination of high uHG and the spot sign is associated with a higher rate of hematoma expansion, highlighting the need for very fast treatment in ICH patients.
Project description:Microglia/macrophages (MM?) are highly plastic phagocytes that can promote both injury and repair in diseased brain through the distinct function of classically activated and alternatively activated subsets. The role of MM? polarization in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is unknown. Herein, we comprehensively characterized MM? dynamics after ICH in mice and evaluated the relevance of MM? polarity to hematoma resolution. MM? accumulated within the hematoma territory until at least 14days after ICH induction. Microglia rapidly reacted to the hemorrhagic insult as early as 1-1.5h after ICH and specifically presented a "protective" alternatively activated phenotype. Substantial numbers of activated microglia and newly recruited monocytes also assumed an early alternatively activated phenotype, but the phenotype gradually shifted to a mixed spectrum over time. Ultimately, markers of MM? classic activation dominated at the chronic stage of ICH. We enhanced MM? alternative activation by administering intraperitoneal injections of rosiglitazone, and subsequently observed elevations in CD206 expression on brain-isolated CD11b+ cells and increases in IL-10 levels in serum and perihematomal tissue. Enhancement of MM? alternative activation correlated with hematoma volume reduction and improvement in neurologic deficits. Intraventricular injection of alternative activation signature cytokine IL-10 accelerated hematoma resolution, whereas microglial phagocytic ability was abolished by IL-10 receptor neutralization. Our results suggest that MM? respond dynamically to brain hemorrhage by exhibiting diverse phenotypic changes at different stages of ICH. Alternative activation-skewed MM? aid in hematoma resolution, and IL-10 signaling might contribute to regulation of MM? phagocytosis and hematoma clearance in ICH.
Project description:Differences in microRNA (miRNA) expression after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) have been reported in human and animal models, and miRNAs are being investigated as a new treatment for inflammation and oxidative stress after ICH. In this study, we found that microRNA-183-5p expression was decreased in the mouse brain after ICH. To investigate the effect of miRNA-183-5p on injury and repair of brain tissue after ICH, saline, miRNA-183-5p agomir, or miRNA-183-5p antagomir were injected into the lateral ventricles of 8-week-old mice with collagenase-induced ICH. Three days after ICH, mice treated with exogenous miRNA-183-5p showed less brain edema, neurobehavioral defects, inflammation, oxidative stress, and ferrous deposition than control mice. In addition, by alternately treating mice with a heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) inducer, a HO-1 inhibitor, a nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) activator, and Nrf2 knockout, we demonstrated an indirect, HO-1-dependent regulatory relationship between miRNA-183-5p and Nrf2. Our results indicate that miRNA-183-5p and HO-1 are promising therapeutic targets for controlling inflammation and oxidative damage after hemorrhagic stroke.
Project description:Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a subtype of stroke with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is the main structural protein of caveolae and is involved in regulating signal transduction and cholesterol trafficking in cells. Although a recent study suggests a protective role of Cav-1 in cerebral ischemia, its function in ICH remains unknown. In this study, we examined the role of Cav-1 and in a model of collagenase-induced ICH and in neuronal cultures. Our results indicate that Cav-1 was up-regulated in the perihematomal area predominantly in endothelial cells. Cav-1 knockout mice had smaller injury volumes, milder neurologic deficits, less brain edema, and neuronal death 1 day after ICH than wild-type mice. The protective mechanism in Cav-1 knockout mice was associated with marked reduction in leukocyte infiltration, decreased expression of inflammatory mediators, including macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2 and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and reduced matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity. Deletion of Cav-1 also suppressed heme oxygenase-1 expression and attenuated reactive oxygen species production after ICH. Moreover, deletion or knockdown of Cav-1 decreased neuronal vulnerability to hemin-induced toxicity and reduced heme oxygenase (HO)-1 induction in vitro. These data suggest that Cav-1 plays a deleterious role in early brain injury after ICH. Inhibition of Cav-1 may provide a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of hemorrhagic stroke.
Project description:Statins, a common drug class for treatment of dyslipidemia, may be neuroprotective for spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) by targeting secondary brain injury pathways in the surrounding brain parenchyma. Statin-mediated neuroprotection may stem from downregulation of mevalonate and its derivatives, targeting key cell signaling pathways that control proliferation, adhesion, migration, cytokine production, and reactive oxygen species generation. Preclinical studies have consistently demonstrated the neuroprotective and recovery enhancement effects of statins, including improved neurologic function, reduced cerebral edema, increased angiogenesis and neurogenesis, accelerated hematoma clearance, and decreased inflammatory cell infiltration. Retrospective clinical studies have reported reduced perihematomal edema, lower mortality rates, and improved functional outcomes in patients who were taking statins before ICH. Several clinical studies have also observed lower mortality rates and improved functional outcomes in patients who were continued or initiated on statins after ICH. Subgroup analysis of a previous randomized trial has raised concerns of a potentially elevated risk of recurrent ICH in patients with previous hemorrhagic stroke who are administered statins. However, most statin trials failed to show an association between statin use and increased hemorrhagic stroke risk. Variable statin dosing, statin use in the pre-ICH setting, and selection biases have limited rigorous investigation of the effects of statins on post-ICH outcomes. Future prospective trials are needed to investigate the association between statin use and outcomes in ICH.
Project description:While oral anticoagulants are associated with greater hematoma expansion and higher mortality rates in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), there is ongoing discussion whether pretreatment with antiplatelet drugs also worsens prognosis. Using an experimental model of ICH, we investigated the effects of antiplatelet pretreatment on hematoma volume and functional outcome. CD-1 mice were treated with acetyl-salicylic acid (ASA, 60 mg/kg per 24 hours), clopidogrel (22.5 mg/kg per 24 hours), or both (ASA+clopidogrel) through drinking water for 3 days (n=20 per group). Thereafter, platelet aggregation was found to be significantly reduced. Untreated mice and mice pretreated with warfarin served as controls. A stereotactic injection of collagenase into the right striatum was used to induce ICH. Twenty-four hours after ICH induction, hematoma volume was measured to be 15.0 ± 4.4 ?L in controls, 14.1 ± 5.3 ?L in ASA mice, 16.8 ± 5.1 ?L in clopidogrel mice, and 16.4 ± 5.1 ?L in ASA+clopidogrel animals. These differences were not statistically significant. However, mice pretreated with warfarin revealed largely increased hematoma volumes (25.0 ± 7.4 ?L versus controls, P=0.001). Neurologic outcome was not different between antiplatelet-pretreated animals and untreated controls. Our results suggest that plasmatic coagulation rather than platelet function is the most critical element for preventing hematoma expansion in acute ICH. Future therapeutic strategies may take these findings into account.