Lung function associated gene Integrator Complex subunit 12 regulates protein synthesis pathways.
ABSTRACT: Genetic studies of human lung function and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease have identified a highly significant and reproducible signal on 4q24. It remains unclear which of the two candidate genes within this locus may regulate lung function: GSTCD, a gene with unknown function, and/or INTS12, a member of the Integrator Complex which is currently thought to mediate 3'end processing of small nuclear RNAs.We found that, in lung tissue, 4q24 polymorphisms associated with lung function correlate with INTS12 but not neighbouring GSTCD expression. In contrast to the previous reports in other species, we only observed a minor alteration of snRNA processing following INTS12 depletion. RNAseq analysis of knockdown cells instead revealed dysregulation of a core subset of genes relevant to airway biology and a robust downregulation of protein synthesis pathways. Consistent with this, protein translation was decreased in INTS12 knockdown cells. In addition, ChIPseq experiments demonstrated INTS12 binding throughout the genome, which was enriched in transcriptionally active regions. Finally, we defined the INTS12 regulome which includes genes belonging to the protein synthesis pathways.INTS12 has functions beyond the canonical snRNA processing. We show that it regulates translation by regulating the expression of genes belonging to protein synthesis pathways. This study provides a detailed analysis of INTS12 activities on a genome-wide scale and contributes to the biology behind the genetic association for lung function at 4q24.
Project description:Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) meta-analyses have identified a strong association signal for lung function, which maps to a region on 4q24 containing two oppositely transcribed genes: glutathione S-transferase, C-terminal domain containing (GSTCD) and integrator complex subunit 12 (INTS12). Both genes were found to be expressed in a range of human airway cell types. The promoter regions and transcription start sites were determined in mRNA from human lung and a novel splice variant was identified for each gene. We obtained the following evidence for GSTCD and INTS12 co-regulation and expression: (i) correlated mRNA expression was observed both via Q-PCR and in a lung expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) study, (ii) induction of both GSTCD and INTS12 mRNA expression in human airway smooth muscle cells was seen in response to TGF?1, (iii) a lung eQTL study revealed that both GSTCD and INTS12 mRNA levels positively correlate with percent predicted FEV1, and (iv) FEV1 GWAS associated SNPs in 4q24 were found to act as an eQTL for INTS12 in a number of tissues. In fixed sections of human lung tissue, GSTCD protein expression was ubiquitous, whereas INTS12 expression was predominantly in epithelial cells and pneumocytes. During human fetal lung development, GSTCD protein expression was observed to be highest at the earlier pseudoglandular stage (10-12 weeks) compared with the later canalicular stage (17-19 weeks), whereas INTS12 expression levels did not alter throughout these stages. Knowledge of the transcriptional and translational regulation and expression of GSTCD and INTS12 provides important insights into the potential role of these genes in determining lung function. Future work is warranted to fully define the functions of INTS12 and GSTCD.
Project description:The Drosophila integrator complex consists of 14 subunits that associate with the C terminus of Rpb1 and catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of nascent snRNAs near their 3' ends. Although disruption of almost any integrator subunit causes snRNA misprocessing, very little is known about the role of the individual subunits or the network of structural and functional interactions that exist within the complex. Here we developed an RNAi rescue assay in Drosophila S2 cells to identify functional domains within integrator subunit 12 (IntS12) required for snRNA 3' end formation. Surprisingly, the defining feature of the Ints12 protein, a highly conserved and centrally located plant homeodomain finger domain, is not required for reporter snRNA 3' end cleavage. Rather, we find a small, 45-amino acid N-terminal microdomain to be both necessary and nearly sufficient for snRNA biogenesis in cells depleted of endogenous IntS12 protein. This IntS12 microdomain can function autonomously, restoring full integrator processing activity when introduced into a heterologous protein. Moreover, mutations within the microdomain not only disrupt IntS12 function but also abolish binding to other integrator subunits. Finally, the IntS12 microdomain is sufficient to interact and stabilize the putative scaffold integrator subunit, IntS1. Collectively, these results identify an unexpected interaction between the largest and smallest integrator subunits that is essential for the 3' end formation of Drosophila snRNA.
Project description:Genome wide association studies of human lung function have identified a signal on 4q24 but the mechanistic basis for this signal is unclear. This region contains the Integrator Complex subunit 12 gene (INTS12) and nearby polymorphisms associated with lung function correlate with INTS12 expression. We aimed to define INTS12 function in human bronchial epithelial cells. RNAseq pathway analyses of INTS12 depleted cells revealed robust downregulation of several protein synthesis related pathways, including the aminoacyl tRNA synthetases and PERK regulated gene expression. Indeed, INTS12 knockdown using mRNA silencing repressed cellular translation and proliferation. ChIPseq gene-centric analyses revealed INTS12 binding to be near transcriptional start sites. The binding was found to be enriched for differentially expressed loci identifying the genes it regulates, a finding previously unknown for this particular member of Integrator complex. These findings contribute to the biology behind genetic association Overall design: INTS12 depletion was induced in human bronchial epithelial cells from both donors. RNAseq gene expression profiling was performed 48h and 120h since the initiation of knockdown in the first and second donor respectively. Silencing was achieved with two independent D-siRNAs and experiments included scambled D-siRNA transfected and un-transfected cells. Experiments were performed in three biological replicates. Genome-wide INTS12 binding sites were inferred by INTS12 ChIPseq in two donor cells. ChIPseq experiment included input control pooled from both sequenced donors.
Project description:Spirometric measures of lung function are heritable traits that reflect respiratory health and predict morbidity and mortality. We meta-analyzed genome-wide association studies for two clinically important lung-function measures: forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV(1)) and its ratio to forced vital capacity (FEV(1)/FVC), an indicator of airflow obstruction. This meta-analysis included 20,890 participants of European ancestry from four CHARGE Consortium studies: Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities, Cardiovascular Health Study, Framingham Heart Study and Rotterdam Study. We identified eight loci associated with FEV(1)/FVC (HHIP, GPR126, ADAM19, AGER-PPT2, FAM13A, PTCH1, PID1 and HTR4) and one locus associated with FEV(1) (INTS12-GSTCD-NPNT) at or near genome-wide significance (P < 5 x 10(-8)) in the CHARGE Consortium dataset. Our findings may offer insights into pulmonary function and pathogenesis of chronic lung disease.
Project description:Two recent metaanalyses of genome-wide association studies conducted by the CHARGE and SpiroMeta consortia identified novel loci yielding evidence of association at or near genome-wide significance (GWS) with FEV(1) and FEV(1)/FVC. We hypothesized that a subset of these markers would also be associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) susceptibility. Thirty-two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in or near 17 genes in 11 previously identified GWS spirometric genomic regions were tested for association with COPD status in four COPD case-control study samples (NETT/NAS, the Norway case-control study, ECLIPSE, and the first 1,000 subjects in COPDGene; total sample size, 3,456 cases and 1,906 controls). In addition to testing the 32 spirometric GWS SNPs, we tested a dense panel of imputed HapMap2 SNP markers from the 17 genes located near the 32 GWS SNPs and in a set of 21 well studied COPD candidate genes. Of the previously identified GWS spirometric genomic regions, three loci harbored SNPs associated with COPD susceptibility at a 5% false discovery rate: the 4q24 locus including FLJ20184/INTS12/GSTCD/NPNT, the 6p21 locus including AGER and PPT2, and the 5q33 locus including ADAM19. In conclusion, markers previously associated at or near GWS with spirometric measures were tested for association with COPD status in data from four COPD case-control studies, and three loci showed evidence of association with COPD susceptibility at a 5% false discovery rate.
Project description:Pulmonary function measures are heritable traits that predict morbidity and mortality and define chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We tested genome-wide association with forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) and the ratio of FEV(1) to forced vital capacity (FVC) in the SpiroMeta consortium (n = 20,288 individuals of European ancestry). We conducted a meta-analysis of top signals with data from direct genotyping (n < or = 32,184 additional individuals) and in silico summary association data from the CHARGE Consortium (n = 21,209) and the Health 2000 survey (n < or = 883). We confirmed the reported locus at 4q31 and identified associations with FEV(1) or FEV(1)/FVC and common variants at five additional loci: 2q35 in TNS1 (P = 1.11 x 10(-12)), 4q24 in GSTCD (2.18 x 10(-23)), 5q33 in HTR4 (P = 4.29 x 10(-9)), 6p21 in AGER (P = 3.07 x 10(-15)) and 15q23 in THSD4 (P = 7.24 x 10(-15)). mRNA analyses showed expression of TNS1, GSTCD, AGER, HTR4 and THSD4 in human lung tissue. These associations offer mechanistic insight into pulmonary function regulation and indicate potential targets for interventions to alleviate respiratory disease.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Genome-Wide Association Studies suggest glutathione S transferase C terminal domain (GSTCD) may play a role in development of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. We aimed to define the potential role of GSTCD in airway inflammation and contraction using precision cut lung slice (PCLS) from wild-type (GSTCD+/+) and GSTCD knockout mice (GSTCD-/-). METHODS:PCLS from age and gender matched GSTCD+/+ and GSTCD-/- mice were prepared using a microtome. Contraction was studied after applying either a single dose of Methacholine (Mch) (1 ?M) or different doses of Mch (0.001 to 100 ?M). Each slice was then treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or vehicle (PBS) for 24 hours. PCLS contraction in the same airway was repeated before and after stimulation. Levels of TNF? production was also measured. RESULTS:There were no differences in contraction of PCLS from GSTCD+/+ and GSTCD-/- mice in response to Mch (EC50 of GSTCD+/+ vs GSTCD-/- animals: 100.0±20.7 vs 107.7±24.5 nM, p = 0.855, n = 6 animals/group). However, after LPS treatment, there was a 31.6% reduction in contraction in the GSTCD-/- group (p = 0.023, n = 6 animals). There was no significant difference between PBS and LPS treatment groups in GSTCD+/+ animals. We observed a significant increase in TNF? production induced by LPS in GSTCD-/- lung slices compared to the GSTCD+/+ LPS treated slices. CONCLUSION:GSTCD knockout mice showed an increased responsiveness to LPS (as determined by TNF? production) that was accompanied by a reduced contraction of small airways in PCLS. These data highlight an unrecognised potential function of GSTCD in mediating inflammatory signals that affect airway responses.
Project description:RATIONALE:Genomic loci are associated with FEV1 or the ratio of FEV1 to FVC in population samples, but their association with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has not yet been proven, nor have their combined effects on lung function and COPD been studied. OBJECTIVES:To test association with COPD of variants at five loci (TNS1, GSTCD, HTR4, AGER, and THSD4) and to evaluate joint effects on lung function and COPD of these single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and variants at the previously reported locus near HHIP. METHODS:By sampling from 12 population-based studies (n = 31,422), we obtained genotype data on 3,284 COPD case subjects and 17,538 control subjects for sentinel SNPs in TNS1, GSTCD, HTR4, AGER, and THSD4. In 24,648 individuals (including 2,890 COPD case subjects and 13,862 control subjects), we additionally obtained genotypes for rs12504628 near HHIP. Each allele associated with lung function decline at these six SNPs contributed to a risk score. We studied the association of the risk score to lung function and COPD. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:Association with COPD was significant for three loci (TNS1, GSTCD, and HTR4) and the previously reported HHIP locus, and suggestive and directionally consistent for AGER and TSHD4. Compared with the baseline group (7 risk alleles), carrying 10-12 risk alleles was associated with a reduction in FEV1 (? = -72.21 ml, P = 3.90 × 10(-4)) and FEV1/FVC (? = -1.53%, P = 6.35 × 10(-6)), and with COPD (odds ratio = 1.63, P = 1.46 × 10(-5)). CONCLUSIONS:Variants in TNS1, GSTCD, and HTR4 are associated with COPD. Our highest risk score category was associated with a 1.6-fold higher COPD risk than the population average score.
Project description:Human U1 small nuclear (sn)RNA, required for splicing of pre-mRNA, is encoded by genes on chromosome 1 (1p36). Imperfect copies of these U1 snRNA genes, also located on chromosome 1 (1q12-21), were thought to be pseudogenes. However, many of these "variant" (v)U1 snRNA genes produce fully processed transcripts. Using antisense oligonucleotides to block the activity of a specific vU1 snRNA in HeLa cells, we have identified global transcriptome changes following interrogation of the Affymetrix Human Exon ST 1.0 array. Our results indicate that this vU1 snRNA regulates expression of a subset of target genes at the level of pre-mRNA processing. This is the first indication that variant U1 snRNAs have a biological function in vivo. Furthermore, some vU1 snRNAs are packaged into unique ribonucleoproteins (RNPs), and many vU1 snRNA genes are differentially expressed in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and HeLa cells, suggesting developmental control of RNA processing through expression of different sets of vU1 snRNPs.
Project description:RNA polymerase II transcribes both protein coding and non-coding RNA genes and, in yeast, different mechanisms terminate transcription of the two gene types. Transcription termination of mRNA genes is intricately coupled to cleavage and polyadenylation, whereas transcription of small nucleolar (sno)/small nuclear (sn)RNA genes is terminated by the RNA-binding proteins Nrd1, Nab3 and Sen1. The existence of an Nrd1-like pathway in humans has not yet been demonstrated. Using the U1 and U2 genes as models, we show that human snRNA genes are more similar to mRNA genes than yeast snRNA genes with respect to termination. The Integrator complex substitutes for the mRNA cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor complex to promote cleavage and couple snRNA 3'-end processing with termination. Moreover, members of the associated with Pta1 (APT) and cleavage factor I/II complexes function as transcription terminators for human snRNA genes with little, if any, role in snRNA 3'-end processing. The gene-specific factor, proximal sequence element-binding transcription factor (PTF), helps clear the U1 and U2 genes of nucleosomes, which provides an easy passage for pol II, and the negative elongation factor facilitates termination at the end of the genes where nucleosome levels increase. Thus, human snRNA genes may use chromatin structure as an additional mechanism to promote efficient transcription termination in vivo.