The SLUScore: A Novel Method for Detecting Hazardous Hypotension in Adult Patients Undergoing Noncardiac Surgical Procedures.
ABSTRACT: It has been suggested that longer-term postsurgical outcome may be adversely affected by less than severe hypotension under anesthesia. However, evidence-based guidelines are unavailable. The present study was designed to develop a method for identifying patients at increased risk of death within 30 days in association with the severity and duration of intraoperative hypotension.Intraoperative mean arterial blood pressure recordings of 152,445 adult patients undergoing noncardiac surgery were analyzed for periods of time accumulated below each one of the 31 thresholds between 75 and 45 mm Hg (hypotensive exposure times). In a development cohort of 35,904 patients, the associations were sought between each of these 31 cumulative hypotensive exposure times and 30-day postsurgical mortality. On the basis of covariable-adjusted percentage increases in the odds of mortality per minute elapsed of hypotensive exposure time, certain sets of exposure time limits were calculated that portended certain percentage increases in the odds of mortality. A novel risk-scoring method was conceived by counting the number of exposure time limits that had been exceeded within each respective set, one of them being called the SLUScore. The validity of this new method in identifying patients at increased risk was tested in a multicenter validation cohort consisting of 116,541 patients from Cleveland Clinic, Vanderbilt and Saint Louis Universities. Data were expressed as 95% confidence interval, P < .05 considered significant.Progressively greater hypotensive exposures were associated with greater 30-day mortality. In the development cohort, covariable-adjusted (age, Charlson score, case duration, history of hypertension) exposure limits were identified for time accumulated below each of the thresholds that portended certain identical (5%-50%) percentage expected increases in the odds of mortality. These exposure time limit sets were shorter in patients with a history of hypertension. A novel risk score, the SLUScore (range 0-31), was conceived as the number of exposure limits exceeded for one of these sets (20% set). A SLUScore > 0 (average 13.8) was found in 40% of patients who had twice the mortality, adjusted odds increasing by 5% per limit exceeded. When tested in the validation cohort, a SLUScore > 0 (average 14.1) identified 35% of patients who had twice the mortality, each incremental limit exceeded portending a 5% compounding increase in adjusted odds of mortality, independent of age and Charlson score (C = 0.73, 0.72-0.74, P < .05).The SLUScore represents a novel method for identifying nearly 1 in every 3 patients experiencing greater 30-day mortality portended by more severe intraoperative hypotensive exposures.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Most of the global burden of pollution-related morbidity and mortality is believed to occur in resource-limited settings, where HIV serostatus and sex may influence the relationship between air pollution exposure and respiratory morbidity. The lack of air quality monitoring networks in these settings limits progress in measuring global disparities in pollution-related health. Personal carbon monoxide monitoring may identify sub-populations at heightened risk for air pollution-associated respiratory morbidity in regions of the world where the financial cost of air quality monitoring networks is prohibitive. METHODS:From September 2015 through May 2017, we measured 48-h ambulatory carbon monoxide (CO) exposure in a longitudinal cohort of HIV-infected and uninfected adults in rural southwestern Uganda. We fit generalized mixed effects models to identify correlates of CO exposure exceeding international air quality thresholds, quantify the relationship between CO exposure and respiratory symptoms, and explore potential effect modification by sex and HIV serostatus. RESULTS:Two hundred and sixty study participants completed 419 sampling periods. Personal CO exposure exceeded international thresholds for 50 (19%) participants. In covariate-adjusted models, living in a home where charcoal was the main cooking fuel was associated with CO exposure exceeding international thresholds (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 11.3, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 4.7-27.4). In sex-stratified models, higher CO exposure was associated with increased odds of respiratory symptoms among women (AOR 3.3, 95%CI 1.1-10.0) but not men (AOR 1.3, 95%CI 0.4-4.4). In HIV-stratified models, higher CO exposure was associated with increased odds of respiratory symptoms among HIV-infected (AOR 2.5, 95%CI 1.01-6.0) but not HIV-uninfected (AOR 1.4, 95%CI 0.1-14.4) participants. CONCLUSIONS:In a cohort in rural Uganda, personal CO exposure frequently exceeded international thresholds, correlated with biomass exposure, and was associated with respiratory symptoms among women and people living with HIV. Our results provide support for the use of ambulatory CO monitoring as a low-cost, feasible method to identify subgroups with heightened vulnerability to pollution-related respiratory morbidity in resource-limited settings and identify subgroups that may have increased susceptibility to pollution-associated respiratory morbidity.
Project description:Studies have shown disparities in mortality among racial groups and among those with differing insurance coverage. Our goal was to determine if injury severity affects these disparities.We classified patients from the 2003-2008 National Trauma Data Banks suffering moderate to severe injuries into six groups based on race/ethnicity and insurance, stratifying by injury severity. Logistic regression compared odds of death between races-ethnicities/insurance groups within these strata. We adjusted for age, gender, Injury Severity Score, Glasgow Coma Scale motor component, hypotension, and mechanism of injury.Patients meeting inclusion criteria numbered 760,598. Disparities between races-ethnicities/insurance groups increased as injury severity worsened. Odds of death for uninsured Black patients compared with insured Whites increased from 1.82 among moderately injured patients to 3.14 among severely injured, hypotensive patients. A similar pattern was seen among uninsured Hispanic patients.Disparities in trauma mortality suffered by minority and uninsured patients, when compared with non-minority and insured patients, worsen with increasing injury.
Project description:Optimal resuscitation of hypotensive trauma patients has not been defined. This trial was performed to assess the feasibility and safety of controlled resuscitation (CR) versus standard resuscitation (SR) in hypotensive trauma patients.Patients were enrolled and randomized in the out-of-hospital setting. Nineteen emergency medical services (EMS) systems in the Resuscitation Outcome Consortium participated. Eligible patients had an out-of-hospital systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 90 mm Hg or lower. CR patients received 250 mL of fluid if they had no radial pulse or an SBP lower than 70 mm Hg and additional 250-mL boluses to maintain a radial pulse or an SBP of 70 mm Hg or greater. The SR group patients received 2 L initially and additional fluid as needed to maintain an SBP of 110 mm Hg or greater. The crystalloid protocol was maintained until hemorrhage control or 2 hours after hospital arrival.A total of 192 patients were randomized (97 CR and 95 SR). The CR and SR groups were similar at baseline. The mean (SD) crystalloid volume administered during the study period was 1.0 L (1.5) in the CR group and 2.0 L (1.4) in the SR group, a difference of 1.0 L (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.6-1.4). Intensive care unit-free days, ventilator-free days, renal injury, and renal failure did not differ between the groups. At 24 hours after admission, there were 5 deaths (5%) in the CR group and 14 (15%) in the SR group (adjusted odds ratio, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.12-1.26). Among patients with blunt trauma, 24-hour mortality was 3% (CR) and 18% (SR) with an adjusted odds ratio of 0.17 (0.03-0.92). There was no difference among patients with penetrating trauma (9% vs. 9%; adjusted odds ratio, 1.93; 95% CI, 0.19-19.17).CR is achievable in out-of-hospital and hospital settings and may offer an early survival advantage in blunt trauma. A large-scale, Phase III trial to examine its effects on survival and other clinical outcomes is warranted.Therapeutic study, level I.
Project description:Fish mortality has an enormous impact on the aquaculture industry by reducing fish production and slowing industrial growth. A cross-sectional study was carried out in Kirinyaga County, Central Kenya, to evaluate potential risks of fish mortality and disease transmission and suitability of pond water for rearing fish. A semistructured questionnaire that focused on general information, management practices, and disease history was administered to 92 small-scale fish farmers. Parasitological examination of fish sampled from selected farms (farms that were reporting mortality at the time of sampling) was done by following the standard procedure. Water quality parameters for 33 ponds were evaluated in situ (recorded on pond site) and ex situ (analysed at the laboratory) following the standard methods. The risks were assessed by adjusted odds ratio based on univariate regression analysis. Prevalent fish husbandry practices that were found to be associated with fish mortality and acquisition of pathogens in the study area were the use of raw livestock manure (0R?=?1.500), high fish stocking density (0R?=?1.168), and feeding fish on homemade rations (0R?=?1.128). Parasitological investigation found infestation with Diplostomum spp., Dactylogyrus spp., Clinostomum spp., and Piscicola leeches. Water temperature and pH were found fit for rearing fish. Of the 33 fishpond water samples tested, 1 (3%) and 6 (18%) exceeded the recommended limits of <100?mg/L and <0.2?mg/L of nitrate and nitrite, respectively. Of the 29 fishpond water tested, 15 (59%) exceeded the recommended limits of <100?mg/L of total ammonia. The findings show that the use of raw livestock manure, high fish stocking density, high nitrates and nitrites, and high ammonia levels in fishponds are potential risk factors for fish mortality and acquisition of infectious pathogens in a pond environment in a rural setup, in Central Kenya. There is a need to address the above factors in small-scale farming practices to minimize fish loss and also to prevent the occurrence and spread of infectious pathogens.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Among critically ill patients with acute kidney injury, exposure to positive fluid balance, compared with negative fluid balance, has been associated with mortality and impaired renal recovery. However, it is unclear whether positive and negative fluid balances are associated with poor outcome compared to patients with even fluid balance (euvolemia). In this study, we examined the association between exposure to positive or negative fluid balance, compared with even fluid balance, on 1-year mortality and renal recovery. DESIGN:Retrospective cohort study. SETTING:Eight medical-surgical ICUs at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA. PATIENTS:Critically ill patients admitted between July 2000 and October 2008. INTERVENTIONS:None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:Among 18,084 patients, fluid balance was categorized as negative (< 0%), even (0% to < 5%), or positive (? 5%). Following propensity matching, positive fluid balance, compared with even or negative fluid balance, was associated with increased mortality (30.3% vs 21.1% vs 22%, respectively; p < 0.001). Using Gray's model, negative fluid balance, compared with even fluid balance, was associated with lower short-term mortality (adjusted hazard ratio range, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.68-0.96) but higher long-term mortality (adjusted hazard ratio range, 1.16-1.22; p = 0.004). Conversely, positive fluid balance was associated with higher mortality throughout 1-year (adjusted hazard ratio range, 1.30-1.92; p < 0.001), which was attenuated in those who received renal replacement therapy (positive fluid balance × renal replacement therapy interaction (adjusted hazard ratio range, 0.43-0.89; p < 0.001). Of patients receiving renal replacement therapy, neither positive (adjusted odds ratio, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.68-1.4) nor negative (adjusted odds ratio, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.43-1.55) fluid balance was associated with renal recovery. CONCLUSIONS:Among critically ill patients, exposure to positive or negative fluid balance, compared with even fluid balance, was associated with higher 1-year mortality. This mortality risk associated with positive fluid balance, however, was attenuated by use of renal replacement therapy. We found no association between fluid balance and renal recovery.
Project description:STUDY OBJECTIVE:Out-of-hospital hypotension has been associated with increased mortality in traumatic brain injury. The association of traumatic brain injury mortality with the depth or duration of out-of-hospital hypotension is unknown. We evaluated the relationship between the depth and duration of out-of-hospital hypotension and mortality in major traumatic brain injury. METHODS:We evaluated adults and older children with moderate or severe traumatic brain injury in the preimplementation cohort of Arizona's statewide Excellence in Prehospital Injury Care study. We used logistic regression to determine the association between the depth-duration dose of hypotension (depth of systolic blood pressure <90 mm Hg integrated over duration [minutes] of hypotension) and odds of inhospital death, controlling for significant confounders. RESULTS:There were 7,521 traumatic brain injury cases included (70.6% male patients; median age 40 years [interquartile range 24 to 58]). Mortality was 7.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 7.2% to 8.5%) among the 6,982 patients without hypotension (systolic blood pressure ?90 mm Hg) and 33.4% (95% CI 29.4% to 37.6%) among the 539 hypotensive patients (systolic blood pressure <90 mm Hg). Mortality was higher with increased hypotension dose: 0.01 to 14.99 mm Hg-minutes 16.3%; 15 to 49.99 mm Hg-minutes 28.1%; 50 to 141.99 mm Hg-minutes 38.8%; and greater than or equal to 142 mm Hg-minutes 50.4%. Log2 (the logarithm in base 2) of hypotension dose was associated with traumatic brain injury mortality (adjusted odds ratio 1.19 [95% CI 1.14 to 1.25] per 2-fold increase of dose). CONCLUSION:In this study, the depth and duration of out-of-hospital hypotension were associated with increased traumatic brain injury mortality. Assessments linking out-of-hospital blood pressure with traumatic brain injury outcomes should consider both depth and duration of hypotension.
Project description:BACKGROUND:To improve stroke care, the Brain Attack Coalition recommended establishing primary stroke center (PSC) and comprehensive stroke center (CSC) certification. This study aimed to compare ischemic stroke care and in-hospital outcomes between CSCs and PSCs. METHODS AND RESULTS:We analyzed patients with acute ischemic stroke who were hospitalized at stroke centers participating in Get With The Guidelines-Stroke from 2013 to 2015. Multivariable logistic regression models were generated to examine the association between stroke center certification (CSC versus PSC) and performances and outcomes. This study included 722?941 patients who were admitted to 134 CSCs and 1047 PSCs. Both CSCs and PSCs had good conformity to 7 performance measures and the summary defect-free care measure. Among emergency department admissions, CSCs had higher intravenous tPA (tissue-type plasminogen activator) and endovascular thrombectomy rates than PSCs (14.3% versus 10.3%, 4.1% versus 1.0%, respectively). Door to intravenous tPA time was shorter at CSCs (median, 52 versus 61 minutes; adjusted risk ratio, 0.92; 95% confidence interval, 0.89-0.95). More patients at CSCs had door to intravenous tPA time ?60 minutes (79.7% versus 65.1%; adjusted odds ratio, 1.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.25-1.75). For transferred patients, CSCs and PSCs had comparable overall performance in defect-free care, except higher endovascular thrombectomy therapy rates. The overall in-hospital mortality was higher at CSCs in both emergency department admissions (4.6% versus 3.8%; adjusted odds ratio, 1.14; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.29) and transferred patients (7.7% versus 6.8%; adjusted odds ratio, 1.17; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.32). In-hospital outcomes were comparable between CSCs and PSCs in patients who received intravenous tPA or endovascular thrombectomy. CONCLUSIONS:CSCs and PSCs achieved similar overall care quality for patients with acute ischemic stroke. CSCs exceeded PSCs in timely acute reperfusion therapy for emergency department admissions, whereas PSCs had lower risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality. This information may be important for acute stroke triage and targeted quality improvement.
Project description:Among 2258 Helicobacter pylori-seropositive subjects randomly assigned to receive one-time H. pylori treatment with amoxicillin-omeprazole or its placebo, we evaluated the 15-year effect of treatment on gastric cancer incidence and mortality in subgroups defined by age, baseline gastric histopathology, and post-treatment infection status. We used conditional logistic and Cox regressions for covariable adjustments in incidence and mortality analyses, respectively. Treatment was associated with a statistically significant decrease in gastric cancer incidence (odds ratio = 0.36; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.17 to 0.79) and mortality (hazard ratio = 0.26; 95% CI = 0.09 to 0.79) at ages 55 years and older and a statistically significant decrease in incidence among those with intestinal metaplasia or dysplasia at baseline (odds ratio = 0.56; 95% CI = 0.34 to 0.91). Treatment benefits for incidence and mortality among those with and without post-treatment infection were similar. Thus H. pylori treatment can benefit older members and those with advanced baseline histopathology, and benefits are present even with post-treatment infection, suggesting treatment can benefit an entire population, not just the young or those with mild histopathology.
Project description:Functional status at hospital discharge may be a risk factor for adverse events among survivors of critical illness. We sought to examine the association between functional status at hospital discharge in survivors of critical care and risk of 90-day all-cause mortality after hospital discharge.Single-center retrospective cohort study.Academic Medical Center.Ten thousand three hundred forty-three adults who received critical care from 1997 to 2011 and survived hospitalization.None.The exposure of interest was functional status determined at hospital discharge by a licensed physical therapist and rated based on qualitative categories adapted from the Functional Independence Measure. The main outcome was 90-day post hospital discharge all-cause mortality. A categorical risk-prediction score was derived and validated based on a logistic regression model of the function grades for each assessment. In an adjusted logistic regression model, the lowest quartile of functional status at hospital discharge was associated with an increased odds of 90-day postdischarge mortality compared with patients with independent functional status (odds ratio, 7.63 [95% CI, 3.83-15.22; p < 0.001]). In patients who had at least 7 days of physical therapy treatment prior to hospital discharge (n = 2,293), the adjusted odds of 90-day postdischarge mortality in patients with marked improvement in functional status at discharge was 64% less than patients with no change in functional status (odds ratio, 0.36 [95% CI, 0.24-0.53]; p < 0.001).Lower functional status at hospital discharge in survivors of critical illness is associated with increased postdischarge mortality. Furthermore, patients whose functional status improves before discharge have decreased odds of postdischarge mortality.
Project description:Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is the development of heart failure during late pregnancy to months postpartum with potential fatal outcome. However, the disease is not well-studied in Asia.We aimed to investigate the epidemiology and clinical outcomes of PPCM in Taiwan.Electronic medical records were retrieved from Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database from 1997 to 2011. Patients with PPCM were separated into 3 groups based on the timing of diagnosis. Early: PPCM diagnosed first to ninth month of pregnancy. Traditional: PPCM diagnosed last month of pregnancy till fifth month post-delivery. Late: PPCM diagnosed sixth to twelfth month post-delivery. Primary outcomes defined as cardiac death, all-cause mortality, and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) within 1 year.A total of 3,506,081 deliveries during 1997 to 2011 were retrieved and 925 patients with PPCM were identified. Overall incidence of PPCM was 1:3,790 during the 15 years. Early, Traditional, and Late group each had 88, 742, and 95 patients. Cardiac death occurred in 31 patients, all-cause mortality in 72 patients, and MACE in 65 patients. Late group had 2- to 3-fold event rates in cardiac death, all-cause mortality, and MACE compared with Early and Traditional groups. Cumulative incidence showed significant differences for cardiac death (P?=?.0011), all-cause mortality (P?=?.0031), and MACE (P?=?.0014) among 3 groups. Multivariate Cox model showed Late group had significantly worse outcomes after adjusted for clinical variables compared with 2 other groups.Our study is the largest national cohort among Asian countries that showed timing of diagnosis of PPCM had different outcomes. Late diagnosis portended significantly increased morbidity and mortality, even after adjusted for clinical variables.