Prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and risk factors for advanced fibrosis and mortality in the United States.
ABSTRACT: In the United States, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease and associated with higher mortality according to data from earlier National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1988-1994. Our goal was to determine the NAFLD prevalence in the recent 1999-2012 NHANES, risk factors for advanced fibrosis (stage 3-4) and mortality. NAFLD was defined as having a United States Fatty Liver Index (USFLI) > 30 in the absence of heavy alcohol use and other known liver diseases. The probability of low/high risk of having advanced fibrosis was determined by the NAFLD Fibrosis Score (NFS). In total, 6000 persons were included; of which, 30.0% had NAFLD and 10.3% of these had advanced fibrosis. Five and eight-year overall mortality in NAFLD subjects with advanced fibrosis was significantly higher than subjects without NAFLD ((18% and 35% vs. 2.6% and 5.5%, respectively) but not NAFLD subjects without advanced fibrosis (1.1% and 2.8%, respectively). NAFLD with advanced fibrosis (but not those without) is an independent predictor for mortality on multivariate analysis (HR = 3.13, 95% CI 1.93-5.08, p<0.001). In conclusion, in this most recent NHANES, NAFLD prevalence remains at 30% with 10.3% of these having advanced fibrosis. NAFLD per se was not a risk factor for increased mortality, but NAFLD with advanced fibrosis was. Mexican American ethnicity was a significant risk factor for NAFLD but not for advanced fibrosis or increased mortality.
Project description:Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease represents a spectrum of pathology that ranges from benign steatosis to potentially-progressive steatohepatitis and affects more than 30% of US adults. Advanced NAFLD is associated with increased morbidity and mortality from cirrhosis, primary liver cancer, cardiovascular disease and extrahepatic cancers. Accurate identification of patients at risk for advanced NAFLD is challenging. The aims of this study were to define the liver gene expression patterns that distinguish mild from advanced NAFLD and to develop a gene expression profile associated with advanced NAFLD. We analyzed total RNA from 72 patients with NAFLD (40 with mild NAFLD, fibrosis stage 0-1 and 32 with advanced NAFLD, fibrosis stage 3-4) and developed a gene profile associated with advanced NAFLD. This dataset is part of the TransQST collection.
Project description:Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is becoming the most prevalent liver disease worldwide, associated with epidemics of overweight and resulting metabolic syndrome (MetS). Around 20-30% of patients with NAFLD develop progressive liver fibrosis, which is the most important predictor of liver-related and overall morbidity and mortality. In contrast to classical understanding, no significant association has been demonstrated between the inflammatory component of NAFLD, i.e., nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and the adverse clinical outcomes. Older age (>50 years) and presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, in addition to some genetic variants, are most consistently reported indicators of increased risk of having liver fibrosis. However, critical driving force for the progression of fibrosis and risk factors for this have still not been fully elucidated. Apart from the genetic profile, gut dysbiosis, weight gain, worsening of insulin resistance, and worsening of liver steatosis represent candidate factors associated with unfavourable development of liver disease. Cardiovascular events, extrahepatic malignancies, and liver-related deaths are the leading causes of mortality in NAFLD. As patients with advanced fibrosis are under highest risk of adverse clinical outcomes, efforts should be made to recognize individuals under risk and rule out the presence of this stage of fibrosis, preferably by using simple noninvasive tools. This process should start at the primary care level by using validated biochemical tests, followed by direct serum tests for fibrosis or elastography in the remaining patients. Patients with advanced fibrosis should be referred to hepatologists for aggressive lifestyle modification and correction of the components of MetS, and cirrhotic patients should be screened for hepatocellular carcinoma and oesophageal varices.
Project description:BACKGROUND:We evaluated the association of visceral-to-subcutaneous fat ratio (VSR) with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and advanced fibrosis degree based on noninvasive serum fibrosis markers in the general population with NAFLD. METHODS:This is a cross-sectional study, in 7,465 Korean adults who underwent health screening examinations. NAFLD was defined as fatty liver detected on ultrasonography, and visceral and subcutaneous abdominal fat was measured using computed tomography. We predicted fibrosis based on the fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) score and aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) and categorized the risk for advanced fibrosis as low, indeterminate, or high. RESULTS:The multivariable-adjusted prevalence ratios for indeterminate to high risk of advanced fibrosis based on FIB-4, determined by comparing the second, third, and fourth quartiles with the first quartile of VSR, were 3.38 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.64 to 17.97), 9.41 (95% CI, 1.97 to 45.01), and 19.34 (95% CI, 4.06 to 92.18), respectively. The multivariable-adjusted prevalence ratios for intermediate to high degree of fibrosis according to APRI also increased across VSR quartiles (5.04 [95% CI, 2.65 to 9.59], 7.51 [95% CI, 3.91 to 14.42], and 19.55 [95% CI, 9.97 to 38.34], respectively). High VSR was more strongly associated with the prevalence of NAFLD in nonobese subjects than in obese subjects, and the associations between VSR and intermediate to high probability of advanced fibrosis in NAFLD were stronger in obese subjects than in nonobese subjects. CONCLUSION:High VSR values predicted increased NAFLD risk and advanced fibrosis risk with NAFLD, and the predictive value of VSR for indeterminate to high risk of advanced fibrosis was higher in obese subjects than in nonobese subjects.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasingly widespread with an overall global estimated prevalence of 25%. Type 2 diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is a key contributor to NAFLD progression and predicts moderate-severe liver fibrosis and mortality. However, there is currently no uniform consensus on routine NAFLD screening among T2DM patients, and the risk factors of NAFLD and advanced fibrosis among T2DM patients remain to be clarified fully. AIM:We explored the prevalence, clinical spectrum, and risk factors of NAFLD and liver fibrosis among T2DM patients. METHODS:This is a cross-sectional study that enrolled subjects from a primary care clinic and a diabetes centre in Singapore. Subjects aged 21 to 70 years of all ethnic groups with an established T2DM diagnosis were included. Subjects with chronic liver diseases of other aetiologies were excluded. All subjects underwent transient elastography for hepatic steatosis and fibrosis assessment. Their demographics, anthropometric measurements and clinical parameters were collected. Statistical analysis was performed using STATA/SE16.0 software. RESULTS:Among 449 enrolled T2DM subjects, 436 with complete data and valid transient elastography results were analysed. Overall, 78.72% (344/436) of the T2DM subjects had NAFLD, of which 13.08% (45/344) had increased liver stiffness. Higher ALT level (OR = 1.08; 95% CI: 1.03-1.14; p = 0.004), obesity (BMI ? 27.5 kg/m2, OR = 2.64; 95% CI: 1.28-5.44; p = 0.008) and metabolic syndrome (OR = 4.36; 95% CI 1.40-13.58; p = 0.011) were independent factors associated with increased CAP (NAFLD). Higher AST level (OR = 1.06; 95% CI: 1.02-1.11; p = 0.008), CAP value (OR = 1.02; 95% CI: 1.00-1.03; p = 0.003), lower platelet count (OR = 0.99; 95% CI: 0.98-1.00; p = 0.009) and concomitant hypertension (OR = 4.56; 95% CI: 1.18-17.62; p = 0.028) were independent factors associated with increased liver stiffness. CONCLUSIONS:Our study demonstrated a considerably high prevalence of NAFLD among T2DM patients, with the proportion of advanced liver fibrosis among T2DM NAFLD patients much higher than the general population. Given that NAFLD is largely asymptomatic, increased awareness and vigilance for identifying NAFLD and increased liver stiffness among T2DM patients should be advocated.
Project description:Advanced liver fibrosis and coronary artery calcification (CAC) progression has been reported to correlate with cardiovascular disease. This study investigated the association between noninvasive liver fibrosis score and CAC progression in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We included 1173 asymptomatic adults with CAC scores from 2007-2013. CAC progression was defined as newly incident CAC or a???2.5-unit increase in the final CAC score square root. Liver fibrosis was assessed using fibrosis-4 index (FIB-4) score and NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS). A total of 293 (25.0%) subjects developed CAC. Mean baseline FIB-4 score was significantly higher in subjects with CAC. CAC progressed in 20.5% of subjects without NAFLD, 27.5% of those with NAFLD and low FIB-4 scores, and 35.9% of those with NAFLD and intermediate/high FIB-4 scores. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio for CAC progression was 1.70 (95% confidence interval, 1.12-2.58) for subjects with NAFLD plus intermediate/high FIB-4 scores versus those without NAFLD. In the sensitivity analysis, the odds ratio for CAC progression was 1.57 (95% confidence interval, 1.02-2.44) for subjects with NAFLD plus an intermediate/high NFS versus those without NAFLD. Advanced liver fibrosis stage assessed using noninvasive markers is associated with a higher risk of CAC progression in subjects with NAFLD.
Project description:Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with risks for developing colorectal adenoma. This study aimed to evaluate the association between advanced fibrosis in NAFLD and the risk for colorectal adenoma.We retrospectively analyzed the data of 6332 adults who underwent abdominal ultrasound and 1st-time colonoscopy on the same day in a health screening program at a single center. We evaluated the presence of advanced fibrosis in NAFLD using various noninvasive score, which also analyzed the detection rate of colorectal adenoma according to the presence of advanced fibrosis in NAFLD.The subjects with NAFLD had a higher prevalence of colorectal adenoma. In the multivariate analysis, NAFLD was an independent risk factor for colorectal adenoma (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.30), advanced adenoma (adjusted OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.12-2.01), and multiple adenomas (adjusted OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.01-1.73). When NAFLD was further stratified based on the stage of fibrosis using the noninvasive score models, the subjects with NAFLD and advanced fibrosis had a significantly higher risk for colorectal adenoma, advanced adenoma, and multiple adenomas than those with NAFLD without advanced fibrosis.NAFLD with advanced fibrosis might be risk factor for colorectal adenoma compared with NAFLD without advanced fibrosis.
Project description:Although high sodium intake is associated with obesity and hypertension, few studies have investigated the relationship between sodium intake and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We evaluated the association between sodium intake assessed by estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion and NAFLD in healthy Koreans.We analyzed data from 27,433 participants in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2008-2010). The total amount of sodium excretion in 24-h urine was estimated using Tanaka's equations from spot urine specimens. Subjects were defined as having NAFLD when they had high scores in previously validated NAFLD prediction models such as the hepatic steatosis index (HSI) and fatty liver index (FLI). BARD scores and FIB-4 were used to define advanced fibrosis in subjects with NAFLD.The participants were classified into three groups according to estimated 24-h urinary excretion tertiles. The prevalence of NAFLD as assessed by both FLI and HSI was significantly higher in the highest estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion tertile group. Even after adjustment for confounding factors including body fat and hypertension, the association between higher estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion and NAFLD remained significant (Odds ratios (OR) 1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26-1.55, in HSI; OR 1.75, CI 1.39-2.20, in FLI, both P < 0.001). Further, subjects with hepatic fibrosis as assessed by BARD score and FIB-4 in NAFLD patients had higher estimated 24-h urinary sodium values.High sodium intake was independently associated with an increased risk of NAFLD and advanced liver fibrosis.
Project description:Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease represents a spectrum of pathology that ranges from benign steatosis to potentially-progressive steatohepatitis and affects more than 30% of US adults. Advanced NAFLD is associated with increased morbidity and mortality from cirrhosis, primary liver cancer, cardiovascular disease and extrahepatic cancers. Accurate identification of patients at risk for advanced NAFLD is challenging. The aims of this study were to define the liver gene expression patterns that distinguish mild from advanced NAFLD and to develop a gene expression profile associated with advanced NAFLD. We analyzed total RNA from 72 patients with NAFLD (40 with mild NAFLD, fibrosis stage 0-1 and 32 with advanced NAFLD, fibrosis stage 3-4) and developed a gene profile associated with advanced NAFLD.
Project description:PURPOSE:Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is independently associated with the development of atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the association of AF with advanced liver fibrosis, which is related to all-cause, cardiovascular, and liver-related mortality, has not been established in NAFLD patients. We aimed to investigate the association between AF and advanced liver fibrosis in NAFLD patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Out of 53704 adults who participated in the health check-up program, 6293 subjects aged 35 years and older were diagnosed as NAFLD using ultrasound. The stage of liver fibrosis was assessed based on the newly adjusted NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS) and Fibrosis-4 (Fib-4) Index, which were used to determine the low and high cut-off values (COVs). RESULTS:Of 6293 patients with NAFLD, 59 (0.9%) were diagnosed with AF. Patients with AF were older (52.0 vs. 64.6 years, p<0.001), had higher body mass index (25.2 vs. 26.6 kg/m², p<0.001), and had bigger waist circumference (84.0 vs. 89.9 cm, p<0.001) than those without AF. In NAFLD patients, AF was independently associated with advanced liver fibrosis, assessed using both COVs of NFS [low-COV group: final adjusted odds ratios (aORs)=2.85, p=0.004; high-COV group: ORs=12.29, p<0.001). AF was independently associated with advanced liver fibrosis, assessed using both COVs of Fib-4 (low-COV group: aORs=2.49, p<0.001; high-COV group: aORs=3.84, p=0.016). CONCLUSION:AF is independently associated with advanced liver fibrosis in patients with NAFLD.
Project description:Patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) show dyslipidemia and a high risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). However, conventional atherosclerotic lipids are found at low levels in NAFLD patients with advanced fibrosis, in whom the risk for CHD is extremely high. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the levels of oxidized high-density lipoprotein (oxHDL), an emerging atherosclerotic biomarker, in patients with NAFLD. A total of 32 non-NAFLD subjects and 106 patients with NAFLD were enrolled. The fibrosis grades were stratified using non-invasive methods, including the Fibrosis-4 index and NAFLD fibrosis score. Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol levels were significantly low in patients with advanced liver fibrosis. In contrast, oxHDL levels were high in NAFLD patients and showed a stepwise increase as fibrosis progressed. These oxHDL levels were independent of the HDL cholesterol levels, and statin use did not influence the oxHDL levels. Obese patients showed no increase in oxHDL levels, whereas patients with a low handgrip strength showed high oxHDL levels in NAFLD with advanced fibrosis. In conclusion, oxHDL is a potential biomarker for assessing the status of patients with NAFLD, including CHD and metabolic/nutritional disturbance, and particular cases with advanced liver fibrosis.